Green Line "B" Branch
One of four branches of the Green Line, the B Branch runs from Boston College station down the median of Commonwealth Avenue to Blandford Street. There, it enters Blandford Street Portal into Kenmore station, where it merges with the C and D branches, the combined services run into the Boylston Street Subway and Tremont Street Subway to downtown Boston. As of 2016, B Branch service terminates at Park Street, the Green Line Rivalry between Boston College and Boston University is named in reference to the B Branch, which runs to both universities. Trains between Lake Street and downtown Boston used tracks on Beacon Street, now part of the C Branch, from Kenmore Square they continued east on Beacon Street, turned south on Massachusetts Avenue and east on Boylston Street to Park Square. In 1900 tracks were installed on the rest of Commonwealth Avenue and this enabled trains to use Commonwealth Avenue between Lake Street and Kenmore Square. In 1909, the tracks were electrified, the Boylston Street Subway opened on October 3,1914, extending the underground portion to the Kenmore Incline just east of Kenmore Square.
On October 23,1932 the Blandford Street Incline opened along with the underground Kenmore station, a turnback loop at Boston University Field was present from 1915 to January 14,1962. It was used for service to special events as well as to short-turn some rush hour trains, from 1942 to 1967, the route was known by the map number of 62. In 1967, the lines were given colors and the Green Line branches were lettered, the Commonwealth Avenue Line became the B Branch. Until 1931, the line looped at Park Street. On February 7 of that year, the Commonwealth Avenue service was extended east through downtown to loop at Lechmere, the line has 27 level crossings and 18 stops on the surface section. In late 2003, the MBTA proposed eliminating five surface stops as part of a project to improve the line, the five stops were chosen because they had low ridership and were located very close to other stations. After a public comment period, Chiswick Road was removed from the proposal, on April 20,2004, the other four stops were closed as a 6-to-8-month pilot program.
On March 15,2005, after a survey showed that 73% of 1,142 riders surveyed approved of the closures, the MBTA board voted to make the closures permanent. The four stops, which are not handicapped-accessible, would be turned into two fully accessible stops as part of a redesign of Commonwealth Avenue between the BU Bridge and Packards Corner. Trains on the B Branch only travel from Park Street to Boston College, the segment from Park Street to Kenmore is shared with the three other branches. There is no MBTA parking at any B Branch stations, MBTA - Green Line B Branch
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, and is a part of the Boston metropolitan area. According to the 2010 Census, the population was 105,162. As of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Springfield, Cambridge was one of the two seats of Middlesex County prior to the abolition of county government in 1997, Lowell was the other. The site for what would become Cambridge was chosen in December 1630, because it was located safely upriver from Boston Harbor, Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, and her husband Simon, were among the first settlers of the town. The first houses were built in the spring of 1631, the settlement was initially referred to as the newe towne. Official Massachusetts records show the name capitalized as Newe Towne by 1632, the original village site is in the heart of todays Harvard Square. In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge itself to the city of Boston were pursued and rejected, in 1636, the Newe College was founded by the colony to train ministers.
Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court primarily—according to Cotton Mather—to be near the popular, in May 1638 the name of the settlement was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Hooker and Shepard, Newtownes ministers, and the colleges first president, major benefactor, in 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, which was known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. It was Governor Thomas Dudley who, in 1650, signed the charter creating the corporation which still governs Harvard College, Cambridge grew slowly as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the capital of the colony. By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with farms and estates comprising most of the town. Coming up from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3,1775, most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution.
On January 24,1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, a second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were formerly estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts, in the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution when it gave the country a new identity through poetry and literature. Cambridge was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would often be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires, the Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes—were highly popular and influential in their day. Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846, the citys commercial center began to shift from Harvard Square to Central Square, which became the downtown of the city around this time. The coming of the railroad to North Cambridge and Northwest Cambridge led to three changes in the city, the development of massive brickyards and brickworks between Massachusetts Ave.
For many decades, the citys largest employer was the New England Glass Company, by the middle of the 19th century it was the largest and most modern glassworks in the world
American Revolutionary War
From about 1765 the American Revolution had led to increasing philosophical and political differences between Great Britain and its American colonies. The war represented a culmination of these differences in armed conflict between Patriots and the authority which they increasingly resisted. This resistance became particularly widespread in the New England Colonies, especially in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On December 16,1773, Massachusetts members of the Patriot group Sons of Liberty destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor in an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Named the Coercive Acts by Parliament, these became known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees, British attempts to seize the munitions of Massachusetts colonists in April 1775 led to the first open combat between Crown forces and Massachusetts militia, the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776, the Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec, on July 2,1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began a British counterattack, focussing on recapturing New York City, Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington captured a Hessian force at Trenton and drove the British out of New Jersey, in 1777 the British sent a new army under John Burgoyne to move south from Canada and to isolate the New England colonies. However, instead of assisting Burgoyne, Howe took his army on a campaign against the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia. Burgoyne outran his supplies, was surrounded and surrendered at Saratoga in October 1777, the British defeat in the Saratoga Campaign had drastic consequences.
Giving up on the North, the British decided to salvage their former colonies in the South, British forces under Lieutenant-General Charles Cornwallis seized Georgia and South Carolina, capturing an American army at Charleston, South Carolina. British strategy depended upon an uprising of large numbers of armed Loyalists, in 1779 Spain joined the war as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille, intending to capture Gibraltar and British colonies in the Caribbean. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in December 1780, in 1781, after the British and their allies had suffered two decisive defeats at Kings Mountain and Cowpens, Cornwallis retreated to Virginia, intending on evacuation. A decisive French naval victory in September deprived the British of an escape route, a joint Franco-American army led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, laid siege to the British forces at Yorktown. With no sign of relief and the situation untenable, Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781, Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tory majority in Parliament, but the defeat at Yorktown gave the Whigs the upper hand
The Charles River is an 80 mi long river in eastern Massachusetts. From its source in Hopkinton the river flows in a direction, traveling through 23 cities. Thirty-three lakes and ponds and 35 municipalities are entirely or partially part of the Charles River drainage basin, despite the rivers length and relatively large drainage area, its source is only 26 miles from its mouth, and the river drops only 350 feet from source to sea. The Charles River watershed contains more than 8,000 acres of protected wetlands and these areas are important in preventing downstream flooding and providing natural habitats to native species. Brandeis University, Harvard University, Boston University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are located along the Charles River, near its mouth, it forms the border between downtown Boston and Cambridge and Charlestown. The river opens into a basin and is lined by the parks of the Charles River Reservation. On the Charles River Esplanade stands the Hatch Shell, where concerts are given in summer evenings, the basin is especially known for its Independence Day celebration.
The river is known for its rowing, dragonboating. The river may be kayaked, depending on the season, kayakers can only navigate the Charles by getting out, the Lower Basin between the Longfellow and Harvard bridges is home to Community Boating, the Harvard University Sailing Center, and the MIT Sailing Pavilion. The Head of the Charles Regatta is held here every October, in early June, the annual Hong Kong Boston Dragon boat Festival is held in Cambridge, near the Weeks Footbridge. The Charles River Bike Path runs 23 miles along the banks of the Charles, starting at the Museum of Science and passing the campuses of MIT, the path is popular with runners and bikers. Many runners gauge their distance and speed by keeping track of the mileage between the bridges along the route, for several years, the Charles River Speedway operated along part of the river. On July 13,2013, swimming for the public was permitted for the first time in more than 50 years. The rivers name, preceding the English version, was thought to be Quinobequin, though that attribution has been discredited by, among others.
The river was used by Native Americans for local transportation and fishing, when Smith presented his map to Charles I he suggested that the king should feel free to change any of the barbarous names for English ones. The king made such changes, but only four survive today. In portions of its length, the Charles drops slowly in elevation and has relatively little current, despite this, early settlers in Dedham, found a way to use the Charles to power mills. In 1639, the town dug a canal from the Charles to a brook that drained to the Neponset River
Central Square, Cambridge
Central Square is an area in Cambridge, Massachusetts centered on the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Prospect Street and Western Avenue. Lafayette Square, formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Columbia Street, Sidney Street, harvard Square is to the northwest along Massachusetts Avenue, Inman Square is to the north along Prospect Street and Kendall Square is to the east along Main Street. Central Square was designated an official Cultural District in the state of Massachusetts by the Mass Cultural Council in October 2012, Central Square is known for its wide variety of ethnic restaurants, churches and live music and theatre venues. It is gentrifying rapidly, and a number of restaurants have opened in the Square. Some critics have claimed that the recent changes have diminished the Squares edge, there is a diverse array of houses of worship in the area, with Christ the King Presbyterian Church, First Baptist Church, Sts. Constantine & Helen Greek Orthodox Church, St. Pauls African Methodist Episcopal Church, Central Squares history has been marked by several waves of immigration.
The original population of the Square included people of English and Canadian ancestry, between 1850 and 1890, the Square attracted many Irish immigrants, and in the late Nineteenth Century became home to many others from throughout Europe. Later waves of immigration included people from the West Indies, South America and Africa, Central Square is the original home of actor Ben Affleck and, from 1927 to 2003, the Necco factory. The old Necco factory building in Cambridge is now used for labs by Novartis, several Cambridge neighborhoods meet at Central Square. To the east, Area 4 lies on the side of Massachusetts Avenue. Both of these neighborhoods were once known as The Port or Old Port region of Cambridge, the area to the west and northwest of Central Square is known as Mid-Cambridge. Central Square is accessible from Central station on the MBTA Red Line, as well as Buses 1,64,70,83, and 91. The intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and Brookline in front of The Middle East in Central Square is named in honor of the indie rock musician Mark Sandman.
Central Square serves as the center for the surrounding neighborhoods of Cambridgeport, Mid Cambridge, Area 4. Central Square is the seat of government in Cambridge, Cambridge City Hall, and the main branch of the Cambridge Post Office are located in this area. T. The Bears Central Square, by George Packer
Meat packing industry
The meat packing industry handles the slaughtering, processing and distribution of animals such as cattle, pigs and other livestock. An abattoir is a place where animals are slaughtered for food, the meat packing industry grew with the construction of the railroads and methods of refrigeration for meat preservation. Railroads made possible the transport of stock to central points for processing, in the early part of the 19th century, they used the most recent immigrants and migrants as strikebreakers in labor actions taken by other workers, usually immigrants or early descendants. Meat packing plants, like many industries in the early 20th century, were known to overwork their employees, failed to maintain adequate safety measures, and actively fought unionization. Before the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act, workers were exposed to chemicals, sharp machinery. In the 1920s and early 1930s, workers achieved unionization under the CIOs United Packinghouse Workers of America, UPWA workers made important gains in wages and benefits.
In 1957 the stockyards and meat packing employed half the workers of Omaha, the union supported a progressive agenda, including the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. While the work was difficult, for a few decades workers achieved blue-collar. It has been difficult for labor to organize in such locations, in addition, the number of jobs fell through sharply due to technology and other changes. Wages fell during the part of the 20th century, and eventually. Though the meat packing industry has made many improvements since the early 1900s, the meatpacking industry continues to employ many immigrant laborers, including some who are undocumented workers. In the early 20th century the workers were immigrants from eastern and southern Europe, today many are Hispanic, from Mexico and South America. Many are from Peru, leading to the formation of a large Peruvian community, the more isolated areas in which the plants are located put workers at greater risk due to their limited ability to organize and to seek redress for work-related injuries. A.
Competition and Regulation, The Development of Oligopoly in the Meat Packing Industry, NOW on PBS – Meatpacking in the U. S. Meat Packing Industry Has Responsibility to Reform Beefs Raw Edges
Native Americans in the United States
In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the countrys modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of distinct tribes and ethnic groups. Most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, at the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal, the majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations, during the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement.
Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands and this resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains and these were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, in 1924, Native Americans who were not already U. S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial, by comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and these early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.
The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book Method and they divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases, see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culture, a hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, the Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B. P, other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River.
Genetic and linguistic data connect the people of this continent with ancient northeast Asians
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County, although the county government was disbanded on July 1,1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles with a population of 667,137 in 2015, making it the largest city in New England. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.1 million people, One of the oldest cities in the United States, Boston was founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England. It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education, through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the original peninsula. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing over 20 million visitors per year, Bostons many firsts include the United States first public school, Boston Latin School, first subway system, the Tremont Street Subway, and first public park, Boston Common.
Bostons economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings. Bostons early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the renaming on September 7,1630 was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water. Their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC, in 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colonys first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history, over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.
Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century, Bostons harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Bostons merchants had found alternatives for their investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the economy, and the citys industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston remained one of the nations largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, a network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a network of railroads furthered the regions industry. Boston was a port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies
Service on the line is a mix of local and express trains serving Worcester plus short-turn Framingham locals. The Framingham/Worcester Line was one of the first commuter rail lines, since 2014 service has been operated by Keolis North America. In 1975 the line was cut back to Framingham, but service returned to Worcester in 1994 with four stations added between 2000 and 2002. After purchasing the Framingham-Worcester trackage from CSX in 2012, the MBTA has begun adding service to the section of the line and performing track work to increase speeds. Two new stations are planned, Boston Landing in Brighton opening in 2016, all stations from Yawkey east and West Natick west are handicapped accessible, those in between are not. Boston Landing and West Station will both be fully handicapped accessible, originally built in 1834 as the Boston and Worcester Railroad, the line was part of the Boston and Albany Railroad and New York Central Railroad systems. Construction ran from 1962 to 1964, and reduced the railway to two tracks, the New York Central was merged into Penn Central Transportation in 1968, which went bankrupt in 1970.
Amtrak was created in 1971 to take over intercity service from the private railroads. When Amtrak started operations on May 1,1971, no intercity service was kept on the line, thus ending direct connections from Boston to Springfield, Pittsfield, in mid-May, Amtrak added the Boston-New Haven Bay State. The train struggled to find consistent ridership, with frequent changes of schedule, in 1973, the westbound trip operated as a quasi-commuter train. The Bay State was canceled on March 1,1975, on January 27,1973, the MBTA acquired the remainder of the tracks east of Framingham, and began subsidizing service between Framingham and Boston. Commuter rail service between Worcester and Framingham was not subsidized by the MBTA, with just ten riders per day riding from Worcester, Amtrak began operating a Boston-Albany section of the Lake Shore Limited four days later. Boston-New Haven service was restored under the Bay State name in 1984, MBTA commuter rail service expanded to Worcester on September 26,1994 with limited rush-hour-only service.
Off-peak service was added beginning on December 14,1996, Worcester Union Station underwent a major renovation in 2000, and in 2006 the citys main bus terminal was co-located at the train station. Infill stations at Ashland, Southborough and Grafton were added in 2000 and 2002, for a variety of reasons, the line had some of the worst on-time performance in the MBTA system for several years. CSX dispatched on the line from their operations base in Selkirk, New York, in 2007, pessimistic that CSX would ever sell the line, the state Executive Office of Transportation began studying alternatives to improve service. In October 2007, only 48. 4% of trains ran on time, improving to 69. 3% in January 2008 after CSX, on February 18,2008, a new schedule went into effect, intended to more accurately reflect the run time on the line. By August 2009, actual performance was at 82%
John Eliot (missionary)
John Eliot was a Puritan missionary to the American Indians whom some called “the apostle to the Indians” and the founder of Roxbury Latin School in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1645. John Eliot was born in Widford, Hertfordshire and lived at Nazeing as a boy, after college, he became assistant to Thomas Hooker at a private school at Little Baddow, Essex. After Hooker was forced to flee to Holland, Eliot emigrated to Boston, arranging passage as chaplain on the ship Lyon, Eliot became minister and teaching elder at the First Church in Roxbury. From 1637 to 1638 Eliot participated in both the civil and church trials of Anne Hutchinson during the Antinomian Controversy, Eliot disapproved of Hutchinsons views and actions, and was one of the two ministers representing Roxbury in the proceedings which led to her excommunication and exile. In 1645, Eliot founded the Roxbury Latin School, from 1649 to 1674, Samuel Danforth assisted Eliot in his Roxbury ministry. There are many connections between the towns of Roxbury and Dorchester and John Eliot and he was the teacher at The First Church in Roxbury for sixty years and was their sole pastor for forty years.
For the first forty years in Roxbury, Eliot preached in the 20 by 30 foot meetinghouse with thatched roof, Eliot founded the Roxbury Grammar School and he worked hard to keep it prosperous and relevant. Eliot preached at times in the Dorchester church, he was given land by Dorchester for use in his missionary efforts, and in 1649 he gave half of a donation he received from a man in London to the schoolmaster of Dorchester. The chief barrier to preaching to the natives was language, sign language and pidgin English were used for trade but could not be used to convey a sermon. John Eliot began to study Algonquin which was the language of the local Indians, to help him with this task, Eliot relied on a young native Indian named Cockenoe. Cockenoe could not write but he could speak Algonquin and English, with his help, Eliot was able to translate the Ten Commandments, the Lords Prayer and other scriptures and prayers. The first time Eliot attempted to preach to the Indians in 1646 at Dorchester Mills, he failed and said that they, gave no heed unto it, but were weary and despised what I said.
The second time he preached to the Indians was at the wigwam of Waban near Watertown Mill which was called Nonantum, now Newton, MA. John Eliot was not the first Puritan missionary to try to convert the Indians to Christianity and this was important because the settlements of praying indians could be provided with other preachers and teachers to continue the work John Eliot started. By translating sermons to the Algonquin language, John Eliot brought the Indians an understanding of Christianity and they did not have an equivalent written “alphabet” of their own and relied mainly on spoken language and pictorial language. An important part of Eliots ministry focused on the conversion of Massachusett Indians, Eliot translated the Bible into the Massachusett language and published it in 1663 as Mamusse Wunneetupanatamwe Up-Biblum God. It was the first complete bible printed in the Western hemisphere, in 1666, Eliot published The Indian Grammar Begun, again concerning the Massachusett language.
As a missionary, Eliot strove to consolidate Native Americans in planned towns, at one point, there were 14 towns of so-called Praying Indians, the best documented being at Natick, Massachusetts