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Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light. In other words, brightness is the perception elicited by the luminance of a visual target, it is not proportional to luminance. This is a subjective attribute/property of an object being observed and one of the color appearance parameters of color appearance models. Brightness should not be confused with Lightness; the adjective bright derives from an Old English beorht with the same meaning via metathesis giving Middle English briht. The word is from a Common Germanic *berhtaz from a PIE root with a related meaning, *bhereg- "white, bright". "Brightness" was used as a synonym for the photometric term luminance and for the radiometric term radiance. As defined by the US Federal Glossary of Telecommunication Terms, "brightness" should now be used only for non-quantitative references to physiological sensations and perceptions of light. A given target luminance can elicit different perceptions of brightness in different contexts.

In an RGB color space, brightness can be thought of as the arithmetic mean μ of the red and blue color coordinates: μ = R + G + B 3 Brightness is a color coordinate in HSL color space: hue and lightness, meaning here brightness. With regard to stars, brightness is quantified as absolute magnitude. Brightness is, at least in some respects, the antonym of darkness; the United States Federal Trade Commission has assigned an unconventional meaning to brightness when applied to lamps. When appearing on light bulb packages, brightness means luminous flux, while in other contexts it means luminance. Luminous flux is the total amount such as a lighting device. Luminance, the original meaning of brightness, is the amount of light per solid angle coming from an area, such as the sky; the table below shows the standard ways of indicating the amount of light. Brightness Luma Luminance Luminosity Media related to brightness at Wikimedia Commons Poynton's Color FAQ


Tacata' is an international hit by Italian group Tacabro with Cuban artist Martínez Rodríguez as main vocalist for the release on 541 / N. E. W. S. Labels in Italy and Sweden and with Sony Music in Denmark; the music is composed by the Italian duo Mario Romano and Salvatore Sapienza known as Romano & Sapienza and lyrics by Raul-Rodriguez Martinez. "Tacata'" was a hit in Italy and was credited to Romano & Sapienza featuring Rodríguez reaching number 4 on the Italian Singles Charts. The same name was used for the initial Swiss release. Releases on other European charts were credited to the formation Tacabro and charted as such in France and Sweden; the song has gained recognition in North America, reaching number 83 in Canada where it was the most popular outside Europe. Tacata' Tacata' Tacata' Tacata' Tacata' Tacata' RemixesTacata' Tacata' Tacata' Tacata' Tacata' Tacata' Tacata' Tacata' Tacata' Tacata' Video Tacata' "Tacatà" Radio edit version credited to Tacabro featuring Rodriguez appears as title track in the compilation albums Tacatà Compilation and Latino - Greatest Hits 2012 Vol. 2.

Two separate music videos were released for "Tacata'" produced by Danceandlove, the first in January 2012 and the second in February 2012.. The videos are directed by Alex DOP by Francesco Fracchionio; the music videos show Martínez Rodríguez singing and dancing in front of a banner reading Tacabro or through visual effects in the background. With Rodríguez dancing the Tacata', there is vocal as well as music accompaniment and mixing by Mario Romano and Salvatore Sapienza. In other scenes of the music video, Martínez Rodríguez is joined in by other girls dancing the Tacata' with him. Released in Italy on 5 January 2012, it became a hit in Italy, in many dance venues all over Europe; the song reached #4 on the Italian Singles Chart and #1 on the Danish Singles Chart for three consecutive weeks in April and May 2012. In France for the initial three weeks, two versions were in the French SNEP charts. On 21 April 2012, the two versions appeared at #98 and #134 in first week of release. On chart dated 28 April they both appeared at #50 and #65 and for chart dated 5 May 2012 at #33 and #42 simultaneously.

But SNEP coupled both listing into one for chart dated 12 May 2012, with the single rising to #6 in the French chart. Romano & Sapienza feat. Rodriguez versionTacabro version DJ Adam released his own remixed version entitled "Tacata" on 23 April 2012 on Beat Factory label that appeared at #187 in the French Singles Top 200 and rising to #133 during May 2012. Mr. Takata released a cover version as "Tacatà"; this version charted in the French Singles Top 200 for one week reaching number 114. It charted in Austrian Singles Chart for two weeks reaching number 57. Japanese pop group MAX sampled the song under the same title for their comeback in 2013. Tacabro Official website Original label's website MusicJam.if: Tacata' Lyrics

Lake tanker

Lake tankers were small specially designed shallow-draft tanker ships that carried the crude oil, pumped from beneath Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela, to the three off-shore refineries located on the Dutch islands of Aruba and Curaçao. The crude obtained from Lake Maracaibo was processed at refineries located at Aruba and Curaçao, Netherlands West Indies. Aruba had two refineries, Lago Oil and Transport Company, owned by Standard Oil of New Jersey and Eagle, owned by Royal Dutch Shell. There was a Royal Dutch Shell refinery on the island of Curaçao; the Lago refinery housed the officers and their families in Lago Colony, a community owned by the company which housed all their foreign staff employees. All three refineries depended on a fleet of "Lake Tankers" to supply the crude to be refined, carried from Lake Maracaibo through the shallow cannel between it and the Caribbean Sea; this shallow passage prevented larger oceanic tanker ships from entering the lake, thus the need for the smaller Lake tanker.

The Lake Tanker was a small vessel in comparison with the larger ocean-going oil tankers. The first Lake Tankers were built in England around 1923, entering service in 1924; these were followed in 1926 by 4 ships of the Invercaibo class larger than the former. Subsequent ships remained small until after World War II when, with the dredging of the channel to Lake Maracaibo, the lake tankers became larger; this collection of small tankers was known as the "Lake fleet" or the "Mosquito fleet", which peaked at more than 60 ships, either owned or chartered. This type of tanker was no longer needed after the channel from Lake Maracaibo to the sea was dredged and deepened to allow ocean-going tankers to enter the lake, pipelines from the lake were constructed to deep water ports in the Paraguana Peninsula; the last Lake Tanker, SS Trujillo, was retired from service in December 1954 and sailed to Jacksonville, where it joined another 12 decommissioned Lake tankers, active as of January 1954. Some tankers that have been part of the "Lake fleet" are listed below.

SS Invercorrie SS Inverampton SS Francunion SS Oranjestad SS Ambrosio SS Bachaquero SS Invercaibo SS Hooiberg SS Invergoil SS Punta Gorda SS San Carlos SS Tia Juana SS Yamanota SS Pedernales SS Andino SS Quiriquire SS Misoa SS Cumarebo SS Maracay SS Boscan SS Caripito SS Guarico SS Temblador SS Amacuro SS Mara SS Trujillo SS Adela SS Alicia SS Asiento SS Berta SS Brigida SS Carlota SS Casandra SS Chepita SS Conchita SS Dolium SS Elena SS Felipa SS Frasca SS Gadinia SS Galeomma SS Ganesella SS Gari SS Gastrana SS Gaza SS Gemma SS Gena SS Genota SS Geomitra SS Glebula SS Glessula SS Gomphina SS Gouldia SS Gyrotoma SS Josefina SS Juanita SS Juliana SS Julieta SS Justina SS Laura SS Leona SS Leonor SS Leticia SS Lidia SS Linda SS Liria SS Liseta SS Lucia SS Lucita SS Lucrecia SS Luisa SS Manuela SS Mariana SS Mariquita SS Marsella SS Martica SS Martina SS Maruja SS Matilde SS Maximina SS Rafaela SS Ramona SS Rebeca SS Renata SS Rita SS Rodas SS Rosa SS Rosalia SS Rosaura SS Rufina Shell Aramare Shell Caricuao Shell Charaima Shell Dezoito Shell Manaure Shell Mara Shell Murachi Shell Naiguata Shell Plata SS Shellphalte SS Shellspra SS Spramex SS Susana B/A Peerless B/A Canada A story about Lago's Lake Tankers History of Lago Oil Shipping Co. Ltd.

Lago Colony & Lago Refinery with links to Lake Tanker photos Helder Line website, List of Shell Lake Tankers Auke Visser's website, A story about Lago Oil tankers Auke Visser's website, Lago / Creole Petroleum Corp. list of all their ships with link to individual stories The Ships List website, Andrew Weir & Co. / Bank Line Harland and Wolff shipyard website, ship search page

Opus 17 (Don't You Worry 'bout Me)

"Opus 17" is a song composed by Sandy Linzer and Denny Randell and recorded by The Four Seasons in 1966 for their album Working My Way Back to You. The song was released as the official followup to the title song of the album and reached the #13 position on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart; this was the first hit with new full-time bassist/bass vocalist Joe Long. The title "Opus 17" meant; as was the case with another Linzer-Randell contribution to the Four Seasons catalog, "Let's Hang On!", "Opus 17" features a rhythmic vocal hook within each verse, unlike in most Four Seasons singles, falsetto singing is muted except in the Coda section by Frankie Valli

Brian Goss

Brian Goss is an American guitarist and composer, known for being a member of the bands Dripping Goss and Warzone. He is the guitarist for The Noise. Not conforming to any strict style, Goss has contributed to the hardcore and acid rock scenes throughout the late eighties and nineties. Goss has been a longtime musical collaborator with Simon Felice and has played with members of Television, Guns N' Roses and The Misfits. Goss grew up in the Catskill Mountains in New York. Raised by his mother and step-father, after his father left when he was 2, Goss’ introduction to music came from the vast record collections and music knowledge of his three older brothers. After his older brother Robert moved to London, Goss would receive tapes in the mail by artists like Joy Division and The Birthday Party, which only seemed to seal his fate as a career musician. At the age of 9, Goss began to teach himself; when Robert returned from London, he began to introduce Goss to live music by taking him to the Pyramid Club and after-hours parties at Save The Robots.

Another brother, worked at The Ritz and was a roadie for The Ramones. Music played a prominent role in his upbringing, with much of his youth devoted to tape trading, record collecting as well as forming a series of shortly lived bands. Goss made his foray into music while still at high school, releasing his first album when he was only 17. Goss formed his first successful band with his brothers Robert and Tommy and lifelong friend, Michael Billera in 1987. While the band remained in Palenville for their first year, in 1988 they moved to New York City. Upon moving to New York, they took up residence in the abandoned Talking Heads loft in Long Island City, they found themselves at the heart of the burgeoning industrial noise scene and they signed with Bob Mould’s, label SOL records. In 1988 they released their first single, Wacked. With New York experiencing the final throws of its famous punk movement, the band cut their teeth on the Lower East Side, at clubs like the Pyramid Club, CBGB, Downtown Beirut and The Lismar Lounge.

While the Warm Jets only lasted for two years, their short existence in New York had put them on the map, evidenced by the fact that during this time they played on the same bill as bands like The Ramones, Pussy Galore, Circle X, Live Skull and with Jane’s Addiction on their 1989 Nothing’s Shocking tour. The band split up in 1989. Two years after Tom Goss left, the brothers reunited to form the most successful band of their musical partnership, Dripping Goss. Goss described the band’s sound in an interview by saying: "I always thought of Dripping Goss as an acid rock band, always; that was the idea. They called it "stoner rock" but we were more acid."With Goss on both guitar and vocals, Tom on drums and long-time friend Tony Ricci on bass, Dripping Goss released their 1991 debut album Flake. Released on BTG Records, Flake was described as "a manifestation of acid rock brilliance". While touring to promote Flake, Tony Ricci was fired as bass player, he was replaced by roadie, former go-kart driver, Dan Souza.

After returning from the tour, the band took to the studio to record again. This time Souza moved to guitar duties, in a partnership with Goss that would last for the rest of the band's life, Chuck Valle from the band Murphy's Law moved to the vacant spot on bass. With this lineup, Dripping Goss were able to make music more potent, their next release was the Shifter EP, popular among the underground tape-trading scene that existed in the early nineties. However, on 17 July 1994, Valle died after being stabbed in California; the album that followed was the 1995 album, Blowtorch Consequence, which used a minimalist and atmospheric feel to address the themes of mourning and loss. The tour that followed would see the band play with the likes of Fugazi but lead to the band's partial dissolution. After the unexpected resignation of Tommy Goss at the tour's end, Dripping Goss had only two members left - Goss and Dan Souza; this led to Goss taking some time away from the band. By the time Goss started the band again, they had been dropped by their label, Another Planet Records, but after adding Curt Steyer on bass and Frank Ferrer, shortly replaced by Tobias Ralph on drums, they were signed to IndieCent Magazine's label Popsmart Records.

Their next release, Gift Of Demise EP, was a stronger collaborative effort between Goss and Souza and featured arguably the band's most famous song Before The Fall. Lorne Behrman referenced the song in her short story Bummertime Blues, featured in the Village Voice, in a scene where one character recommends it to another, the scene reads: "So you'd dig the dissonant jiggle of Dripping Goss's'Before the Fall.' The verses were a bit arty, but the chunky breakdowns and spacey outro jam were smokin’."For, what would be their last release, the band recorded at IWII Studios in New Jersey. The 1998 album called Blue Collar, Black Future was engineered by Roy Cicala, produced by Genya Ravan; the album’s cover featured a photo by Mick Rock. It was rehearsed in something of a psychedelic sanctuary; the importance of this space was summed up by Goss when he said: "For me, to hear the record and listen to it, it smells like the room". In their review, All Music said of the album: "Don't expect to get this one in a single spin.

Doug Williams (quarterback)

Douglas Lee Williams is an American football executive and former quarterback and coach. Williams is best known for his performance with the Washington Redskins in Super Bowl XXII against the Denver Broncos, being named Super Bowl MVP for his efforts, he passed for 340 yards and four touchdowns, a single-quarter record which he set in the second quarter, to win the game, making him the first African-American quarterback to win a Super Bowl. Following his playing career, Williams began coaching after his playing career, most notably serving as the head coach of the Grambling State Tigers. In addition to being a coach, Williams has been a team executive for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Virginia Destroyers, Redskins. Williams attended Grambling State University, where he played for legendary head coach Eddie Robinson. Williams guided the Tigers to a 36–7 record as a four-year starter, led the Tigers to three Southwestern Athletic Conference Championships. Williams was named Black College Player of the Year twice.

In 1977, Williams led the NCAA in several categories, including total yards from scrimmage, passing yards, touchdown passes, yards per play. Williams finished fourth in the Heisman Trophy voting, behind Earl Campbell, Terry Miller, Ken MacAfee. Williams graduated from Grambling with a bachelor's degree in education, he began work on his master's degree before the 1978 NFL Draft. Despite the success that he enjoyed on the field, Tampa Bay Buccaneers offensive coordinator Joe Gibbs was the only NFL coach that visited Williams to work him out and scout him. Gibbs spent two days with the 6 ft 4 in, 220 lb quarterback, reviewing play books and going through passing drills. Impressed by his poise, work ethic, studious nature, Gibbs rated Williams as the best quarterback in the draft, writing in his scouting report that Williams had “a big-time arm with perfect passing mechanics” and was “a natural leader...very academic and smart,” and recommended that the Buccaneers select Williams with their first-round draft choice.

Following the recommendation of Gibbs, Tampa Bay drafted Williams in the first round of the 1978 NFL Draft. Williams became the first African-American quarterback taken in the first round of an NFL draft, his first preseason pass, a 75-yard incompletion that sailed 10 yards past receiver Isaac Hagins, drew a standing ovation from the Tampa Stadium crowd. He was the first quarterback in Buccaneer history capable of throwing long passes downfield; the team, who had won just two games in the first two years of the franchise, went to the playoffs three times in five seasons with Williams as starter and played in the 1979 NFC Championship Game. During his time in Tampa Williams improved his completion percentage each season. Williams was the only starting African-American quarterback in the NFL at that time. During his tenure with the Buccaneers, Williams was paid $120,000 a year, the lowest salary for a starting quarterback in the league, less than the salary of 12 backups. After the 1982 season, Williams asked for a $600,000 contract.

Bucs owner Hugh Culverhouse refused to budge from his initial offer of $400,000 despite protests from coach John McKay. Feeling that Culverhouse was not paying him what a starter should earn, Williams bolted to the upstart United States Football League’s Oklahoma Outlaws; the next season the Bucs went 2–14, did not make the playoffs again until the 1997 season fourteen years later. Tampa Bay lost ten games in every season but one in that stretch. Culverhouse’s willingness to let Williams walk away over such a small amount of money was seen as insensitive as it came only months after Williams’ wife Janice died of an aneurysm. In 1984, Williams led the Outlaws of the USFL in passing, completing 261 out of 528 passes for 3,084 yards and 15 touchdowns. However, he threw 21 interceptions. In 1985, the team moved to Arizona and merged with the Arizona Wranglers to become the Arizona Outlaws, Williams showed some improvement, completing 271 out of 509 passes for 3,673 yards with 21 touchdowns and 17 interceptions.

After the USFL was shut down in 1986, Williams returned to the NFL. He was reunited with his former offensive coordinator, Joe Gibbs, now the team's head coach. Williams served as the backup for starting quarterback Jay Schroeder, but after Schroeder became injured, Williams stepped in and led the Redskins to an opening-day victory against the Philadelphia Eagles in the 1987 season. Williams and Schroeder had a somewhat chilly relationship, stemming from Schroeder ordering Williams to get off the field when the Redskins thought he was injured in the 1986 NFC title game and sent Williams to substitute for him, the team's veterans preferred Williams over Schroeder as the team's quarterback, it would be one of three times in 1987 that Williams substituted for Schroeder and led the team to victory. Williams only started September 20 at Atlanta and November 23 against the Rams. While both starts were losses, at the end of the season, when the Redskins had qualified for the playoffs, with his 94.0 passer rating, was chosen as the starter.

He led the team to Super Bowl XXII in which they routed the Denver Broncos, becoming the first black quarterback to win a Super Bowl. According to legend, Williams was asked this question on Media Day: “How long have you been a black quarterback?” He replied, “I’ve been a quarterback since high school, I’ve been black all my life.” The story is untrue, but Williams says he still gets asked