Brigham Young was an American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a settler of the Western United States. He was the second President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death in 1877 and he founded Salt Lake City and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory. Young also led the foundings of the precursors to the University of Utah, Young was dubbed by his followers the Lion of the Lord for his bold personality and was also commonly called Brother Brigham by Latter-day Saints. Young was a polygamist and was involved in controversies regarding black people and the Priesthood, the Utah War, and the Mountain Meadows massacre. Young was born to John Young and Abigail Nabby Howe, a family in Whitingham, Vermont. Young was first married in 1824 to Miriam Angeline Works, though he had converted to the Methodist faith in 1823, Young was drawn to Mormonism after reading the Book of Mormon shortly after its publication in 1830. He officially joined the new church in 1832 and traveled to Upper Canada as a missionary, after his wife died in 1832, Young joined many Mormons in establishing a community in Kirtland, Ohio. In 1844, while in jail awaiting trial for treason charges, Joseph Smith, several claimants to the role of church president emerged during the succession crisis that ensued. Young opposed this reasoning and motion, the majority in attendance were persuaded that the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was to lead the church with Young as the Quorums president. Many of Youngs followers would later reminisce that while Young spoke to the congregation, he looked or sounded exactly like Smith, Young was ordained President of the Church in December 1847, three and a half years after Smiths death. Rigdon became the president of a church organization based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Repeated conflict led Young to relocate his group of Latter-day Saints to the Salt Lake Valley, Young organized the journey that would take the Mormon pioneers to Winter Quarters, Nebraska, in 1846, then to the Salt Lake Valley. By the time Young arrived at the destination, it had come under American control as a result of war with Mexico. Young arrived in the Salt Lake Valley on July 24,1847, Youngs expedition was one of the largest and one of the best organized westward treks. On August 22,29 days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, after three years of leading the church as the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Young reorganized a new First Presidency and was declared president of the church on December 27,1847. As colonizer and founder of Salt Lake City, Young was appointed the territorys first governor, during his time as prophet, Young directed the establishment of settlements throughout present-day Utah, Idaho, Arizona, Nevada, California and parts of southern Colorado and northern Mexico. Young was also one of the first to subscribe to Union Pacific stock, Young organized the first legislature and established Fillmore as the territorys first capital. Young organized a Board of Regents to establish a university in the Salt Lake Valley and it was established on February 28,1850, as the University of Deseret, its name was eventually changed to the University of Utah
Brigham Young, Jr.
Brigham Young Jr. served as president of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1899 until his death. His tenure was interrupted for one week in 1901 when Joseph F. Smith was the president of the Quorum, Young was born in Kirtland, Ohio, the son of Brigham Young and Mary Ann Angell. Youngs twin sister, Mary, died at age seven from the effects of injuries received at age two in a wagon accident, at age twelve, Young drove an ox cart along the Mormon Trail, reaching Salt Lake City in 1848. Young served as a guard and scout in the years, operating in Salt Lake Valley. On November 15,1855, Young married Catherine Curtis Spencer, in Utah Territory, Young became a member of the reconstituted Nauvoo Legion. He was involved in the rescue of the Willie and Martin companies of Mormon handcart pioneers and he also served in the Utah War with the troops that worked to halt the advance of Johnstons Army. In 1861, Young was made a member of the Salt Lake Stake high council, unlike his brothers, Brigham Young Jr. would later become part of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles four years later in 1868, after the death of Heber C. Kimball and George A. Smith joining the First Presidency, in 1868, he was also a Representative to the Territory of Utah Legislative Assembly. Young Jr. also served as a counselor to his father in the First Presidency of the church from April 8,1873, from 1862 to 1863, Young served as a church missionary in England, spending most of the time in London. During this time, he also accompanied Joseph F. Smith on a trip to Paris, in 1864, Young returned to Europe, this time with his wife, Catherine, as his companion. He was an assistant to mission president Daniel H. Wells, in 1865, when Wells left for Utah, Young succeeded him as president of the European Mission. Brigham and Catherines son, Joseph Angel Young II, was born in England in 1866 while he was serving as mission president. As president of the churchs European Mission in 1866 and 1867, Young preached in France, Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Russia, the United Kingdom, Young also oversaw the emigration of British Latter-day Saints to Utah Territory. It was from a conversation as Young was about to return to Utah at the end of his time as president that Charles W. Penrose wrote the hymn. From October 1890 until February 1893 Young served for a time as president of the European Mission. In the western United States, Young was involved in the colonization of Cache Valley, southern Utah, Young was also involved at times with the Mormon colonies in Mexico. In 1867, Young was involved with the formation of the Deseret Sunday School Union to provide centralized direction to the Sunday schools of the church, during 1868, Young acted as his fathers agent in finding workers for the Utah portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad. From 1869 until 1877, Young presided over the Latter-day Saints in Cache Valley, preston, who was serving as the regional presiding bishop
Brigham Young University
Brigham Young University is a private research university in Provo, Utah, United States. Approximately 99 percent of the students are members of the LDS Church, many students either delay enrollment or take a hiatus from their studies to serve as Mormon missionaries. An education at BYU is also less expensive than at similar private universities, BYU offers a variety of academic programs, including liberal arts, engineering, agriculture, management, physical and mathematical sciences, nursing, and law. The university is organized into 11 colleges or schools at its main Provo campus, with certain colleges. The universitys primary focus is on education, but it also has 68 masters and 25 doctoral degree programs. BYUs athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the BYU Cougars. Their college football team is an NCAA Division I Independent, while their other teams compete in either the West Coast Conference or Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. BYUs sports teams have won a total of fourteen national championships, on October 16,1875, Brigham Young, then president of the LDS Church, personally purchased the Lewis Building after previously hinting that a school would be built in Draper, Utah, in 1867. Hence, October 16,1875, is held as BYUs founding date. The school broke off from the University of Deseret and became Brigham Young Academy, warren Dusenberry served as interim principal of the school for several months until April 1876 when Brigham Youngs choice for principal arrived—a German immigrant named Karl Maeser. Under Maesers direction the school educated many luminaries including future U. S. Supreme Court Justice George Sutherland, the school, however, did not become a university until the end of Benjamin Cluffs term at the helm of the institution. At that time, the school was still privately supported by members of the community and was not absorbed and sponsored officially by the LDS Church until July 18,1896. A series of odd managerial decisions by Cluff led to his demotion, however, in his last official act, he proposed to the Board that the Academy be named Brigham Young University. The suggestion received an amount of opposition, with many members of the Board saying that the school wasnt large enough to be a university. One opponent to the decision, Anthon H. Lund, later said, in 1903 Brigham Young Academy was dissolved, and was replaced by two institutions, Brigham Young High School, and Brigham Young University. The Board elected George H. Brimhall as the new President of BYU and he had not received a high school education until he was forty. Nevertheless, he was an excellent orator and organizer, under his tenure in 1904 the new Brigham Young University bought 17 acres of land from Provo called Temple Hill. After some controversy among locals over BYUs purchase of property, construction began in 1909 on the first building on the current campus
Brigham Young: American Moses
Brigham Young, American Moses is a biography about Brigham Young, a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement, by Dr. Leonard J. Arrington. The biography was published by Alfred A. Knopf in 1985, upon becoming the Church Historian, Arrington showed interest in writing a biography of Brigham Young. Arrington completed a first draft of the biography in seven months, the revising process took several years, ensuring the First Presidency had proper approval over all drafts. Brigham Young, American Moses was released in 1985, as Arrington had contracted many research assistants in his work for the biography, some believed that he gave too little attribution to his contributors. Reviewers of the thought that Arringtons writing was too dependent on the research of others without giving them proper credit. According to historian F. Ross Peterson, doing the Brigham Young biography is one of the things that caused a degree of conflict between and his staff at the Church. Some of them felt was theirs.401 Out of his staff, Arrington supposedly relied very heavily on the work of historian Ronald Esplin. According to Gene Sessions, an employee of the Historical Division at the time, Moorman wanted to write biography of Brigham Young. Said, You can see the Young stuff as long as you hand-copy it, it--theres no--no trick reason why I should have used American Moses. I thought Moses was a person understood by nearly everybody, and he led his people figuratively and quite literally, and they survived because of that leadership and their faith. Brigham Young, American Moses was critically acclaimed within the Mormon community, many considered it to be the definitive Mormon History. However, it was not highly esteemed outside of Church organizations, according to Arringtons colleague Robert Kent Fielding, He said no, he was not going to deal with. It also won the 1985 Mormon History Association’s Best Book Award and was nominated as a work of biography” by the National Book Critics Circle. com