Rotten Tomatoes is an American review-aggregation website for film and television. The company was launched in August 1998 by three undergraduate students at the University of California, Berkeley: Senh Duong, Patrick Y. Lee, Stephen Wang; the name "Rotten Tomatoes" derives from the practice of audiences throwing rotten tomatoes when disapproving of a poor stage performance. Since January 2010, Rotten Tomatoes has been owned by Flixster, in turn acquired by Warner Bros. in 2011. In February 2016, Rotten Tomatoes and its parent site Flixster were sold to Comcast's Fandango. Warner Bros. retained a minority stake in the merged entities, including Fandango. Rotten Tomatoes was launched on August 1998, as a spare-time project by Senh Duong, his objective in creating Rotten Tomatoes was "to create a site where people can get access to reviews from a variety of critics in the U. S." As a fan of Jackie Chan, Duong was inspired to create the website after collecting all the reviews of Chan's Hong Kong action movies as they were being released in the United States.
The primary catalyst for the creation of the website was Rush Hour, Chan's first major Hollywood crossover, planned to release in August 1998. Duong coded the website in two weeks and the site went live the same month, but Rush Hour itself ended up being pushed back to September 1998. Besides Jackie Chan films, he began including other films on Rotten Tomatoes, extending it beyond Chan's fandom; the first non-Chan Hollywood movie whose reviews were featured on Rotten Tomatoes was Your Friends & Neighbors. The website was an immediate success, receiving mentions by Netscape, Yahoo!, USA Today within the first week of its launch. Duong teamed up with University of California, Berkeley classmates Patrick Y. Lee and Stephen Wang, his former partners at the Berkeley, California-based web design firm Design Reactor, to pursue Rotten Tomatoes on a full-time basis, they launched it on April 1, 2000. In June 2004, IGN Entertainment acquired Rotten Tomatoes for an undisclosed sum. In September 2005, IGN was bought by News Corp's Fox Interactive Media.
In January 2010, IGN sold the website to Flixster. The combined reach of both companies is 30 million unique visitors a month across all different platforms, according to the companies. In 2011, Warner Bros. acquired Rotten Tomatoes. In February 2016, including Rotten Tomatoes, was acquired by Fandango, a company of which Warner Bros. has a minority share. In early 2009, Current Television launched the televised version of the web review site, The Rotten Tomatoes Show, it was written by Mark Ganek. The show aired every Thursday at 10:30 EST on the Current TV network; the last episode aired on September 16, 2010. It returned as a much shorter segment of InfoMania, a satirical news show that ended in 2011. By late 2009, the website was designed to enable Rotten Tomatoes users to create and join groups to discuss various aspects of film. One group, "The Golden Oyster Awards", accepted votes of members for various awards, spoofing the better-known Academy Awards or Golden Globes; when Flixster bought the company, they disbanded the groups, announcing: "The Groups area has been discontinued to pave the way for new community features coming soon.
In the meantime, please use the Forums to continue your conversations about your favorite movie topics". As of February 2011, new community features have been added and others removed. For example, users can no longer sort films by Fresh Ratings from Rotten Ratings, vice versa. On September 17, 2013, a section devoted to scripted television series, called "TV Zone", was created as a subsection of the website. In February 2016, Rotten Tomatoes and its parent site Flixster were sold to Comcast's Fandango. Warner Bros retained a minority stake including Fandango. In July 2017, the website's editor-in-chief since 2007, Matt Atchity, left to join The Young Turks. On November 1, 2017, the site launched a new web series on Facebook, See It/Skip It, hosted by Jacqueline Coley and Segun Oduolowu. In March 2018, the site announced its new design and logo for the first time in 19 years at SXSW. Rotten Tomatoes is a top 1000 site, placing around #400 globally and top 150 for the US only, according to website ranker Alexa.
Monthly unique visitors to the rottentomatoes.com domain is 26M global according to audience measurement service Quantcast. Rotten Tomatoes staff first collect online reviews from writers who are certified members of various writing guilds or film critic-associations. To be accepted as a critic on the website, a critic's original reviews must garner a specific number of "likes" from users; those classified as "Top Critics" write for major newspapers. The critics upload their reviews to the movie page on the website, need to mark their review "fresh" if it's favorable or "rotten" otherwise, it is necessary for the critic to do so as some reviews are qualitative and do not grant a numeric score, making it impossible for the system to be automatic. The website keeps track of all the reviews counted for each film and calculates the percentage of positive reviews. Major released films can attract more than 400 reviews. If the positive reviews make up 60% or more, the film is considered "fresh", in that a supermajority of the reviewers approve of the film.
If the positive reviews are less than 60%, the film is considered "rotten". An average score on a 0 to 10 scale is calculated. With each review, a short excerpt of the review is quoted that serves a hyperlink to the complete review essay for anyone interested to read the critic's full thoughts on the subject. "Top Critics", such as Roger Ebert, Desson Thoms
A prison known as a correctional facility, gaol, detention center, remand center, or internment facility, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial. In simplest terms, a prison can be described as a building in which people are held as a punishment for a crime they have committed. Prisons can be used as a tool of political repression by authoritarian regimes, their perceived opponents may be imprisoned for political crimes without trial or other legal due process. In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps. In American English and jail are treated as having separate definitions; the term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, are operated by the state or federal governments.
The term jail tends to describe institutions for confining people for shorter periods of time and are operated by local governments. Outside of North America and jail have the same meaning. Common slang terms for a prison include: "the pokey", "the slammer", "the can", "the clink", "the joint", "the calaboose", "the hoosegow" and "the big house". Slang terms for imprisonment include: "behind bars", "in stir" and "up the river"; the use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society; the best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, written in Babylon around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis, whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance by the victims themselves; this notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manusmriti, the Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of using it as retribution. Imprisonment as a penalty was used for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead; the prison in Ancient Athens was known as the desmoterion. The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, quarries. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prison, established around 640 B. C. by Ancus Marcius. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was a common form of punishment.
In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery in ergastula. During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles and the basements of public buildings were used as makeshift prisons; the possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils. Another common punishment was sentencing people to galley slavery, which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels. From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Under the Bloody Code, with few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving unpopular with the public. Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence.
They developed systems of mass incarceration with hard labor, as a solution. The prison reform movement that arose at this time was influenced by two somewhat contradictory philosophies; the first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalism, suggested that prisons should be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, etc. This theory, referred to as deterrence, claims tha
Roger Joseph Ebert was an American film critic, journalist and author. He was a film critic for the Chicago Sun-Times from 1967 until his death in 2013. In 1975, Ebert became the first film critic to win the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. Ebert and Chicago Tribune critic Gene Siskel helped popularize nationally televised film reviewing when they co-hosted the PBS show Sneak Previews, followed by several variously named At the Movies programs; the two verbally traded humorous barbs while discussing films. They created and trademarked the phrase "Two Thumbs Up", used when both hosts gave the same film a positive review. After Siskel died in 1999, Ebert continued hosting the show with various co-hosts and starting in 2000, with Richard Roeper. Neil Steinberg of the Chicago Sun-Times said Ebert "was without question the nation's most prominent and influential film critic", Tom Van Riper of Forbes described him as "the most powerful pundit in America", Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times called him "the best-known film critic in America".
Ebert lived with cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands beginning in 2002. In 2006, he required treatment necessitating the removal of his lower jaw, leaving him disfigured and costing him the ability to speak or eat normally, his ability to write remained unimpaired and he continued to publish both online and in print until his death on April 4, 2013. Roger Joseph Ebert was born in Urbana, the only child of Annabel, a bookkeeper, Walter Harry Ebert, an electrician, he was raised Roman Catholic, attending St. Mary's elementary school and serving as an altar boy in Urbana, his paternal grandparents were German his maternal ancestry was Irish and Dutch. Ebert's interest in journalism began when he was a student at Urbana High School, where he was a sports writer for The News-Gazette in Champaign, Illinois. In his senior year, he was class president and editor-in-chief of his high school newspaper, The Echo. In 1958, he won the Illinois High School Association state speech championship in "radio speaking", an event that simulates radio newscasts.
Regarding his early influences in film criticism, Ebert wrote in the 1998 parody collection Mad About the Movies: Ebert began taking classes at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign as an early-entrance student, completing his high school courses while taking his first university class. After graduating from Urbana High School in 1960, Ebert attended and received his undergraduate degree in 1964. While at the University of Illinois, Ebert worked as a reporter for The Daily Illini and served as its editor during his senior year while continuing to work as a reporter for the News-Gazette of Champaign-Urbana, Illinois; as an undergraduate, he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity and president of the U. S. Student Press Association. One of the first movie reviews he wrote was a review of La Dolce Vita, published in The Daily Illini in October 1961. Ebert spent a semester as a master's student in the department of English there before attending the University of Cape Town on a Rotary fellowship for a year.
He returned from Cape Town to his graduate studies at Illinois for two more semesters and after being accepted as a PhD candidate at the University of Chicago, he prepared to move to Chicago. He needed a job to support himself while he worked on his doctorate and so applied to the Chicago Daily News, hoping that, as he had sold freelance pieces to the Daily News, including an article on the death of writer Brendan Behan, he would be hired by editor Herman Kogan. Instead Kogan referred Ebert to the city editor at the Chicago Sun-Times, Jim Hoge, who hired Ebert as a reporter and feature writer at the Sun-Times in 1966, he attended doctoral classes at the University of Chicago while working as a general reporter at the Sun-Times for a year. After movie critic Eleanor Keane left the Sun-Times in April 1967, editor Robert Zonka gave the job to Ebert; the load of graduate school and being a film critic proved too much, so Ebert left the University of Chicago to focus his energies on film criticism.
Ebert began his career as a film critic in 1967. That same year, he met film critic Pauline Kael for the first time at the New York Film Festival. After he sent her some of his columns, she told him they were "the best film criticism being done in American newspapers today"; that same year, Ebert's first book, a history of the University of Illinois titled Illini Century: One Hundred Years of Campus Life, was published by the University's press. In 1969, his review of Night of the Living Dead was published in Reader's Digest. Ebert co-wrote the screenplay for the 1970 Russ Meyer film Beyond the Valley of the Dolls and sometimes joked about being responsible for the film, poorly received on its release yet has become a cult classic. Ebert and Meyer made Beneath the Valley of the Ultra-Vixens, Up!, other films, were involved in the ill-fated Sex Pistols movie Who Killed Bambi? Starting in 1968, Ebert worked for the University of Chicago as an adjunct lecturer, teaching a night class on film at the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies.
In 1975, Ebert received the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. As of 2007, his reviews were syndicated to more than 200 newspapers in the United States and abroad. Ebert publish
Christopher Young is an American composer and orchestrator of film and television scores. Many of his compositions are for horror and thriller films, including Hellraiser, Urban Legend, The Grudge, The Exorcism of Emily Rose, Drag Me to Hell and Deliver Us from Evil. Other works include Copycat, Set It Off, The Hurricane, Ghost Rider, Spider-Man 3 and The Shipping News, for which he was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score. Young was honored with the prestigious Richard Kirk award at the 2008 BMI TV Awards; the award is given annually to a composer who has made significant contributions to film and television music. Young was born in New Jersey, he graduated from Hampshire College in Massachusetts with a Bachelor of Arts in music, completed his post-graduate work at North Texas State University. In 1980, he moved to Los Angeles. A jazz drummer, when he heard some of Bernard Herrmann's works he decided to become a film composer, he studied at the UCLA Film School under David Raksin.
He teaches at the Thornton School of Music of the University of Southern California
Dermot Mulroney is an American actor and voice actor. He is best known for his roles in romantic comedy and drama films. Appearing on screen since the mid 1980s, he is known for his work in films such as Young Guns, Staying Together, Where the Day Takes You, Point of No Return, Angels in the Outfield, My Best Friend's Wedding, About Schmidt, The Wedding Date, August: Osage County, Insidious: Chapter 3, the HBO films The Last Outlaw and Long Gone. Mulroney played the main antagonist Francis Gibson in NBC's Crisis, Dr. Walter Wallace in Pure Genius, Sean Pierce in Showtime's Shameless. Mulroney was born in Virginia, his father Michael Mulroney from Elkader, was a law professor at Villanova University School of Law beginning in the 90s, prior to which he had a private practice in tax law for thirty years in Washington, D. C, his mother, Ellen from Manchester, was a regional theater actress. Dermot is the middle child among five siblings, he has two older brothers and Sean. Mulroney attended Matthew Maury Elementary School and played cello in school and city youth orchestras, as well as acted in children's community theater.
He finished 9th and 10th grades at George Washington High School, before attending T. C. Williams High School. During his sophomore year in high school, he attended the Interlochen Arts Camp as a cellist. Beginning at age 18, Mulroney studied communications at Northwestern University in Evanston, where he was a member of the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, graduated in 1985. Mulroney has a scar on his upper lip from an accident during his childhood, explaining "I was 3½ and I was carrying a dish for our pet rabbits, and I tripped and it broke, I fell on it." In his senior year in college, Mulroney responded to a sign-up sheet and auditioned in front of WMA agent Barbara Gale, who offered him a contract and asked him to relocate to Hollywood. There, Mulroney auditioned for three months before landing the role of the male lead in his debut in Sin of Innocence. In his first decade acting, Mulroney appeared in a slew of drama films dealing with heavy subject matter: Sin of Innocence, in which he played a stepbrother romantically involved with his stepsister after their parents marry.
In 1988, Mulroney appeared in the baseball flick Long Gone, for which he was nominated for Best Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or Movie at the CableACE Awards. In 1989, he appeared in Survival Quest. While filming, in 1986, Keener was caught in a river current and floated precariously close to whitewater rapids when Mulroney jumped in and the pair were picked up half a mile downstream; the two married in 1990. The couple would go onto appear together in four other films: Living In Oblivion, Heroine of Hell, Box of Moonlight and Lovely & Amazing. Mulroney's roles in Samantha and Where The Day Takes You awarded him Best Actor at the Seattle International Film Festival. Mulroney appeared in a number of western films throughout this period, namely Young Guns in 1988, Silent Tongue and The Last Outlaw in 1993, Bad Girls in 1994; the Sam Shepard-directed Silent Tongue would mark the second in a series of four collaborations, with the two appearing together on screen in Bright Angel, for which Mulroney won the Jury Special Prize at the Torino International Festival of Young Cinema.
Mulroney co-starred in the comedy-drama films: Staying Together. Mulroney appeared in the thriller films Point of No Return in 1993, he was nominated for Best Kiss, with Winona Ryder, for How to Make an American Quilt at the MTV Movie Awards. Several of his lead performances have been in romantic comedy films. Mulroney has appeared in many movies, including as the male lead in My Best Friend's Wedding alongside Julia Roberts and Cameron Diaz. In 1993 Mulroney played "J. P", the boyfriend of star "Maggie" in Point of No Return. Mulroney played the love interest of Madeleine Stowe in the western Bad Girls. In 2005, he played a male escort alongside Debra Messing in The Wedding Date, co-starred in the ensemble film The Family Stone, with Sarah Jessica Parker, he was in the movie Abduction as Martin Price. In 2003, Mulroney played Gavin Mitchell on the TV series Friends, he appeared in three episodes of the ninth season, his character dating Rachel. This would mark Mulroney's last on-screen appearance on television for a number of years revealing in a May 2007 interview that he had turned down TV series roles in favor of film.
In 2007, Mulroney appeared in the fifth se
A short story is a piece of prose fiction that can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood, however there are many exceptions to this. A dictionary definition is "an invented prose narrative shorter than a novel dealing with a few characters and aiming at unity of effect and concentrating on the creation of mood rather than plot."The short story is a crafted form in its own right. Short stories make use of plot and other dynamic components as in a novel, but to a lesser degree. While the short story is distinct from the novel or novella, authors draw from a common pool of literary techniques. Short story writers may define their works as part of the artistic and personal expression of the form, they may attempt to resist categorization by genre and fixed formation. Short stories have deep roots and the power of short fiction has been recognised in modern society for hundreds of years; the short form is, more natural to us than longer forms.
We are drawn to short stories as the well-told story, as William Boyd, the award-winning British author and short story writer has said:" seem to answer something deep in our nature as if, for the duration of its telling, something special has been created, some essence of our experience extrapolated, some temporary sense has been made of our common, turbulent journey towards the grave and oblivion". In terms of length, word count is anywhere from 1,000 to 4,000 for short stories, however some have 20,000 words and are still classed as short stories. Stories of fewer than 1,000 words are sometimes referred to as "short short stories", or "flash fiction". 21st-century short story writers run into the thousands. Global sales of short story fiction are strong. In the UK sales jumped 45 per cent in 2017, driven by collections from international names such as Alice Munro, new writers to the genre such as Tom Hanks, the revival of short story salons, such as those held by short fiction company, Pin Drop Studio.
More than 690,000 short stories and anthologies were sold in the UK in 2017, generating £5.88 million, the genre's highest sales since 2010. In 2012 Pin Drop Studio launched a short story salon held in London and other major cities. Short story writers who have appeared at the salon to read their short stories to a live audience include Ben Okri, Lionel Shriver, Elizabeth Day, A. L. Kennedy, Will Self, William Boyd, Graham Swift, David Nicholls, Will Self, Sebastian Faulks, Julian Barnes, Evie Wylde and Claire Fuller. Prominent short story awards such as The Sunday Times Short Story Award and the Pin Drop Studio Short Story Award, attract hundreds of entries each year. Published and non-published writers take part. Alice Munro, "master of the contemporary short story" according to her citation for the 2013 Nobel Prize in Literature, said she hopes the award would bring readership for the short story in general. Short stories are sometimes adapted for radio, TV and film: Radio dramas, as on NBC Presents: Short Story.
A popular example of this is "The Hitch-Hiker", read by Orson Welles. Short films rewritten by other people, as feature-length films. Television specials, such as "12:01 PM", "Nightmare at 20,000 Feet", "The Lottery", "Button, Button". Determining what separates a short story from longer fictional formats is problematic. A classic definition of a short story is that one should be able to read it in one sitting, a point most notably made in Edgar Allan Poe's essay "The Philosophy of Composition". Interpreting this standard nowadays is problematic, because the expected length of "one sitting" may now be briefer than it was in Poe's era. Short stories have no set length. In terms of word count there is no official demarcation between an anecdote, a short story, a novel. Rather, the form's parameters are given by the rhetorical and practical context in which a given story is produced and considered, so that what constitutes a short story may differ between genres, countries and commentators. Like the novel, the short story's predominant shape reflects the demands of the available markets for publication, the evolution of the form seems tied to the evolution of the publishing industry and the submission guidelines of its constituent houses.
As a point of reference for the genre writer, the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America define short story length in the Nebula Awards for science fiction submission guidelines as having a word count of fewer than 7,500 words. Longer stories that cannot be called novels are sometimes considered "novellas" or novelettes and, like short stories, may be collected into the more marketable form of "collections" containing unpublished stories. Sometimes, authors who do not have the time or money to write a novella or novel decide to write short stories instead, working out a deal with a popular website or magazine to publish them for profit; the precursors of short story were legends, mythic tales, folk tales, fairy tales and anecdotes which were present in various ancient communities across the world. These short pieces existed in oral form and they were transmitted from one generation to another in oral form. A large number of such tales are found in anc
Samuel Shepard Rogers III, known professionally as Sam Shepard, was an American actor, author and director whose career spanned half a century. He won ten Obie Awards for directing, the most won by any writer or director, he wrote 44 plays as well as several books of short stories and memoirs. Shepard received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1979 for his play Buried Child and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of pilot Chuck Yeager in the 1983 film The Right Stuff, he received the PEN/Laura Pels International Foundation for Theater Award as a master American dramatist in 2009. New York magazine described Shepard as "the greatest American playwright of his generation."Shepard's plays are known for their bleak, surrealist elements, black comedy, rootless characters living on the outskirts of American society. His style evolved from the absurdism of his early off-off-Broadway work to the realism of plays like Buried Child and Curse of the Starving Class.
Shepard was born on November 1943, in Fort Sheridan, Illinois. He was named Samuel Shepard Rogers III after his father, Samuel Shepard Rogers, Jr. but was called Steve Rogers. Samuel Shepard Rogers, Jr. was a teacher and farmer who served in the United States Army Air Forces as a bomber pilot during World War II. Shepard characterized his father as "a drinking man, a dedicated alcoholic", his mother, Jane Elaine, was a native of Chicago. Shepard worked on a ranch as a teenager. After graduating from Duarte High School in Duarte, California in 1961, he studied animal husbandry at nearby Mt. San Antonio College. While at college, Shepard became enamored of Samuel Beckett and abstract expressionism, he dropped out to join the Bishop's Company. Shepard found work as a busboy at the Village Gate nightclub when he arrived in New York City, in 1962 became involved in the off-off-Broadway theater scene through Ralph Cook, the Village Gate's head waiter. Steve Rogers adopted the professional name Sam Shepard.
Although his plays would be staged at several off-off-Broadway venues, Shepard was most connected with Cook's Theatre Genesis, housed at St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery in the East Village. In 1965, Shepard's one-act plays Dog and The Rocking Chair were produced at La MaMa Experimental Theatre Club; this was the first in many productions of Shepard's work at La MaMa during the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s. In 1967, Tom O'Horgan directed Shepard's Melodrama Play alongside Leonard Melfi's Times Square and Rochelle Owens' Futz at La MaMa. In 1969, Jeff Bleckner directed; the Unseen Hand would influence Richard O'Brien's musical The Rocky Horror Show. Bleckner directed The Unseen Hand alongside Forensic and the Navigators at the nearby Astor Place Theater in 1970. Shepard's play. Seth Allen directed Melodrama Play at La MaMa the following year. In 1981, Tony Barsha directed The Unseen Hand at La MaMa; the production transferred to the Provincetown Playhouse and ran for over 100 performances. Syracuse Stage co-produced The Tooth of Crime at La MaMa in 1983.
In 1983, the Overtone Theatre and New Writers at the Westside co-produced Shepard's plays Superstitions and The Sad Lament of Pecos Bill on the Eve of Killing His Wife at La MaMa. John Densmore performed in his own play Skins and Shepard and Joseph Chaikin's play Tongues, directed as a double bill by Tony Abatemarco, at La MaMa in 1984. Nicholas Swyrydenko directed a production of Geography of a Horse Dreamer at La MaMa in 1985. Several of Shepard's early plays, including Red Cross and La Turista, were directed by Jacques Levy. A patron of the Chelsea Hotel scene, he contributed to Kenneth Tynan's Oh! Calcutta! and drummed sporadically from 1967 through 1971 with the psychedelic folk band The Holy Modal Rounders, appearing on their albums Indian War Whoop and The Moray Eels Eat The Holy Modal Rounders. After winning six Obie Awards between 1966 and 1968, Shepard emerged as a screenwriter with Robert Frank's Me and My Brother and Michelangelo Antonioni's Zabriskie Point. Cowboy Mouth, a collaboration with his then-lover Patti Smith, was staged at The American Place Theatre in April 1971, providing early exposure for Smith, who became a well-known musician.
The story and characters in Cowboy Mouth were loosely inspired by Smith's relationship. After opening night, he abandoned the production and fled to New England without a word to anyone involved. Shortly thereafter, Shepard relocated with his son to London. While in London, he immersed himself in the study of G. I. Gurdjieff's a recurring preoccupation for much of his life. Returning to the United States in 1975, he moved to the 20-acre Flying Y Ranch in Mill Valley, where he raised a young colt named Drum and rode double with his young son on an appaloosa named Cody. Shepard continued to write plays and served for a semester as Regents' Professor of Drama at the University of California, Davis. Shepard accompanied Bob Dylan on the Rolling Thunder Revue of 1975 as the screenwriter for Renaldo and Clara that emerged from the tour. However, because much of the film was improvised, Shepard's work was used, his diary of the tour, Rolling Thunder Logbook, was published in 1978. A decade Dylan and Shepard co-wrote the 11-minute song "Brownsville Girl", included on Dylan's 1986 Knocked Out Loaded album and on compilations.
In 1975, Shepard was named playwright-in-residence at the Magic Theatre in San Francisco, where he created many of his notable works, including his