World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
The Leisure Hive
The Leisure Hive is the first serial of the 18th season of the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, first broadcast in four weekly parts on BBC1 from 30 August to 20 September 1980. It marks the return of John Leeson as the voice of K9. In the serial, a criminal organisation of alien Foamasi called the West Lodge attempt to buy the planet Argolis from the Argolin people there as a West Lodge base. Meanwhile, the young Argolin Pangol seeks to start a war against the Foamasi his people had lost to with an army made up of clones of himself; the Fourth Doctor and Romana’s holiday in Brighton is brought to a sudden end when K9 goes after a ball and takes in sea-water and explodes. They instead venture to the Leisure Hive of Argolis, a holiday-complex-cum-peace-message built by the surviving Argolins following their devastating twenty-minute war with the Foamasi forty years earlier, they arrive at a point of crisis. The Leisure Hive is facing bankruptcy because of falling tourist trade and the Argolin’s Earth agent, arrives with his lawyer Klout, bearing an offer to buy the planet outright.
Regrettably the offer is from the Foamasi, the only species that could live on the radiation-infused surface of Argolis, so the Argolin Board will not consider it. Hit by the shock of events, the ageing Board Chairman Morix succumbs to a rapid death – the Argolin war-curse of advanced cellular degradation – and his consort Mena is declared the new Chairman; the Doctor is intrigued by the manipulation of the tachyon in the Hive’s Tachyon Recreation Generator, the main tourist attraction and is able to duplicate and manipulate organic matter. He witnesses the Generator kill a human tourist after it has been sabotaged, the latest in a series of acts of wilful damage. No sooner has Mena returned to Argolis to replace her spouse than her own body clock begins to speed up. Earth scientist Hardin has been brought to Argolis to help her and her people by using time experiments to rejuvenate a people rendered sterile by the war. Recognising the value of scientists, instead of confining them Mena engages the Doctor and Romana to help Hardin with his work.
The time travellers know Hardin has been faking his work, but Romana feels the experiments should have worked. After discovering a skin of Klout in a wardrobe, Hardin’s financier who travelled with him and persuaded him to fake the demonstrations, is brutally murdered and his murder is pinned on the Doctor; the Time Lord is put on trial while Hardin perfect the Time Experiments. Just in time, they succeed in bargaining the Doctor's freedom. However, after they leave, the hourglass of their experiment shatters. Mena wants to be the first guinea-pig for the time experiment due to her worsening condition, but the Doctor is instead selected for the final experiment; as he is inside the machine, there is a malfunction and he emerges five hundred years older—an old man with flowing white hair. Pangol, Mena’s son, is the most warlike and vindictive of the Argolin and orders the Doctor and Romana to be confined, fastening special collars on them to limit their movements within the Hive. Hardin frees them, when the slower-witted Doctor sees something odd in the name of the Recreation Chamber.
Romana sees it too eventually. Recreation; the three of them, sneaking back to the Recreation Room, find that certain of the Argolins, led by Pangol, are performing dangerous experiments, trying to perfect some secret project using the entertainment as a blind. Meanwhile and Klout bring a new offer from a mysterious organisation calling themselves the West Lodge, it is in tearing up the offer, that Pangol reveals the secret of his past and the reason that he is the only young Argolin in the Hive. He was the only successful, un-deformed child of a cloning experiment meant to save the Argolin using the Recreation Generator, but Pangol has been driven insane by hatred of the Foamasi and a xenophobic fear of all aliens, lusting after a war-forged empire like their ancestor Theron. He needs an alien witness to see his taking Mena's place after her death and the beginning of what he called the'New Argolis'. Meanwhile, the Doctor and Hardin have found Foamasi agents in the Hive and escort them to the council chamber, where the agents reveal Brock and Klout to be Foamasi impersonators.
The lead agent reveals the West Lodge to be a hounded criminal group who needed Argolis as a base of operations. With the leader captured, the organisation was doomed to fold and the Foamasi prepare to take the rogues for trial, but Pangol refuses to let them pass and, taking the Helmet of Theron and rallying the Argolins to his cause. The Doctor, seeing what Pangol is up to, takes the Randomiser from the TARDIS and attaches it to the Recreation Chamber, hoping to destabilise the mechanism. Romana tries to stop Pangol from using the Generator, but she cannot persuade him or the Argolins to do so; the Foamasi shuttle tries to leave and is destroyed by Pangol before he dons the Helmet of Theron and uses the Generator to create an army of Tachyon replicas, creating an obedient and renewable army to rebuild the Argolin race. He orders Romana to be put outside, while Hardin finds Mena dying and carries her to the Generator room; as Romana is taken, the clone Pangols are revealed to be Tachyon images of the rejuvenated Doctor built up in a FIFO stack.
She and the first Doctor to emerge go back to the Generator Room, where
An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes. A theme park is a type of amusement park that bases its structures and attractions around a central theme featuring multiple areas with different themes. Unlike temporary and mobile funfairs and carnivals, amusement parks are stationary and built for long-lasting operation, they are more elaborate than city parks and playgrounds providing attractions that cater to a variety of age groups. While amusement parks contain themed areas, theme parks place a heavier focus with more intricately-designed themes that revolve around a particular subject or group of subjects. Amusement parks evolved from European fairs, pleasure gardens and large picnic areas, which were created for people's recreation. World's fairs and other types of international expositions influenced the emergence of the amusement park industry. Lake Compounce opened in 1846 and is considered the oldest continuously-operating amusement park in North America.
The first theme parks emerged in the mid-twentieth century with the opening of Santa Claus Land in 1946, Santa's Workshop in 1949, Disneyland in 1955. The amusement park evolved from three earlier traditions: traveling or periodic fairs, pleasure gardens and exhibitions such as world fairs; the oldest influence was the periodic fair of the Middle Ages - one of the earliest was the Bartholomew Fair in England from 1133. By the 18th and 19th centuries, they had evolved into places of entertainment for the masses, where the public could view freak shows, acrobatics and juggling, take part in competitions and walk through menageries. A wave of innovation in the 1860s and 1870s created mechanical rides, such as the steam-powered carousel, its derivatives, notably from Frederick Savage of King's Lynn, Norfolk whose fairground machinery was exported all over the world; this inaugurated the era of the modern funfair ride, as the working classes were able to spend their surplus wages on entertainment.
The second influence was the pleasure garden. An example of this is the world's oldest amusement park, opened in mainland Europe in 1583, it is located north of Copenhagen in Denmark. Another early garden was the Vauxhall Gardens, founded in 1661 in London. By the late 18th century, the site had an admission fee for its many attractions, it drew enormous crowds, with its paths noted for romantic assignations. Although the gardens were designed for the elites, they soon became places of great social diversity. Public firework displays were put on at Marylebone Gardens, Cremorne Gardens offered music and animal acrobatics displays. Prater in Vienna, began as a royal hunting ground, opened in 1766 for public enjoyment. There followed coffee-houses and cafés, which led to the beginnings of the Wurstelprater as an amusement park; the concept of a fixed park for amusement was further developed with the beginning of the world's fairs. The first World fair began in 1851 with the construction of the landmark Crystal Palace in London, England.
The purpose of the exposition was to celebrate the industrial achievement of the nations of the world and it was designed to educate and entertain the visitors. American cities and business saw the world's fair as a way of demonstrating economic and industrial success; the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago, Illinois was an early precursor to the modern amusement park. The fair was an enclosed site, that merged entertainment and education to entertain the masses, it set out to bedazzle the visitors, did so with a blaze of lights from the "White City." To make sure that the fair was a financial success, the planners included a dedicated amusement concessions area called the Midway Plaisance. Rides from this fair captured the imagination of the visitors and of amusement parks around the world, such as the first steel Ferris wheel, found in many other amusement areas, such as the Prater by 1896; the experience of the enclosed ideal city with wonder, rides and progress, was based on the creation of an illusory place.
The "midway" introduced at the Columbian Exposition would become a standard part of most amusement parks, fairs and circuses. The midway contained not only the rides, but other concessions and entertainments such as shooting galleries, penny arcades, games of chance and shows. Many modern amusement parks evolved from earlier pleasure resorts that had become popular with the public for day-trips or weekend holidays, for example, seaside areas such as Blackpool, United Kingdom and Coney Island, United States. In the United States, some amusement parks grew from picnic groves established along rivers and lakes that provided bathing and water sports, such as Lake Compounce in Connecticut, first established as a picturesque picnic park in 1846, Riverside Park in Massachusetts, founded in the 1870s along the Connecticut River; the trick was getting the public to the resort location. For Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, on the Atlantic Ocean, a horse-drawn streetcar line brought pleasure seekers to the beach beginning in 1829.
In 1875, a million passengers rode the Coney Island Railroad, in 1876 two million visited Coney Island. Hotels and amusements were built to accommodate both the upper classes and the working class at the beach; the first carousel was installed in the 1870s, the first roller coaster, the "Switchback Railway", in 1884. In England, Blackpo
A roller coaster is a type of amusement ride that employs a form of elevated railroad track designed with tight turns, steep slopes, sometimes inversions. People ride along the track in open cars, the rides are found in amusement parks and theme parks around the world. LaMarcus Adna Thompson obtained one of the first known patents for a roller coaster design in 1885, related to the Switchback Railway that opened a year earlier at Coney Island; the track in a coaster design does not have to be a complete circuit, as shuttle roller coasters demonstrate. Most roller coasters have multiple cars in which passengers are restrained. Two or more cars hooked together are called a train; some roller coasters, notably wild mouse roller coasters, run with single cars. The oldest roller coasters are believed to have originated from the so-called "Russian Mountains", specially constructed hills of ice located in the area, now Saint Petersburg, Russia. Built in the 17th century, the slides were built to a height of between 21 and 24 m, had a 50-degree drop, were reinforced by wooden supports.
In 1784, Catherine the Great is said to have constructed a sledding hill in the gardens of her palace at Oranienbaum in St. Petersburg; the name Russian Mountains to designate a roller coaster is preserved in many languages, but the Russian term for roller coasters is американские горки, which means "American mountains." The first modern roller coaster, the Promenades Aeriennes, opened in Parc Beaujon in Paris on July 8, 1817. It featured wheeled cars securely locked to the track, guide rails to keep them on course, higher speeds, it spawned half a dozen imitators. However, during the Belle Epoque they returned to fashion. In 1887 French entrepreneur Joseph Oller, co-founder of the Moulin Rouge music hall, constructed the Montagnes Russes de Belleville, "Russian Mountains of Belleville" with 656 feet of track laid out in a double-eight enlarged to four figure-eight-shaped loops. In 1827, a mining company in Summit Hill, Pennsylvania constructed the Mauch Chunk Switchback Railway, a downhill gravity railroad used to deliver coal to Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania – now known as Jim Thorpe.
By the 1850s, the "Gravity Road" was selling rides to thrill seekers. Railway companies used similar tracks to provide amusement on days. Using this idea as a basis, LaMarcus Adna Thompson began work on a gravity Switchback Railway that opened at Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, in 1884. Passengers climbed to the top of a platform and rode a bench-like car down the 600-foot track up to the top of another tower where the vehicle was switched to a return track and the passengers took the return trip; this track design was soon replaced with an oval complete circuit. In 1885, Phillip Hinkle introduced the first full-circuit coaster with a lift hill, the Gravity Pleasure Road, which became the most popular attraction at Coney Island. Not to be outdone, in 1886 Thompson patented his design of roller coaster that included dark tunnels with painted scenery. "Scenic Railways" were soon found in amusement parks across the county. By 1919, the first underfriction roller coaster had been developed by John Miller.
Soon, roller coasters spread to amusement parks all around the world. The best known historical roller coaster, was opened at Coney Island in 1927; the Great Depression marked the end of the golden age of roller coasters, theme parks, in general, went into decline. This lasted until 1972 when the instant success of The Racer at Kings Island began a roller coaster renaissance which has continued to this day. In 1959, Disneyland introduced a design breakthrough with Matterhorn Bobsleds, the first roller coaster to use a tubular steel track. Unlike wooden coaster rails, tubular steel can be bent in any direction, allowing designers to incorporate loops and many other maneuvers into their designs. Most modern roller coasters are made of steel, although wooden coasters and hybrids are still being built. There are several explanations of the name roller coaster, it is said to have originated from an early American design where slides or ramps were fitted with rollers over which a sled would coast. This design was abandoned in favor of fitting the wheels to the sled or other vehicles, but the name endured.
Another explanation is that it originated from a ride located in a roller skating rink in Haverhill, Massachusetts in 1887. A toboggan-like sled was raised to the top of a track; this Roller Toboggan took off down rolling hills to the floor. The inventors of this ride, Stephen E. Jackman and Byron B. Floyd, claim that they were the first to use the term "roller coaster"; the term jet coaster is used for roller coasters in Japan, where such amusement park rides are popular. In many languages, the name refers to "Russian mountains". Contrastingly, in Russian, they are called "American mountains". In the Scandinavian languages and German, the roller coaster is referred as "mountain-and-valley railway". German knows the word "Achterbahn", stemming from "Figur-8-Bahn", like Dutch "Achtbaan", relating to the form of the number 8; the cars on a typical roller coaster are not self-powered. Instead, a standard full circuit coaster is pulled up with a chain or cable along the lift hill to the first peak of the coaster track.
The potential energy accumulated by the rise in height is transferred to kinetic energy as the cars race down the first downward slope. Kinetic energy is converted back into potential energy as the train moves up again to the second peak; this hill is necessa
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England, part of the City of Brighton and Hove, located 47 miles south of London. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age and Anglo-Saxon periods; the ancient settlement of "Brighthelmstone" was documented in the Domesday Book. The town's importance grew in the Middle Ages as the Old Town developed, but it languished in the early modern period, affected by foreign attacks, storms, a suffering economy and a declining population. Brighton began to attract more visitors following improved road transport to London and becoming a boarding point for boats travelling to France; the town developed in popularity as a health resort for sea bathing as a purported cure for illnesses. In the Georgian era, Brighton developed as a fashionable seaside resort, encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent King George IV, who spent much time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion in the Regency era. Brighton continued to grow as a major centre of tourism following the arrival of the railways in 1841, becoming a popular destination for day-trippers from London.
Many of the major attractions were built in the Victorian era, including the Metropole Hotel Grand Hotel, the West Pier, the Brighton Palace Pier. The town continued to grow into the 20th century, expanding to incorporate more areas into the town's boundaries before joining the town of Hove to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove in 1997, granted city status in 2000. Today and Hove district has a resident population of about 288,200 and the wider Brighton and Hove conurbation has a population of 474,485. Brighton's location has made it a popular destination for tourists, renowned for its diverse communities, quirky shopping areas, large cultural and arts scene and its large LGBT population, leading to its recognition as the "unofficial gay capital of the UK". Brighton attracted 7.5 million day visitors in 2015/16 and 4.9 million overnight visitors, is the most popular seaside destination in the UK for overseas tourists. Brighton has been called the UK's "hippest city", "the happiest place to live in the UK".
Brighton's earliest name was Bristelmestune, recorded in the Domesday Book. Although more than 40 variations have been documented, Brighthelmstone was the standard rendering between the 14th and 18th centuries."Brighton" was an informal shortened form, first seen in 1660. The name is of Anglo-Saxon origin. Most scholars believe that it derives from Beorthelm + tūn—the homestead of Beorthelm, a common Old English name associated with villages elsewhere in England; the tūn element is common in Sussex on the coast, although it occurs infrequently in combination with a personal name. An alternative etymology taken from the Old English words for "stony valley" is sometimes given but has less acceptance. Brighthelm gives its name to, among other things, a church and a pub in Brighton and some halls of residence at the University of Sussex. Writing in 1950, historian Antony Dale noted that unnamed antiquaries had suggested an Old English word "brist" or "briz", meaning "divided", could have contributed the first part of the historic name Brighthelmstone.
The town was split in half by the Wellesbourne, a winterbourne, culverted and buried in the 18th century. Brighton has several nicknames. Poet Horace Smith called it "The Queen of Watering Places", still used, "Old Ocean's Bauble". Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray referred to "Doctor Brighton", calling the town "one of the best of Physicians". "London-by-the-Sea" is well-known, reflecting Brighton's popularity with Londoners as a day-trip resort, a commuter dormitory and a desirable destination for those wanting to move out of the metropolis. "The Queen of Slaughtering Places", a pun on Smith's description, became popular when the Brighton trunk murders came to the public's attention in the 1930s. The mid 19th-century nickname "School Town" referred to the remarkable number of boarding and church schools in the town at the time; the first settlement in the Brighton area was Whitehawk Camp, a Neolithic encampment on Whitehawk Hill, dated to between 3500 BC and 2700 BC. It is one of six causewayed enclosures in Sussex.
Archaeologists have only explored it, but have found numerous burial mounds and bones, suggesting it was a place of some importance. There was a Bronze Age settlement at Coldean. Brythonic Celts arrived in Britain in the 7th century BC, an important Brythonic settlement existed at Hollingbury Castle on Hollingbury Hill; this Celtic Iron Age encampment dates from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls with a diameter of c. 1,000 feet. Cissbury Ring 10 miles from Hollingbury, is suggested to have been the tribal "capital". There was a Roman villa at Preston Village, a Roman road from London ran nearby, much physical evidence of Roman occupation has been discovered locally. From the 1st century AD, the Romans built a number of villas in Brighton and Romano-British Brythonic Celts formed farming settlements in the area. After the Romans left in the early 4th century AD, the Brighton area returned to the control of the native Celts. Anglo-Saxons invaded in the late 5th century AD, the region became part of the Kingdom of Sussex, founded in 477 AD by king Ælle.
Anthony Seldon identified five phases of development in pre-20th century Brighton. The village of Bristelmestune was founded by these
PizzaExpress is a restaurant group with over 470 restaurants across the United Kingdom and 100 overseas in Europe, Hong Kong, India, The Philippines and the Middle East. It was founded in 1965 by Peter Boizot. In July 2014 the group was sold to the China-based private equity firm Hony Capital in a deal worth £900 million. PizzaExpress celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2015. Founded in 1965 by Peter Boizot, PizzaExpress opened its first restaurant in London's Wardour Street. Inspired by a trip to Italy, Boizot brought back to London a pizza oven from Naples and a chef from Sicily. In 1969 jazz performances began at London. PizzaExpress expanded into the Republic of Ireland in 1995 and operates 14 restaurants there under the brand name Milano; the company owns the brand name Marzano. Marzano was used in countries where the brand name Pizza Express was not available, as with the use of the name Milano in the Republic of Ireland, but it exists in some territories, such as Cyprus, to differentiate between the restaurants selling pizza and those offering a wider range of non-pizza meals inspired by Italy.
It is used for a cafe-bar run as an adjunct to the branch of Pizza Express in The Forum in Norwich, "Cafe Bar Marzano". In 2011, PizzaExpress launched a major rebrand of its UK restaurants, with menu changes, a black and white logo and the widespread use of stripes, both for staff uniforms and for restaurant decor. In 2017, PizzaExpress launched'PizzaExpress Live'. Hosted at venues across the UK, PizzaExpress Live offers a broad range of entertainment for guests from comedy, to ‘An Audience With’ top celebrities and influential figures within various fields. PizzaExpress was floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1993 with franchises opening across the UK. UK franchises were bought back en masse in 1996. TDR Capital and Capricorn Associates bought the company in 2003 turning it private again. In 2005, PizzaExpress floated on the London Stock Exchange, as part of the Gondola Holdings PLC, it was bought by private equity group Cinven as the Gondola Group in 2007. On 12 July 2014 it was announced.
PizzaExpress specialises in handmade pizza. PizzaExpress introduced the lighter pizza Leggera, the first pizza range on the high street that contains around 500 calories. In 2008, PizzaExpress started a Guest Chef Series with chef Theo Randall, of Theo Randall at InterContinental London, creating exclusive dishes for its menu. Francesco Mazzei, of L'Anima, came on board in 2010 to develop a menu inspired by the cuisine of Calabria; the celebrity chef series continued in 2012 with the introduction of two pizzas made by television cook Valentine Warner. Warner introduced the Puttanesca pizza. PizzaExpress has supported the jazz community from its early days when it opened its first jazz club in 1969 in Dean Street, London. Since an array of artists have played from Ella Fitzgerald and Amy Winehouse, to supporting early performances by Norah Jones and Jamie Cullum. In 2017, PizzaExpress launched'PizzaExpress Live'. Hosted at venues across the UK, PizzaExpress Live offers a broad range of entertainment for guests from comedy, to ‘An Audience With’ top celebrities and influential figures within various fields.
The restaurant giant expanded its music offering, now ranging from arty Americana acts, to lively funk and salsa collectives. Peter Boizot teamed up with Italian restaurant designer and cartoonist Enzo Apicella in the 1960s to design the PizzaExpress identity and over 80 restaurants. In 2002, PizzaExpress launched PizzaExpress Prospects Contemporary Art Prize with pop artist Peter Blake. Peter Blake's connection with PizzaExpress was extended when he donated 26 original pieces to the Chiswick restaurant. PizzaExpress created a'Living Lab' in October 2010, in Richmond, trialling new ideas from design to sound, collaborating with designer Ab Rogers. PizzaExpress introduced the Pizza Veneziana in 1977 to help save Venice from sinking by donating 5p of every pizza sold to the Venice in Peril Fund. Over the years the amount donated from each pizza has increased to 25p. From 2008, donations from the Veneziana pizza go to the Veneziana Fund, where 50% is donated to the Venice in Peril Fund and 50% is given to the restoration and maintenance of buildings and fittings of buildings and works of art created before 1750.
In 1999, PizzaExpress introduced its Schools Programme, a programme where the company turns its restaurants into classrooms, educating children about fresh ingredients, how to run a local business and how to cook for themselves. In 2016, PizzaExpress launched its partnership with Macmillan Cancer Support, with a discretionary 25p donation from every Padana pizza sold to help Macmillan provide essential financial, emotional and practical support for people affected by cancer; as of May 2017, the partnership has raised over £500,000. In 2008 the company was reported as paying staff less than the legal minimum wage, relying on tips to make up the difference; this led to a campaign in Parliament to make this practice illegal. Official website
Carry On at Your Convenience
Carry on at Your Convenience, released in 1971, is the 22nd in the series of Carry On films to be made, was the first box office failure of the series. This failure has been attributed to the film's attempt at exploring the political themes of the trade union movement, crucially portraying the union activists as idle, pedantic buffoons which alienated the traditional working-class audience of the series; the film, known as Carry On Round the Bend outside the United Kingdom, did not return full production costs until 1976 after several international and television sales. The film features regulars Sid James, Kenneth Williams, Charles Hawtrey, Joan Sims, Hattie Jacques and Bernard Bresslaw, it features Kenneth Cope in the first of his two Carry on appearances. In bathroom ceramics factory W. C. Boggs & Son, the traditionalist owner W. C. Boggs is having no end of trouble. Bolshy and lazy union representative Vic Spanner continually stirs up trouble in the works, to the irritation of his co-workers and management.
He calls a strike for any minor incident – or because he wants time off to attend a local football match. Sid Plummer is the site foreman bridging the gap between workers and management, shrewdly keeping the place going amid the unrest. Prissy floral-shirt-wearing product designer Charles Coote has included a bidet in his latest range of designs, but W. C. objects to the manufacture of such "dubious" items. W. C. will not change his stance after his son, Lewis Boggs, secures a large overseas order for the bidets. It is a deal that could save the struggling firm, which W. C. has to admit. Vic's dim stooge Bernie Hulke provides bumbling assistance in both his union machinations and his attempts to woo Sid's daughter, factory canteen worker Myrtle, she is torn between Vic and Lewis Boggs, something of a playboy but insists he loves her. Sid's wife is Beattie, a lazy housewife who does little but fuss over her pet budgie, which refuses to talk despite her concerted efforts, their neighbour is lascivious co-worker Chloe Moore.
Chloe contends with the endless strikes and with her crude, travelling salesman husband Fred, who neglects her and leaves her dissatisfied. Chloe and Sid are sorely tempted to stray. Unusually for Sid James, his character is a faithful husband, albeit a cheeky and borderline-lecherous one. Sid and Beattie find that Joey can predict winners of horseraces – he tweets when the horse's name is read out. Sid bets on Joey's tips and makes several large wins – including a vital £1,000 loaned to W. C. when the banks refuse a bridging loan – before Sid is barred by Benny his bookie after making several payouts. The strikers return to work, but it is only to attend the annual works outing, a coach trip to Brighton. A good time is had by all with barriers coming down between workers and management, thanks to that great social lubricant, alcohol. W. C. becomes intoxicated and spends the day – and it seems the night – with his faithful, adoring secretary, Miss Hortense Withering. Lewis Boggs manages to win Myrtle from Vic Spanner, giving his rival a beating, the couple elope.
After arriving home late after the outing and with Fred away, Chloe invites Sid in for a cup of tea. They fight their desires and decide not to have the tea fearing that neighbours might see Sid enter Chloe's home and get the wrong idea. At the picket lines the next day, Vic gets his comeuppance – at the hands of his mother – and the workers and management all pull together to produce the big order to save the firm. Sid James as Sid Plummer Kenneth Williams as WC Boggs Charles Hawtrey as Charles Coote Hattie Jacques as Beattie Plummer Joan Sims as Chloe Moore Bernard Bresslaw as Bernie Hulke Kenneth Cope as Vic Spanner Jacki Piper as Myrtle Plummer Richard O'Callaghan as Lewis Boggs Patsy Rowlands as Hortense Withering Davy Kaye as Benny Bill Maynard as Fred Moore Renée Houston as Agatha Spanner Marianne Stone as Maud Margaret Nolan as Popsy Geoffrey Hughes as Willie Hugh Futcher as Ernie Simon Cain as Barman Amelia Bayntun as Mrs Spragg Leon Greene as Chef Harry Towb as Film doctor Shirley Stelfox as Bunny waitress Peter Burton as Hotel manager Julian Holloway as Roger Anouska Hempel as New canteen girl Jan Rossini as Hoopla girl Philip Stone as Mr Bulstrode Screenplay – Talbot Rothwell Music – Eric Rogers Production Manager – Jack Swinburne Art Director – Lionel Couch Editor – Alfred Roome Director of Photography – Ernest Steward Camera Operator – James Bawden Make-up – Geoffrey Rodway Continuity – Rita Davidson Assistant Director – David Bracknell Sound Recordists – Danny Daniel & Ken Barker Hairdresser – Stella Rivers Costume Designer – Courtenay Elliott Set Dresser – Peter Howitt Assistant Art Director – William Alexander Dubbing Editor – Brian Holland Titles – GSE Ltd Processor – Rank Film Laboratories Toilets – Royal Doulton Sanitary Potteries Assistant Editor – Jack Gardner Producer – Peter Rogers Director – Gerald Thomas Filming dates – 22 March-7 May 1971Interiors: Pinewood Studios, BuckinghamshireExteriors: Brighton – Palace Pier.
The West Pier in Brighton was used two years for Carry On Girls. Brighton – Clarges Hotel; the same location was used in the Carry On Girls. Pinewood Studios; the studio's wood storage area was used as the exterior of WC Boggs' factory Pinewood Green, Pinewood Estate. Sid Plummer's house and the Moores' house The Red Lion, Shreding Green, Buckinghamshire Odeon Cinema, Uxbridge. Heatherden Hall, Pinewood Studios Black Pa