Utah's Dixie is the nickname for the populated, lower elevation area of south-central Washington County in southwestern Utah. Its climate is mild when compared to the rest of Utah, typical of the Mojave Desert, in which it lies. Situated below the Black Ridge and the Hurricane Cliffs, in the northeastern edge of the Mojave Desert, it settled by the Southern Paiutes. It was first inhabited by Mormon settlers in 1854, as part of Brigham Young's efforts to establish an Indian Mission in the region; the settlers began growing cotton and other temperate cash crops during the 1850s on land that had fed the Paiute. The Paiute population was decimated as a result of disease; the largest community in the region, St. George, was founded in 1861, when Brigham Young selected 300 families to take over the area and grow cotton and other crops; the region was nicknamed Dixie by 1860. Andrew Larson's text on the history of the name "Dixie" in Utah states that in 1857, the first President of the Washington Stake was Robert Dockery Covington, a slave overseer and slave owner from North Carolina and Mississippi.
Larson states: Already the settled area of the Virgin Valley was being called Utah's "Dixie." The fact that cotton would grow there, as well as tobacco and other semi-tropical plants such as the South produced made it easy for the name to stick. The fact that the settlers at Washington were bona fide Southerners who were steeped in the lore of cotton culture—many of them, at least—clinched the title. Dixie it became, Dixie it remained.... The name "Dixie" is one of those distinctive things about this part of Utah... It is a proud title Whatever the real origins of the term, the Cotton Mission didn't work out as well as Young had hoped – yields in the test fields were not as high as expected, economic viability of growing cotton was never achieved, although a cotton mill was built and used for a few years in the town of Washington; the largest city in the area is St. George, with a population of nearly 150,000 in the metropolitan area. South-central Washington County, has become a retirement and recreational haven due to its pleasant winter climate, many golf courses and red sandstone landscape.
In the winter, temperatures average in the mid to upper 50s F. during the day with nighttime temperatures averaging just below freezing. Heavy snowfall is rare, however slight accumulation occurs once or twice during these cooler months completely melting in a day or two; the humidity is low, the area receives an average of about 8 to 10 inches of rainfall annually. Summers are long and hot with high temperatures exceeding 100 °F. from about late May through September, with the exception of the cooling rains of the southwest Monsoon. The record high temperature was recorded in the area near the Arizona line at 117 °F.. Utah's Dixie is one of the fastest-growing regions in the United States, being located in the Sunbelt. St. George and its suburbs of Ivins, Santa Clara, Washington, along with Hurricane, are the largest and fastest-growing cities within the region. Dixie State University Bleak, James Godson.
Pine Valley Mountain Wilderness
Pine Valley Mountain Wilderness is a 50,232-acre wilderness area located in the Dixie National Forest in the U. S. state of Utah. It is the fourth-largest wilderness area located within the state; the wilderness designation protects the Pine Valley Mountain range, a large rock outcrop surrounded by desert. The Pine Valley Mountains form the Pine Valley Laccolith, one of the largest laccoliths in the United States. Elevations in the wilderness range from 6,000 feet to 10,365 feet at the summit of Signal Peak; the southern half of the Pine Valley Mountain Wilderness area supports a large stand of virgin Engelmann spruce. On the south edge of this unit, young stands of bristlecone pine are found; the north half of the area is composed of stands of mixed spruce, subalpine fir, Douglas fir, limber pine. Stands of large aspen are found throughout the area. There are numerous meadows up to 50 acres in size within the boundaries of the Wilderness; the predominant vegetation is mat muhly, subalpine needlegrass, alpine timothy, Perry clover, shrubby cinquifoil, fleabane and serviceberry.
The Pine Valley Mountains is less isolated from the Wasatch Range. Because of this isolation there are a number of sub-species of mammals found here, including the Uinta chipmunk, yellow-bellied marmot, red squirrel. There are numerous dusky herds of deer within the meadows and timber. Brown bear roamed the Pine Valley Mountains as late as 1914. A variety of Utah sensitive species live in the Pine Valley Mountain Wilderness area. Bonneville cutthroat trout Townsend's big-eared bat Pygmy rabbit Arizona toad Northern goshawk Desert sucker Western toad Fringed myotis Arizona toad Greater sage-grouse Ferruginous hawk Burrowing owl Long-billed curlew Bald eagle Virgin spinedace Zebra-tailed lizard Common chuckwalla Flannelmouth sucker Relict leopard frog Western banded gecko Desert night lizard Western threadsnake Common recreational activities in Pine Valley Mountain Wilderness include hiking, horseback riding, wildlife watching. There is a network of over 151 miles of trails on and around the Wilderness, including the popular Summit and Whipple Trails.
Pine Valley Mountains Dixie National Forest Wilderness Act National Wilderness Preservation System List of U. S. Wilderness Areas Pine Valley Mountain Wilderness - Wilderness.net Pine Valley Mountain Wilderness - GORP Pine Valley Ranger District - Dixie National Forest
Brigham Young was an American religious leader and settler. He was the second president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death in 1877, he founded Salt Lake City and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory. Young led the foundings of the precursors to the University of Utah and Brigham Young University. Young had many nicknames, among the most popular being "American Moses", like the biblical figure, Young led his followers, the Mormon pioneers, in an exodus through a desert, to what they saw as a promised land. Young was dubbed by his followers the "Lion of the Lord" for his bold personality and was commonly called "Brother Brigham" by Latter-day Saints. A polygamist, Young had 55 wives, he instituted a church ban against conferring the priesthood on men of black African descent, led the church during the Utah War against the United States. Young was born to John Young and Abigail "Nabby" Howe, a farming family in Whitingham and worked as a travelling carpenter and blacksmith, among other trades.
Young was first married in 1824 to Miriam Angeline Works. Though he had converted to the Methodist faith in 1823, Young was drawn to Mormonism after reading the Book of Mormon shortly after its publication in 1830, he joined the new church in 1832 and traveled to Upper Canada as a missionary. After his wife died in 1832, Young joined many Mormons in establishing a community in Kirtland, Ohio. Young was ordained a member of the original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835, he assumed a leadership role within that organization in taking Mormonism to the United Kingdom and organizing the exodus of Latter Day Saints from Missouri in 1838. In 1844, while in jail awaiting trial for treason charges, Joseph Smith, president of the church, was killed by an armed mob. Several claimants to the role of church president emerged during the succession crisis. Before a large meeting convened to discuss the succession in Nauvoo, Sidney Rigdon, the senior surviving member of the church's First Presidency, argued there could be no successor to the deceased prophet and that he should be made the "Protector" of the church.
Young opposed this motion. Smith had earlier recorded a revelation which stated the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was "equal in authority and power" to the First Presidency, so Young claimed that the leadership of the church fell to the Twelve Apostles; the majority in attendance were persuaded that the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was to lead the church with Young as the Quorum's president. Many of Young's followers would reminisce that while Young spoke to the congregation, he looked or sounded like Smith, which they attributed to the power of God. Young was ordained President of the Church in December 1847, three and a half years after Smith's death. Rigdon became the president of a separate church organization based in Pittsburgh and other potential successors emerged to lead what became other denominations of the movement. Repeated conflict led Young to relocate his group of Latter-day Saints to the Salt Lake Valley, part of Mexico. Young organized the journey that would take the Mormon pioneers to Winter Quarters, Nebraska, in 1846 to the Salt Lake Valley.
By the time Young arrived at the final destination, it had come under American control as a result of war with Mexico, although U. S. sovereignty would not be confirmed until 1848. Young arrived in the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847, a date now recognized as Pioneer Day in Utah. Young's expedition was one of one of the best organized westward treks. On August 22, 29 days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Young organized the Mormon Tabernacle Choir. After three years of leading the church as the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Young reorganized a new First Presidency and was declared president of the church on December 27, 1847; as colonizer and founder of Salt Lake City, Young was appointed the territory's first governor and superintendent of American Indian affairs by President Millard Fillmore on February 3, 1851. During his time as prophet, Young directed the establishment of settlements throughout present-day Utah, Arizona, Nevada and parts of southern Colorado and northern Mexico.
Under his direction, the Mormons built roads and bridges, irrigation projects. Young was one of the first to subscribe to Union Pacific stock, for the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad. Young established Fillmore as the territory's first capital. Young organized a board of regents to establish a university in the Salt Lake Valley, it was established on February 1850, as the University of Deseret. In 1851, Young and several federal officials, including territorial Secretary Broughton Harris, became unable to work cooperatively. Harris and the others departed Utah without replacements being named, these individuals became known as the Runaway Officials of 1851. Young supported slavery and its expansion into Utah, led the efforts to legalize and regulate slavery in the 1852 Act in Relation to Service, based on his beliefs on slavery. In 1856, Young organized an efficient mail service. In 1858, following the events of the Utah War, he stepped down to Alfred Cumming. Young was the longest-serving President of the LDS Church in history.
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
Quorum of the Twelve
In the Latter Day Saint movement, the Quorum of the Twelve is one of the governing bodies or of the church hierarchy organized by the movement's founder Joseph Smith, patterned after the twelve apostles of Christ. Members are considered to be apostles, with a special calling to be evangelistic ambassadors to the world; the Twelve were designated to be a body of "traveling councillors" with jurisdiction outside areas where the church was formally organized. The Twelve were designated as being equal in authority to the First Presidency, the Seventy, the standing Presiding High Council, the High Councils of the various stakes. After the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, permanent schisms formed in the movement, resulting in the formation of various churches, many of which retained some version of the Quorum of the Twelve. In 1835, the Three Witnesses were asked by Smith to select the original twelve members of the church's Quorum of the Twelve, they announced their choices at a meeting on February 14, 1835.
The Three Witnesses ordained the twelve chosen men to the priesthood office of apostle by the laying on of hands, with the ordinations taking place between February and April 1835. Below is a list of members of the Quorum prior to the succession crisis of 1844. A total of 18 different men were members of the Quorum during this period. In 1838, four members of the Quorum were excommunicated and the President of the Quorum resigned.. Of the five, two of them would rejoin with Brigham Young and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints after the 1844 schism, but they would never resume their former places in the Quorum. Two others would join various sects and never returned to the LDS Church, while the fifth member left the Mormon movement completely. A sixth member of the Quorum was killed in 1838. After the 1844 schism, ten of the then-Quorum members followed Young to the Salt Lake Valley. Two others joined other sects. In the LDS Church, the Quorum of the Twelve is referred to as the "Quorum of the Twelve Apostles" or "Council of the Twelve Apostles".
The group has a leadership role in the church, second only to the church's First Presidency. The Quorum implicitly follows the First Presidency's policies and pronouncements and its members are chosen by the First Presidency. However, when the First Presidency is dissolved—which occurs upon the death of the President of the Church—the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles becomes the church's governing body until they ordain a new President of the Church and he chooses counselors, which completes the reorganization of the First Presidency. Membership in the Quorum of the Twelve is a lifetime calling. In the Community of Christ, the Council of Twelve Apostles is one of the governing bodies in the church hierarchy, they hold the priesthood office of apostle and are responsible for the evangelistic witness of the church. Apostles are high priests in the Melchisedec priesthood of the church; the Church of Jesus Christ is the third largest denomination that resulted from the 1844 succession crisis. At a conference in Green Oak, Pennsylvania, in July 1862, leaders of several branches in Pennsylvania and Virginia came together and formally organized what they called "The Church of Jesus Christ".
William Bickerton presided over the conference. Bickerton's two counselors in the newly organized First Presidency were George Barnes and Charles Brown who were ordained apostles; the members of the Quorum of the Twelve at that organization were Arthur Bickerton, Thomas Bickerton, Alexander Bickerton, James Brown, Cummings Cherry, Benjamin Meadowcroft, Joseph Astin, Joseph Knox, William Cadman, James Nichols, John Neish and John Dixon. At the conference George Barnes reported receiving the "word of the Lord," which he related: Hear the word of the Lord. In this church, the "Quorum of Twelve Apostles" are the chief governing officers; the president of the church and his two counselors are not separated from the quorum, as the total number of apostles in the quorum is twelve, as specified in the scriptures. Apostles are not given any compensation for their ministry. In the Church of Christ the Council of Twelve serves as the head of the church; the church seeks to follow the church organization of the Bible and the Book of Mormon, teaches that church offices added by Joseph Smith after publication of the Book of Commandments, such as a President of the Church and a First Presidency, were not consistent with the Bible and Book of Mormon, therefore were not revelations from God.
The Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints has an Apostolic Quorum that is, as yet, incomplete by design. As the Remnant Church seeks to be a "renewal" of the Latter Day Saint movement resulting from the 1850s Reorganization, it is attempting to follow similar patterns of that prior reorganization; the First Presidency of the Remnant Church is not drawn from the apostles. Instead, the president of the church is chosen by Jewish Laws of Inheritance; the current members of the Quorum are: Don Burnett, Robert Murie Jr. Terry W. Patience, Roger Tracy
A tradesman, tradesperson, skilled tradesman, skilled tradeswoman, skilled tradesperson or tradie refers to a worker who specializes in a particular occupation that requires work experience, on-the-job training, formal vocational education, but not a bachelor's degree. In Victorian England: The terms "skilled worker," "craftsman," "artisan," and "tradesman" were used in senses that overlap. All describe people with specialized training in the skills needed for a particular kind of work; some of them produced goods. Still others were factory hands who had become experts in some complex part of the process and could command high wages and steady employment. Skilled workers in the building trades were referred to by one or another of these terms."One study of Caversham, New Zealand at the turn of the century notes that a skilled trade was considered a trade that required an apprenticeship to entry. Skilled tradesmen worked either in traditional handicraft workshops or newer factories that emerged during the Industrial Revolution.
Traditional handicraft roles included, for example: "sail-maker, candle-maker, jappaner and taxidermist, cannister-maker, cap-maker, dobbin-maker, french-polisher, miller, confectioner, watch-maker, glazier, wood-turner, shipwright, scale-maker and cutler." Tradesmen are contrasted with unskilled workers, agricultural workers, professionals. Skilled tradesmen are distinguished: from unskilled workers in that the unskilled workers "rely on physical exertion" while those in the skilled trades rely on "specific knowledge and abilities." Both types of work, are considered blue-collar. From professionals in that the professionals have a higher duty of care and make decisions "on the basis of expertise and ability in complex situations where there may be no, or little, previous history."There is no definitive list of modern skilled trades, as definitions vary, with some lists being broader than others. A June 2013 report by the Michigan Department of Technology and Budget, generated the following list of trades, along with their Standard Occupational Classification System code: A British study found that, after taking student loan repayments into account, a higher apprenticeship delivered higher lifetime median earnings than a degree from a university outside the Russell Group.
Despite this, polling for the report found that apprenticeships have a lower perceived value than bachelor's degrees. Data from the United States shows that, although vocational education is less financially lucrative in the long term than a bachelor's degree, it can still provide a respectable income at much less cost in time and money. Ten years after graduation, there are many people with a certificate or associate degree who earn more money than those with a B. A. Artisan Grey-collar worker Guild Journeyman List of construction trades Master craftsman Skilled worker Trade union Technician Vocational education
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds; the plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the New Worlds; the fiber is most spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times. Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, it is the most used natural fiber cloth in clothing today. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accounting for 2.5% of the world's arable land.
China is the world's largest producer of cotton. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. In the United States, cotton is measured in bales, which measure 0.48 cubic meters and weigh 226.8 kilograms. There are four commercially grown species of cotton, all domesticated in antiquity: Gossypium hirsutum – upland cotton, native to Central America, the Caribbean and southern Florida Gossypium barbadense – known as extra-long staple cotton, native to tropical South America Gossypium arboreum – tree cotton, native to India and Pakistan Gossypium herbaceum – Levant cotton, native to southern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula The two New World cotton species account for the vast majority of modern cotton production, but the two Old World species were used before the 1900s. While cotton fibers occur in colors of white, brown and green, fears of contaminating the genetics of white cotton have led many cotton-growing locations to ban the growing of colored cotton varieties; the word "cotton" has Arabic origins, derived from the Arabic word قطن.
This was the usual word for cotton in medieval Arabic. The word entered the Romance languages in the mid-12th century, English a century later. Cotton fabric was known to the ancient Romans as an import but cotton was rare in the Romance-speaking lands until imports from the Arabic-speaking lands in the medieval era at transformatively lower prices; the earliest evidence of cotton use in the Indian subcontinent has been found at the site of Mehrgarh and Rakhigarhi where cotton threads have been found preserved in copper beads. Cotton cultivation in the region is dated to the Indus Valley Civilization, which covered parts of modern eastern Pakistan and northwestern India between 3300 and 1300 BC; the Indus cotton industry was well-developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India. For example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC.
Cotton bolls discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, have been dated to as early as 5500 BC, but this date has been challenged. More securely dated is the domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico between around 3400 and 2300 BC. In Peru, cultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense has been dated, from a find in Ancon, to c. 4200 BC, was the backbone of the development of coastal cultures such as the Norte Chico and Nazca. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish; the Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it. The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Great, as his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica"; this may be a reference to "tree cotton", Gossypium arboreum, a native of the Indian subcontinent. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia: Cotton has been spun and dyed since prehistoric times.
It clothed the people of ancient India and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In Iran, the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era; the planting of cotton was common in Merv and Pars of Iran. In Persian poets' poems Ferdowsi's Shahname, there are references to cotton. Marco Polo refers to the major products including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited Safavid Persia, spoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia. During the Han dynasty, cotton was grown by Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. Egyptians spun cotton in the first seven centuries of the Christian era. Handheld roller cotton gins had been used in India since the 6th century, was introduced to other countries from there. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, dual-roller gins appeared in China; the Indian version of the dual-roller gin was preval