Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union known as the North, referred to the United States of America and to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America known as "the Confederacy" or "the South". All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the United States Army, though the border areas sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy; the Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them Maryland, which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D. C.. The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war; the Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, training camps.
Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican Party governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion in 1863–64; the Democratic Party supported the war at the beginning in 1861 but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the "Copperheads". The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New York, they lost ground in 1863 in Ohio. In 1864, the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against opposition candidate George B. McClellan, former General-in-Chief of the Union Army and its eastern Army of the Potomac; the war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an new national banking system.
The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers' wives and orphans, for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered in order to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states and localities. Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of July 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, "the South"; the Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained a part of the United States of America. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which recognized the Confederate government; the term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
The subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union...". Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV, Section 3. Before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. Using the term "Union" to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the pre-existing political entity. Confederates saw the Union states as being opposed to slavery referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U. S. Navy as the "Abolition fleet" and the U. S. Army as the "Abolition forces". Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, more advanced commercial and financial systems than the rural South. Additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war.
Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, to protect railroads and other vital points; the Union's great advantages in population and industry would prove to be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union a long while to mobilize these resources. The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian, Allan Nevins, says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment... Anger swept the land. From every side came news of mass meetings, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures. McClintock states: At the time, Northerners were right to wonder at the near unanimity that so followed long months of bitterness and discord.
It would not last throughout the protracted war to come – or through the year – but in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism hidden by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena." Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war grou
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
St. Louis Cardinals
The St. Louis Cardinals are an American professional baseball team based in St. Louis, Missouri; the Cardinals compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division. Busch Stadium has been their home ballpark since 2006. One of the most successful franchises in baseball history, the Cardinals have won 11 World Series championships, the second-most in Major League Baseball and the most in the National League, their 19 National League pennants rank third in NL history. In addition, St. Louis has won 13 division titles in the Central divisions. While still in the old American Association, named as the St. Louis Browns, the team won four AA league championships, qualifying them to play in the professional baseball championship tournament of that era, they tied in 1885 and won outright in 1886 and lost in 1888 for the early trophy Hall Cup versus the New York Giants. The others both times against the Chicago Cubs, in the first meetings of the Cardinals–Cubs rivalry between nearby cities of St. Louis and Chicago that continues to this day.
With origins as one of the early professional baseball clubs in St. Louis and the nation, entrepreneur Chris von der Ahe purchased a barnstorming club in 1881 known as the Brown Stockings, established them as charter members of the old American Association base ball league which played 1882 to 1891, the following season. Upon the discontinuation of the AA, St. Louis joined the continuing National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs known as the National League, in 1892. Cardinals achievements that have impacted MLB and sports events in general include manager/owner Branch Rickey's pioneering of the farm system, Rogers Hornsby's two batting Triple Crowns, Dizzy Dean's 30-win season in 1934, Stan Musial's 17 MLB and 29 NL records, Bob Gibson's 1.12 earned run average in 1968, Whitey Herzog's Whiteyball, Mark McGwire breaking the single-season home run record in 1998, the 2011 championship team's unprecedented comebacks. The Cardinals have won 105 or more games in four different seasons and won 100 or more a total of nine times.
Cardinals players have won 20 league MVPs, four batting Triple Crowns, three Cy Young Awards. Baseball Hall of Fame inductees include Lou Brock, Dizzy Dean, Bob Gibson, Whitey Herzog, Rogers Hornsby, Joe Medwick, Stan Musial, Branch Rickey, Red Schoendienst, Ozzie Smith, Bruce Sutter. In 2018, Forbes valued the Cardinals at $1.9 billion, making them the 7th-most valuable franchise in MLB. Since their purchase in 1995, owner William DeWitt, Jr.'s investment group has seen enormous growth from the $147 million purchase price. John Mozeliak is the President of Baseball Operations, Mike Girsch is the general manager and Mike Shildt is the manager; the Cardinals are renowned for their strong fan support: despite being in one of the sport's mid-level markets, they see attendances among the league's highest, are among the Top 3 in MLB in local television ratings. Professional baseball began in St. Louis with the inception of the Brown Stockings in the National Association in 1875; the NA folded following that season, the next season, St. Louis joined the National League as a charter member, finishing in third place at 45-19.
George Bradley hurled the first no-hitter in Major League history. The NL expelled St. Louis from the league after 1877 due to a game-fixing scandal and the team went bankrupt. Without a league, they continued play as a semi-professional barnstorming team through 1881; the magnitudes of the reorganizations following the 1877 and 1881 seasons are such that the 1875–1877 and 1878–1881 Brown Stockings teams are not considered to share continuity as a franchise with the current St. Louis Cardinals. For the 1882 season, Chris von der Ahe purchased the team, reorganized it, made it a founding member of the American Association, a league to rival the NL. 1882 is considered to be the first year existence of the St. Louis Cardinals; the next season, St. Louis shortened their name to the Browns. Soon thereafter they became the dominant team in the AA, as manager Charlie Comiskey guided St. Louis to four pennants in a row from 1885 to 1888. Pitcher and outfielder Bob Caruthers led the league in ERA and wins in 1885 and finished in the top six in both in each of the following two seasons.
He led the AA in OBP and OPS in 1886 and finished fourth in batting average in 1886 and fifth in 1887. Outfielder Tip O'Neill won the first batting triple crown in franchise history in 1887 and the only one in AA history. By winning the pennant, the Browns played the NL pennant winner in a predecessor of the World Series; the Browns twice met the Chicago White Stockings – the Chicago Cubs prototype – tying one in a heated dispute and winning the other, thus spurring the vigorous St. Louis-Chicago rivalry that ensues to this day. During the franchise's ten seasons in the AA, they compiled an all-time league-high of 780 wins and.639 winning percentage. They lost just 432 contests while tying 21 others; the AA went bankrupt after the 1891 season and the Browns transferred to the National League. This time, the club entered an era of stark futility. Between 1892 and 1919, St. Louis managed just five winning seasons, finis
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Jason Derik Isringhausen is an American former professional baseball pitcher and coach. He pitched in Major League Baseball from 1995 through 2012 for the New York Mets, Oakland Athletics, St. Louis Cardinals, Tampa Bay Rays, Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. Isringhausen was, with Bill Pulsipher and Paul Wilson, a member of "Generation K", a group of regarded Mets prospects. Isringhausen proceeded to have a successful career as a relief pitcher, recording 300 career saves, he was a two-time All-Star and led the National League in saves in 2004. Isringhausen was chosen as a draft-and-follow prospect by the New York Mets in the 44th round of the 1991 Major League Baseball draft, he signed in May 1992. In the mid-1990s, along with pitchers Bill Pulsipher and Paul Wilson were all hyped as the next generation of New York Mets' superstars, despite all being in the minor leagues; the group received considerable press attention and the nickname "Generation K". However, injuries took their toll and 1995 was the first year that all three started the season healthy.
Isringhausen began his career as a starter for the Mets near the end of the season, posting a 9–2 record in 14 starts. But a steady progression of serious injuries, including tuberculosis, a broken wrist and three major operations on his pitching arm, derailed his progression into a major-league rotation, he was forced to miss most of the 1997 season, as well as the entire 1998 season. When he was healthy in 1999, he was moved to the bullpen after only five starts. After inconsistent play with the Mets, he was traded to the Oakland Athletics at the trading deadline for reliever Billy Taylor. Mets manager Bobby Valentine was reluctant to use Isringhausen in relief, saying that it would be akin to " an Indy car as a taxi." As a relief pitcher and closer for the Athletics, Isringhausen's performance improved. Isringhausen established himself as a top closer with Oakland, as the A's made the playoffs in 2000 and 2001. Isringhausen earned his first selection to the All-Star game in 2000. Isringhausen signed with the Cardinals as a free agent before the 2002 season.
During Isringhausen's time with the team, the Cardinals won the Central Division in 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006 with World Series appearances in 2004 and 2006, winning the World Series in 2006. He registered a league-leading 47 saves in 2004, tying the franchise record which Lee Smith set, until Trevor Rosenthal broke the record in 2015, he was an All-Star and posted a 2.14 earned run average with 39 saves in 2005 as the Cardinals won 100 games. The saves total was fifth in the NL. Despite this success, Isringhausen's 2006 season began with two losses and a blown save in his first five appearances, he struggled with control problems throughout the season, leading to 38 walks and a 3.55 ERA, his highest ERA as a closer since the 2000 season, in which his ERA was 3.78. Isringhausen finished the season with a 4–8 record and 33 saves along with 10 blown saves, he missed the entire 2006 playoffs due to a hip injury, allowing rookie Adam Wainwright to become the Cardinals' closer for the playoffs and that team's World Series Championship.
During the 2006 off-season, Isringhausen underwent his second hip surgery in two years. With Wainwright slotted into the rotation, Isringhausen was returned to the closer role to begin 2007. Isringhausen responded by notching career numbers in 2007, posting a 4–0 record, 2.48 ERA, 32 saves while walking 28, striking out 54, giving up only four home runs in 631⁄3 innings pitched, appearing in 63 games. Batters hit.179 against him. On September 25, 2007, Isringhausen was named as one of 10 finalists for the "DHL Presents the Major League Baseball Delivery Man of the Year Award". On May 10, 2008, manager Tony La Russa removed Isringhausen as the club's closer. On July 29, 2008, La Russa announced. On August 19, 2008, Isringhausen left the team due to a torn tendon. On February 20, 2009, Isringhausen signed a minor league deal with the Tampa Bay Rays with an invitation to spring training. On April 1, 2009, Isringhausen was added to the 40-man roster of the Rays, began the season on the disabled list.
Once activated, Jason pitched in nine games before it was announced on June 13 that he tore a ligament in the surgically repaired right elbow and would miss the rest of the season to undergo Tommy John surgery. On July 20, 2010, Isringhausen pitched a bullpen session for the Cincinnati Reds, he impressed both pitching coach Bryan Price and former Cardinals and current Reds General Manager Walt Jocketty enough that the Reds prepared a contract offer for Isringhausen. On July 22, 2010, Isringhausen agreed to terms with a minor league contract with the Cincinnati Reds. Isringhausen signed a minor league contract with an invitation to spring training for the 2011 season, he began the season in extended spring training, but was promoted to the Mets on April 10. He had a good outing in his first game, against the Colorado Rockies, he retired both batters he faced. His return marked him as the only pitcher in major league history to return to the mound following a third Tommy John operation, he was being used as the 8th inning setup pitcher for the Mets until previous closer Francisco Rodriguez was traded to the Milwaukee Brewers.
Isringhausen was moved to the closer's role. On July 19, 2011, he picked up his first save since 2008. On August 15, 2011, Isring
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Bushrod Rust Johnson was a Confederate general in the American Civil War and an officer in the United States Army. As a university professor he had been active in the state militias of Kentucky and Tennessee and on the outbreak of hostilities he sided with the South, despite having been born in the North; as a divisional commander he managed to evade capture at the Battle of Fort Donelson, but was wounded at the Battle of Shiloh. He served under Robert E. Lee throughout the 10-month Siege of Petersburg, surrendered with him at Appomattox. Johnson was born in Ohio, he was raised as a Quaker and, before moving to the South, worked on the Underground Railroad with his uncle. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1840 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 3rd U. S. Infantry, he fought in the Seminole War in the Mexican -- American War. He was forced to resign from the Army in October 1847 after being accused of selling contraband goods, he worked as a professor of natural philosophy and chemistry at the Western Military Institute, Georgetown and professor of mathematics and engineering at the University of Nashville.
During this period he was active in the state militias of Kentucky and Tennessee, rising to the rank of colonel. His wife Mary died prior to the war of natural causes. After the start of the Civil War, Johnson entered the service June 28, 1861, as a colonel of engineers in the Tennessee Militia, a week this commission was changed to be in the Confederate States Army. Before his wartime service he went north and left his developmentally disabled son in the care of relatives, he approved the locations of two new river-defenses, Fort Donelson on the west bank of the Cumberland River in Tennessee and Fort Henry on the low and flood-prone east bank of the Tennessee River, just 12 miles west of Fort Donelson and located in Tennessee. Johnson was promoted to brigadier general on January 24, 1862. Fort Henry would turn out to be a disastrous location on swampy ground flooded, captured by U. S. Grant. In approving the proposed site for Fort Henry, Johnson overruled vigorous objections to the proposed site from the two members of the Confederate survey team, Adna Anderson, a civil engineer, Maj. William Foster of the Tennessee 1st Infantry.
Just days before the Battle of Fort Donelson he was placed in command of the fort but served in that capacity only as the higher ranking Brig. Gen. Gideon J. Pillow arrived only hours after Johnson assumed command, he commanded a division of the army at Donelson, but was overshadowed by the more politically astute Pillow, who led the wing in a fierce assault in an attempt to break out and escape from the encircled fort. The fort and its army surrendered to Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant on February 16, 1862, but two days Johnson was able to walk unimpeded out through the porous Union Army lines and escaped capture. Johnson commanded a brigade of the Army of Mississippi at the Battle of Shiloh, on the second day of battle, April 7, 1862, he became the division commander, but was wounded by the concussion of an artillery shell. For the next year in Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee, Johnson's brigade served under a number of divisional commanders of William Hardee's corps: Simon Bolivar Buckner during Bragg's Invasion of Kentucky and its culminating Battle of Perryville.
P. Stewart during the Battle of Hoover's Gap of the 1863 Tullahoma Campaign. Thereafter, Bragg withdrew into Georgia. At the Battle of Chickamauga, Johnson's brigade spent September 18 on the Confederate right, assigned to the command of John Bell Hood's division of James Longstreet's corps just arriving from Virginia. There, Johnson's men secured Reed's Bridge. On September 19, Longstreet's forces were shifted to the Confederate left and Johnson's men saw minor action against Union forces coming north from the vicinity of Crawfish Springs; the following day, Johnson's men were part of the Confederate push across the Brotherton Field, but were not able to overtake the Union right on Snodgrass Hill. Bragg followed up with a siege of Chattanooga, while Johnson, now commanding a division, accompanied Longstreet's force north for the Siege of Knoxville. After spending the winter of 1863-64 in northeastern Tennessee, Longstreet's force was transported by rail back to Virginia to reinforce Robert E. Lee for the Overland Campaign.
En route, Johnson alone was diverted to Petersburg, to command a division in the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia under P. G. T. Beauregard. During the ensuing Bermuda Hundred Campaign, Johnson's division blocked the Union advance toward Petersburg at Swift Creek on May 9. Beauregard defeated the larger Union offensive, Johnson was promoted to major general on May 21. During the Siege of Petersburg, the section of the defenses held by Johnson's division was attacked in the Battle of the Crater on July 30; the mine was set off under part of Elliott's South Carolina Brigade, which rallied and captured three stands of colors and 130 prisoners that day. When Beauregard was transferred to the western theater in October, Johnson's division was assigned to Anderson's Fourth Corps in the Army of Northern Virginia under Robert E. Lee. Johnson's division spent the next seven months of the siege in the trenches. In late March 1865, Johnson's division was withdrawn from the trench line to meet the Union drive around the Confederate right flank, fought at Lewis's Farm on March 29.
On March 31, Johnson led them in a counterattack at Whi