Detroit Free Press
The Detroit Free Press is the largest daily newspaper in Detroit, Michigan, US. The Sunday edition is titled the Sunday Free Press, it is sometimes referred to as the "Freep". It serves Wayne, Macomb, Livingston and Monroe counties; the Free Press is the largest city newspaper owned by Gannett, which publishes USA Today. The Free Press has received four Emmy Awards, its motto is "On Guard for 188 Years". In 2018, the Detroit Free Press received two Salute to Excellence awards from the National Association of Black Journalists; the newspaper was launched by John R. Williams and his uncle, Joseph Campau, was first published as the Democratic Free Press and Michigan Intelligencer on May 5, 1831, it was renamed to Detroit Daily Free Press in 1835. Williams printed the first issues on a Washington press he purchased from the discontinued Oakland Chronicle of Pontiac, it was hauled from Pontiac in a wagon over rough roads to a building at Bates and Woodbridge streets in Detroit. The hand-operated press could produce 250 pages per hour.
The first issues were 14 with five columns of type. Sheldon McKnight became the first publisher with John Pitts Sheldon as editor. In the 1850s, the paper was developed into a leading Democratic publication under the ownership of Wilbur F. Storey. Storey left for the Chicago Times in 1861. In the 1870s ownership passed to William E. Quinby, who continued its Democratic leanings and established a London, England edition. In 1940, the Knight Newspapers purchased the Free Press. During the following 47 years the Free Press competed with The Detroit News in the southeastern Michigan market; the Free Press was delivered and sold as a morning paper while the News was sold and delivered as an evening newspaper. In 1987, the paper entered into a one hundred-year joint operating agreement with its rival, combining business operations while maintaining separate editorial staffs; the combined company is called the Detroit Media Partnership. The two papers began to publish joint Saturday and Sunday editions, though the editorial content of each remained separate.
At the time, the Detroit Free Press was the tenth highest circulation paper in the United States, the combined Detroit News and Free Press was the country's fourth largest Sunday paper. On July 13, 1995, Newspaper Guild-represented employees of the Free Press and News and the pressmen and Teamsters working for the "Detroit Newspapers" distribution arm went on strike. By October, about 40% of the editorial staffers had crossed the picket line, many trickled back over the next months while others stayed out for the two and a half years of the strike; the strike was resolved in court three years and the unions remain active at the paper, representing a majority of the employees under their jurisdiction. In 1998, the Free Press vacated its former headquarters in downtown Detroit and moved to offices into the News building. On August 3, 2005, Knight Ridder sold the Free Press to the Gannett Company, which had owned and operated The Detroit News. Gannett, in turn sold The News, to MediaNews Group.
The Free Press resumed publication of its own Sunday edition, May 7, 2006, without any content from The News. A quirk in the operating agreement, allows The News to continue printing its editorial page in the Sunday Free Press. On December 16, 2008, Detroit Media Partnership announced a plan to limit weekday home delivery for both dailies to Thursday and Friday only. On other weekdays the paper sold at newsstands would be smaller, about 32 pages, redesigned; this arrangement went into effect March 30, 2009. The Free Press entered a news partnership with CBS owned-and-operated station WWJ-TV channel 62 in March 2009 to produce a morning news show called First Forecast Mornings. Prior to the partnership, WWJ aired no local newscast at all. In February 2014, the DMP announced its offices along with those of the Free Press and The Detroit News would occupy six floors in both the old and new sections of the former Federal Reserve building at 160 West Fort Street; the partnership expected to place signs on the exterior similar to those on the former offices.
The move took place October 24–27, 2014. The Detroit Almanac: 300 Years of Life in the Motor City. Peter Gavrilovich and Bill McGraw, editors. ISBN 0-937247-34-0 Media in Detroit Official website Official mobile website Gannett subsidiary profile of the Detroit Free Press The Detroit Free Press Building Detroit Newspaper Partnership
Motor City Blight Busters
Motor City Blight Busters is a charitable organization located in Detroit, Michigan. Dedicated to the revitalization of the Detroit community, the group is responsible for cleaning up dump sites, tearing down blighted houses, painting existing homes and many other activities. Over the course of 23 years, the organization has used over 21,000 gallons of paint, 15,500 pounds of nails and 15,470 sheets of plywood. Motor City Blight Busters mission is to stabilize and repopulate the city of Detroit with homeowners. Established since 1988, the organization is committed to ridding the blight from the Motor City. Blight Busters started with Angels' Night patrol where citizens patrolled the night before Halloween to protect neighborhoods from arson and vandalism. John J. George is the leader of the Motor City Blight Busters. Besides Angel's Night, John George's first action in forming Blight Busters was buying plywood and boarding up a house, being used as an operations base by drug dealers around the corner from his house.
After it was boarded up, he found that this worked because the drug dealers did not return to that location. When they first started, John George only had a Lincoln Town Car, but now has made a smart investment, bought a full-size pickup truck. Blight Busters did not just appear, it started off in John George's basement with a couple of volunteers. Once it grew too big for his basement, they purchased a building on Lahser Road for one dollar, they put 1.4 million dollars into turning the place around, making it the headquarters for the Blight Busters. The Founder, John George is a person, not afraid to get his hands dirty. Working with the crews and volunteers, he renovates buildings; the activist was a former insurance salesman. He is serious about turning Detroit around, he transformed the three-story former Masonic temple on Lahser near Grand River between McNichols and Seven Mile roads into Blight Busters headquarters. Blight Busters is a registered 501 Non-Profit Organization, it is funded by volunteers that donate their time, real estate and money.
Vehicles can be donated through a company called Living Wheels. Individuals, small groups, companies can all get involved. 10,000 volunteers a year show up to help with projects. Blight Busters sponsors corporate team building events, they continue with the events that started Motor City blight busters: Angel's Night patrol and Motor City Clean-up. Demolishing 300 abandoned homes, renovating 425 homes, building more than 300 brand new homes. Artist village contains a gallery and workshop. Ingredients for the Java house are grown in Artist Village. Events include live jazz performances, chess club, ballroom dancing lessons, art camp and gardening program; the mission of Java House is to improve the community. The community discuss art and poetry; this is a green initiate with local produce used and the coffee grounds used to help fertilize the gardens. The coffee is purchased from local vendors; the general manager Alicia Marion gives firsthand experience how the Blight Busters helped her start her dream.
This type of source is helpful because it shows the beauty of the café and the fresh ingredients are grown in Artist Village. John J. George was given an award by President Clinton the "Points of Light Institute", it is only awarded to people. Oprah honored Motor City Blight Busters founder with 2012 VW Beetle. In 1995, John George received the "Michiganian of the Year" honor from The Detroit News
The Detroit Metro Times is an alternative weekly located in Detroit, Michigan. It is the largest circulating weekly newspaper in the metro Detroit area. Supported by advertising, it is distributed free of charge every Wednesday in newsstands in businesses and libraries around the city and suburbs. Compared to the two dailies, the Detroit Free Press and the Detroit News, the Metro Times has a leftist orientation, like its competitor Real Detroit Weekly. Average circulation for the Metro Times is 50,000 weekly. Average readership is just over 700,000 weekly, its annual "Best of Detroit" survey awards local businesses. The categories include "Public Square". Syndicated alternative comics run by the Metro Times have in the past included Perry Bible Fellowship, This Modern World, Eric Monster Millikin and Red Meat; the Metro Times prints Dan Savage's Savage Love sex advice column and Cal Garrison's Horoscopes. Starting with the January 19–25 issue, the Metro Times had its own exclusive crossword, crafted by Brooklyn-based cruciverbalist Ben Tausig, who appears in the documentary Wordplay.
The crossword was cut in May 2008. The paper was founded in 1980 by editor Ron Williams. In December 2012, Metro Times Editor W. Kim Heron announced his departure. Heron had been the paper's managing editor. In March 2013, after three months during which Michael Jackman was interim editor, the publisher named Bryan Gottlieb as Editor-in-Chief. In April 2014, Valerie Vande Panne, former editor of High Times, was named editor-in-chief. In May 2014, the Metro Times merged with Real Detroit Weekly, a Detroit-area alternative weekly paper since 1999. Dustin Blitchok took over as editor-in-chief in February 2016, before resigning from the position in November of the same year. Former Metro Times staff writer and associate editor for Hour Detroit Lee DeVito was named editor-in-chief following Blitchok's departure; the Metro Times was an official sponsor of the now-defunct Detroit Festival of the Arts and had one of the stages named after it. The headquarters are located in Midtown Detroit, it was headquartered in the Detroit Cornice and Slate Company Building in Downtown Detroit.
The Metro Times moved to the Cornice and Slate building in the 1990s and a wraparound expansion was installed there to give the newspaper additional room. In 2013 Blue Cross Blue Shield purchased the Cornice and Slate building, forcing the Metro Times to move to a leased space in Ferndale. According to editor-in-chief Lee DeVito, the newspaper intended to return to Detroit. In 2018, Metro Times returned to Detroit. Official website
A city block, urban block or block is a central element of urban planning and urban design. A city block is the smallest area, surrounded by streets. City blocks are the space for buildings within the street pattern of a city, form the basic unit of a city's urban fabric. City blocks may be subdivided into any number of smaller land lots in private ownership, though in some cases, it may be other forms of tenure. City blocks are built-up to varying degrees and thus form the physical containers or'streetwalls' of public space. Most cities are composed of a lesser variety of sizes and shapes of urban block. For example, many pre-industrial cores of cities in Europe and the Middle-east tend to have irregularly shaped street patterns and urban blocks, while cities based on grids have much more regular arrangements. In most cities of the world that were planned, rather than developing over a long period of time, streets are laid out on a grid plan, so that city blocks are square or rectangular. Using the perimeter block development principle, city blocks are developed so that buildings are located along the perimeter of the block, with entrances facing the street, semi-private courtyards in the rear of the buildings.
This arrangement is intended to provide good social interaction among people. Since the spacing of streets in grid plans varies so among cities, or within cities, it is difficult to generalize about the size of a city block. However, as reference points for US cities, the standard square blocks of Portland and Sacramento are 264 by 264 feet, 330 by 330 feet, 410 by 410 feet respectively. Oblong blocks range in width and length; the standard block in Manhattan is about 264 by 900 feet. S. cities standard blocks are as wide as 660 feet. The blocks in Calgary, are 330 by 560 feet, while those in Edmonton, Canada are 197 by 560 feet; the blocks in central Melbourne, are 330 by 660 feet, formed by splitting the square blocks in an original grid with a narrow street down the middle. In Chicago and Minneapolis, Minnesota, a typical city block is 660 by 330 feet, meaning that 16 east-west blocks or 8 north-south blocks measure one mile. Many world cities have grown by accretion over time rather than being planned from the outset.
For this reason, a regular pattern of square or rectangular city blocks is not so common among European cities, for example. An exception is represented by those cities that were founded as Roman military settlements, that preserve the original grid layout around two main orthogonal axes. One notable example is Italy. Following the example of Philadelphia, New York City adopted the Commissioners' Plan of 1811 for a more extensive grid plan. By the middle of the 20th century, the adoption of the uniform, rectilinear block subsided completely, different layouts prevailed, with random sized and either curvilinear or non-orthogonal blocks and corresponding street patterns. In much of the United States and Canada, the addresses follow a block and lot number system, in which each block of a street is allotted 100 building numbers; the concept of city block can be generalized as a sub-block. A superblock or super-block is an area of urban land bounded by arterial roads, the size of multiple typically-sized city blocks.
Within the superblock, the local road network, if any, is designed to serve local needs only. Within the broad concept of a superblock, various typologies emerge based on the internal road networks within the superblock, their historical context, whether they are auto-centric or pedestrian-centric; the context in which superblocks are being studied or conceived gives rise to varying definitions. An internal road network characterised by cul-de-sacs is typical of auto-centric suburban development in Western countries throughout the 20th century; the Oxford Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture's definition is rooted within this suburban conception:“Area containing residential accommodation, schools, etc. with public open space, surrounded by roads and penetrated by cul-de-sac service-roads. It is linked to other super-blocks and a town centre by means of paths over or under the roads.”Though the aim of such superblocks is to minimise traffic within the superblock by directing it to arterial roads, the effect in many cases has been to entrench automobile dependence by limiting pedestrian permeability.
Superblocks can contain an orthogonal internal road network, including ones based on a grid plan or quasi-grid plan. This typology is prevalent in China, for example. Chen defines the supergrid and superblock urban morphology in this context as follows:“The Supergrid is a large-scale net of wide roads that defines a series of cells or Superblocks, each containing a network of narrower streets.”Superblocks can be retroactively superimposed on pre-existing grid plan by changing the traffic rules and streetscape of internal streets within the superblock, as in the case of Barcelona’s superilles. Each superilla comprises nine city blocks, with speed limits on the internal roads slowed to 10–20 km/h and through traffic disallowed, with through travel only possible on the perimeter roads. Superblocks were popular during the early and mid-20th century auto-centric suburban development, arising from modernist ideas in architecture and urban planning. Planning in this era was based upon the distance and speed scales for the automobi
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
The Detroit News
The Detroit News is one of the two major newspapers in the U. S. city of Detroit, Michigan. The paper began in 1873; the News absorbed the Detroit Tribune on February 1, 1919, the Detroit Journal on July 21, 1922, on November 7, 1960, it bought and closed the faltering Detroit Times. However, it retained the Times' building, which it used as a printing plant until 1975, when a new facility opened in Sterling Heights; the Times building was demolished in 1978. The street in downtown Detroit where the Times building once stood is still called "Times Square." The Evening News Association, owner of The News, merged with Gannett in 1985. At the time of its acquisition of The News, Gannett had other Detroit interests, as its outdoor advertising company, which became Outfront Media through a series of mergers, operated many billboards across Detroit and the surrounding area, including advertising displays on Detroit Department of Transportation and Southeastern Michigan Transportation Authority buses, with its only competitor along Metro Detroit's freeway network, being 3M National Advertising.
The News claims to have been the first newspaper in the world to operate a radio station, station 8MK, which began broadcasting August 20, 1920. 8MK is now CBS-owned WWJ. In 1947, it established Michigan's first television station, WWJ-TV, now WDIV-TV. In 1989, the paper entered into a 100-year joint operating agreement with the rival Free Press, combining business operations while keeping separate editorial staffs; the combined company is called the Detroit Media Partnership. The Free Press moved into The News building in 1998 and until May 7, 2006, the two published a single joint weekend edition. Today, The News is published Monday–Saturday, has an editorial page in the Sunday Free Press; the Detroit News has an online version, including a separate site for connections from EU countries which does not track personal information. The Detroit News has won three Pulitzer Prizes; the Detroit News was founded by James E. Scripps, who, in turn, was the older half-brother and one-time partner of Edward W. Scripps.
The paper's eventual success, however, is credited to Scripps' son-in-law, George Gough Booth, who came aboard at the request of his wife's father. Booth went on to construct Michigan's largest newspaper empire, founding the independent Booth Newspapers chain with his two brothers; the Detroit News building was erected in 1917. It was designed by architect Albert Kahn, who included a faux-stone concrete building with large street level arches to admit light; the arches along the east and south side of the building were bricked-in for protection after the 12th Street Riot in 1967. The bricked-in arches on the east and south ends of the building were reopened during renovations required when the Free Press relocated its offices there 20 years later. In 1931, The Detroit News made history when it bought a three place Pitcairn PCA-2 auto-gyro as a camera aircraft which could take off and land in restricted places and semi-hover for photos, it was the ancestor of today's well known news helicopter.
In 1935 a single Lockheed Model 9 Orion was purchased and modified by Lockheed as a news camera plane for The Detroit News. To work in that role, a pod was built into the frontal leading edge of the right wing about eight feet out from the fuselage; this pod had a glass dome on a mounted camera. To aim the camera the pilot was provided with a primitive grid-like gun sight on his windshield. July 13, 1995, Newspaper Guild employees of the Detroit Free Press and The News along with pressmen and Teamsters, working for the "Detroit Newspapers" distribution arm, went on strike. Half of the staffers crossed the picket line before the unions ended their strike in February 1997; the strike was resolved in court three years with the journalists' union losing its unfair labor practices case on appeal. Still, the weakened unions remain active at the paper, representing a majority of the employees under their jurisdiction. August 3, 2005, Gannett announced that it would sell The News to MediaNews Group and purchase the Free Press from the Knight Ridder company.
With this move, Gannett became the managing partner in the papers' joint operating agreement. On May 7, 2006, the combined Sunday Detroit News and Free Press were replaced by a stand-alone Sunday Free Press. On December 16, 2008, Detroit Media Partnership announced a plan to limit weekday home delivery for both dailies to Thursday and Friday only. On other weekdays the paper sold at newsstands would be smaller, about 32 pages, redesigned; this arrangement went into effect March 30, 2009. The News has lower print circulation than the Free Press though The News website is the 10th most-read newspaper website in the United States. In February 2014, the DMP announced its offices along with those of The News and the Free Press would move from the West Lafayette building to six floors in both the old and new sections of the former Federal Reserve building at 160 West Fort Street; the partnership expected to place signs on the exterior similar to those on the former offices. The move took place October 24–27, 2014.
Editorially, The News is considered more conservative than the Free Press. However, it considers itself libertarian. In an editorial statement printed in 1958, The News described itself as conservative on economic issues and liberal on civil liberties issues, it has never endorsed a Democrat for president, has only failed to endorse a Republican presidential candidate four times: twic
United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the United States Constitution; the U. S. Mail traces its roots to 1775 during the Second Continental Congress, when Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general; the Post Office Department was created in 1792 from Franklin's operation. It was elevated to a cabinet-level department in 1872, was transformed by the Postal Reorganization Act in 1970 into the USPS as an independent agency; the USPS as of 2017 has 644,124 active employees and operated 211,264 vehicles in 2014. The USPS is the operator of the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world; the USPS is obligated to serve all Americans, regardless of geography, at uniform price and quality. The USPS has exclusive access to letter boxes marked "U.
S. Mail" and personal letterboxes in the United States, but now has to compete against private package delivery services, such as United Parcel Service and FedEx. Since the early 1980s, many of the direct tax subsidies to the Post Office, with the exception of subsidies for costs associated with the disabled and overseas voters, have been reduced or eliminated in favor of indirect subsidies, in addition to the advantages associated with a government-enforced monopoly on the delivery of first-class mail. Since the 2006 all-time peak mail volume, after which Congress passed the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act which mandated that $5.5 billion per year be paid to prefund employee retirement health benefits, revenue dropped due to recession-influenced declining mail volume, prompting the postal service to look to other sources of revenue while cutting costs to reduce its budget deficit. In the early years of the North American colonies, many attempts were made to initiate a postal service.
These early attempts were of small scale and involved a colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony for example, setting up a location in Boston where one could post a letter back home to England. Other attempts focused on a dedicated postal service between two of the larger colonies, such as Massachusetts and Virginia, but the available services remained limited in scope and disjointed for many years. For example, informal independently-run postal routes operated in Boston as early as 1639, with a Boston to New York City service starting in 1672. A central postal organization came to the colonies in 1691, when Thomas Neale received a 21-year grant from the British Crown for a North American Postal Service. On February 17, 1691, a grant of letters patent from the joint sovereigns, William III and Mary II, empowered him: to erect and establish within the chief parts of their majesties' colonies and plantations in America, an office or offices for receiving and dispatching letters and pacquets, to receive and deliver the same under such rates and sums of money as the planters shall agree to give, to hold and enjoy the same for the term of twenty-one years.
The patent included the exclusive right to establish and collect a formal postal tax on official documents of all kinds. The tax was repealed a year later. Neale appointed Governor of New Jersey, as his deputy postmaster; the first postal service in America commenced in February 1692. Rates of postage were fixed and authorized, measures were taken to establish a post office in each town in Virginia. Massachusetts and the other colonies soon passed postal laws, a imperfect post office system was established. Neale's patent expired in 1710; the chief office was established in New York City, where letters were conveyed by regular packets across the Atlantic. Before the Revolution, there was only a trickle of business or governmental correspondence between the colonies. Most of the mail went forth to counting houses and government offices in London; the revolution made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, the information hub of the new nation. News, new laws, political intelligence, military orders circulated with a new urgency, a postal system was necessary.
Journalists took the lead, securing post office legislation that allowed them to reach their subscribers at low cost, to exchange news from newspapers between the thirteen states. Overthrowing the London-oriented imperial postal service in 1774–1775, printers enlisted merchants and the new political leadership, created a new postal system; the United States Post Office was created on July 26, 1775, by decree of the Second Continental Congress. Benjamin Franklin headed it briefly. Before the Revolution, individuals like Benjamin Franklin and William Goddard were the colonial postmasters who managed the mails and were the general architects of a postal system that started out as an alternative to the Crown Post; the official post office was created in 1792 as the Post Office Department. It was based on the Constitutional authority empowering Congress "To establish post offices and post roads"; the 1792 law provided for a expanded postal network, served editors by charging newspapers an low rate.
The law guaranteed the sanctity of personal correspondence, provided the entire country with low-cost access to information on public affairs, while establishing a right to personal privacy. Rufus Easton was appointed by Thomas Jefferson first postmaster of St. Louis under the recommendation of Postmaster General Gideon Granger. Rufus Easton was the first postmaster and built the first post office west o