The Pelham Institute is a former working men's club and multipurpose social venue in the Kemptown area of Brighton, part of the English coastal city of Brighton and Hove. Built in 1877 by prolific local architect Thomas Lainson on behalf of the Vicar of Brighton, the multicoloured brick and tile High Victorian Gothic building catered for the social and spiritual needs of the large working-class population in the east of Brighton. After its closure it hosted a judo club, but is now in residential use as flats owned by a housing association. English Heritage has listed the building at Grade II for its architectural and historical importance. Thomas Read Kemp's Kemp Town estate, "arguably the most famous district in Brighton", was developed as a planned estate of about 100 grand houses for the rich people who were attracted to the fashionable resort. Kemp Town was isolated from the rest of the town, about 2 miles away, an old trackway running west–east along the inland side of the East Cliff developed into an important route—Eastern Road.
In the mid-19th century, the area around Eastern Road developed as a poor, mixed-use area, with institutional buildings, streets of small terraced houses, light industry and a few larger houses. A Nonconformist chapel had been built in 1829, the Anglican All Souls Church served the area from 1834; the area became known as Kemptown. John Hannah became Vicar of Brighton in 1870, following the death of Reverend Henry Michell Wagner which ended his 46-year incumbency. Hannah was concerned about the social and physical welfare of Kemptown's large working-class population, whose poverty restricted their opportunities for education and recreation, he felt that the many pubs in the area encouraged people to spend their money on alcohol. He was made archdeacon of Lewes in 1876 and in the same year founded a "slum mission"—similar to a church-sponsored working men's club—on the site of the closed chapel of 1829, near the junction of Upper Bedford Street and Eastern Road, he commissioned local architect Thomas Lainson responsible for the Middle Street Synagogue, Bristol Road Methodist Church and several housing developments, to design a building with space for all the required facilities.
He carried out the work in 1877, from 1879 the building bore the name Pelham Institute. The institute attempted to cater. A large hall for religious services, concerts and other educational activities took up most of the first floor. A reading-room, eating area, bar, a games room and a smoking room; the second floor had single bedrooms on short-term lets: men were charged 1/– per night or 3/6d for a week. In January 1945, under the name Pelham Mission, the building was issued with a worship licence under the terms of the Places of Worship Registration Act 1855. Local slum clearance began in 1926 when the houses around the Pelham Institute were cleared and replaced with lower-density development. Demolition continued through the 1930s and resumed in the 1950s after World War II. By 1959, the working-class population in the Eastern Road area was much lower, the Pelham Institute closed, its entry on the worship register was accordingly cancelled in June 1960. Ownership transferred to Brighton Borough Council.
In the early 1970s, two local judo clubs—one based elsewhere in Brighton and another from Balcombe, West Sussex—merged under the latter's name and moved into Lainson's building, which they rented from the council. The club had to move to another building nearby in July 1994. Soon afterwards, the former institute was taken over by the Sanctuary Housing Association, who converted it internally into a block of flats called Montague Court; the Pelham Institute was listed at Grade II by English Heritage on 23 June 1994. This defines it as a "nationally important" building of "special interest". In February 2001, it was one of 1,124 Grade II-listed buildings and structures, 1,218 listed buildings of all grades, in the city of Brighton and Hove; the building is not within any of Brighton and Hove's conservation areas, but the council has considered extending the boundary of the East Cliff Conservation Area to include it. Thomas Lainson designed and built the Pelham Institute in the High Victorian Gothic style, used for slum missions such as this.
It is a three-storey building of purple brick laid in the English bond pattern and dressed with terracotta and red bricks. There are small areas of tile-hanging, the roof is tiled and has dormer windows. Three faces are visible: one south to St George's Terrace with irregularly placed windows, the main façade on Upper Bedford Street, a three-window range facing north on to Montague Street. Most windows are flat-headed; the main entrance is to Upper Bedford Street. A doorway, with a 19th-century two-part wooden door with iron hinges, is recessed into an aedicula with a corbelled pointed arch and a gable above. At second-floor level, a chimney-breast projects and steps up to the gable of the roof, topped with a short chimneypot. A window is set into the base of this projection. On the floor below, the four windows are arranged as two narrow pairs below a semicircular tympanum of red brick; the northwestern corner forms a gable-topped bay, again with a stepped chimney-stack. A thin string course runs around the building above the windows.
The Montague Street elevation has paired windows under segmental arches.
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England, part of the City of Brighton and Hove, located 47 miles south of London. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age and Anglo-Saxon periods; the ancient settlement of "Brighthelmstone" was documented in the Domesday Book. The town's importance grew in the Middle Ages as the Old Town developed, but it languished in the early modern period, affected by foreign attacks, storms, a suffering economy and a declining population. Brighton began to attract more visitors following improved road transport to London and becoming a boarding point for boats travelling to France; the town developed in popularity as a health resort for sea bathing as a purported cure for illnesses. In the Georgian era, Brighton developed as a fashionable seaside resort, encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent King George IV, who spent much time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion in the Regency era. Brighton continued to grow as a major centre of tourism following the arrival of the railways in 1841, becoming a popular destination for day-trippers from London.
Many of the major attractions were built in the Victorian era, including the Metropole Hotel Grand Hotel, the West Pier, the Brighton Palace Pier. The town continued to grow into the 20th century, expanding to incorporate more areas into the town's boundaries before joining the town of Hove to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove in 1997, granted city status in 2000. Today and Hove district has a resident population of about 288,200 and the wider Brighton and Hove conurbation has a population of 474,485. Brighton's location has made it a popular destination for tourists, renowned for its diverse communities, quirky shopping areas, large cultural and arts scene and its large LGBT population, leading to its recognition as the "unofficial gay capital of the UK". Brighton attracted 7.5 million day visitors in 2015/16 and 4.9 million overnight visitors, is the most popular seaside destination in the UK for overseas tourists. Brighton has been called the UK's "hippest city", "the happiest place to live in the UK".
Brighton's earliest name was Bristelmestune, recorded in the Domesday Book. Although more than 40 variations have been documented, Brighthelmstone was the standard rendering between the 14th and 18th centuries."Brighton" was an informal shortened form, first seen in 1660. The name is of Anglo-Saxon origin. Most scholars believe that it derives from Beorthelm + tūn—the homestead of Beorthelm, a common Old English name associated with villages elsewhere in England; the tūn element is common in Sussex on the coast, although it occurs infrequently in combination with a personal name. An alternative etymology taken from the Old English words for "stony valley" is sometimes given but has less acceptance. Brighthelm gives its name to, among other things, a church and a pub in Brighton and some halls of residence at the University of Sussex. Writing in 1950, historian Antony Dale noted that unnamed antiquaries had suggested an Old English word "brist" or "briz", meaning "divided", could have contributed the first part of the historic name Brighthelmstone.
The town was split in half by the Wellesbourne, a winterbourne, culverted and buried in the 18th century. Brighton has several nicknames. Poet Horace Smith called it "The Queen of Watering Places", still used, "Old Ocean's Bauble". Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray referred to "Doctor Brighton", calling the town "one of the best of Physicians". "London-by-the-Sea" is well-known, reflecting Brighton's popularity with Londoners as a day-trip resort, a commuter dormitory and a desirable destination for those wanting to move out of the metropolis. "The Queen of Slaughtering Places", a pun on Smith's description, became popular when the Brighton trunk murders came to the public's attention in the 1930s. The mid 19th-century nickname "School Town" referred to the remarkable number of boarding and church schools in the town at the time; the first settlement in the Brighton area was Whitehawk Camp, a Neolithic encampment on Whitehawk Hill, dated to between 3500 BC and 2700 BC. It is one of six causewayed enclosures in Sussex.
Archaeologists have only explored it, but have found numerous burial mounds and bones, suggesting it was a place of some importance. There was a Bronze Age settlement at Coldean. Brythonic Celts arrived in Britain in the 7th century BC, an important Brythonic settlement existed at Hollingbury Castle on Hollingbury Hill; this Celtic Iron Age encampment dates from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls with a diameter of c. 1,000 feet. Cissbury Ring 10 miles from Hollingbury, is suggested to have been the tribal "capital". There was a Roman villa at Preston Village, a Roman road from London ran nearby, much physical evidence of Roman occupation has been discovered locally. From the 1st century AD, the Romans built a number of villas in Brighton and Romano-British Brythonic Celts formed farming settlements in the area. After the Romans left in the early 4th century AD, the Brighton area returned to the control of the native Celts. Anglo-Saxons invaded in the late 5th century AD, the region became part of the Kingdom of Sussex, founded in 477 AD by king Ælle.
Anthony Seldon identified five phases of development in pre-20th century Brighton. The village of Bristelmestune was founded by these
Stanmer House is a Grade I listed mansion set in Stanmer Park west of the village of Falmer and north-east of the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, England. The house stands close to Stanmer Church, within Stanmer Park. Constructed by the French architect Nicholas Dubois in 1722 in a Palladian style for the Pelham family, it incorporates the remains of an earlier house, was again altered in 1860; the house and park were bought by the local authority in 1947. The building was designated as Grade I listed in 1954. Close to the University of Sussex campus, the house was used as a university administration building for some years in the 1960s while the campus was being built in the eastern portion of the park. After undergoing extensive renovation, it reopened in June 2006 and is used as a restaurant and events venue. In 2009, the Willkommen Collective started a music festival at Stanmer House; the first event featured performances from The Leisure Society, Alessi's Ark, Peggy Sue and more in Stanmer House and grounds.
The second festival was named Foxtrot. The lineup included Laura Marling, Anna Calvi, Francois & the Atlas Mountains and Sons of Noel and Adrian; the third annual festival took place in September 2011 and featured Herman Düne, Sam Amidon, This Is The Kit and more. In the early 1990s, a few shots for the Mr. Bean television programme were filmed at the house and the nearby church. TV celebrity Alexander Proud took over the lease of Stanmer House in 2016 and has set about renovating the Grade I listed house and gardens. During 2018, £3.75m of investment will be made in improving the 20 hectares surrounding the house, to restore the Grade II parkland and develop buildings damaged/decayed over time. Official website Virtual Tour of the house Stanmer Preservation Society
Brighton and Hove City Council
Brighton and Hove City Council is the local authority of the city of Brighton and Hove. It is a unitary authority, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined, it provides a full range of local government services including Council Tax billing, social services, processing planning applications, waste collection and disposal, it is a local education authority. The local authority derives its powers and functions from the Local Government Act 1972 and subsequent legislation. For the purposes of local government and Hove is within a non-metropolitan area of England; as a unitary authority and Hove City Council has the powers and functions of both a non-metropolitan county and district council combined. In its capacity as a district council it is a billing authority collecting Council Tax and business rates, it processes local planning applications, it is responsible for housing, waste collection and environmental health. In its capacity as a county council it is a local education authority, responsible for social services and waste disposal.
Since the first election to the council in 1996 political control of the council has been held by the following parties: Note: * on Wed 20 February 2019 Labour no longer was the biggest party as Cllr Meadows defected to the Conservative group. The Labour and Co-operative group remain the “administration” until the next full council in which the position can be challenged; the Green led. When Brighton Borough Council and Hove Borough Council merged in 1996 the wards were carried over from the respective councils who had both been under East Sussex County Council. There were 26 Wards each with three councillors 78 councillors in the newly created Brighton and Hove Borough Council: Brunswick and Adelaide, Hangleton, Hollingbury, Kings Cliff, Moulsecoomb, North Portslade, Portslade South, Queens Park, Rottingdean, Seven Dials, St. Peters, Stanmer, Vallance, Westdene, Woodingdean The 2001 boundary review reduced the wards to 21 Wards with a mix of two or three councillors each totalling 54 councillors for the city council.
These boundary were used in the 2003 election for the first time with the following wards: Brunswick and Adelaide, Central Hove, East Brighton, Goldsmid and Knoll, Hanover and Elm Grove and Stanmer, Stanford and Bevendean, North Portslade, Preston Park, Queen's Park, Rottingdean Coastal, South Portslade, St Peter's and North Laine, Wish, Woodingdean. List of Brighton and Hove City Councillors by ward: In October 2017, it was announced that the city council was to merge with Brighton and Hove Clinical Commissioning Group to form a Health and Social Care Integration Board: the merge, commencing in April 2018 and culminating in a full merger a year is intended to prevent the duplication of work and streamline provision of health and social care within the city
A prison cell known as a jail cell, is a small room in a prison or police station where a prisoner is held. Cells vary by their furnishings, hygienic services and cleanliness, both across countries and based on the level of punishment to which the prisoner has been sentenced; the International Committee of the Red Cross recommends. Prison cells vary in size internationally from 2 m2 in Guinea to 12 m2 in Switzerland. In the United States, prison cells are about 6 by 8 feet in dimension, with steel or brick walls and one solid or barred door that locks from the outside. Many modern prison cells are pre-cast. Solid doors may have a window. Furnishings and fixtures inside the cell are constructed so that they cannot be broken, are anchored to the walls or floor. Stainless steel lavatories and commodes are used; this prevents the making of weapons. There are a number of prison and prison cell configurations, from simple police-station holding cells to massive cell blocks in larger correctional facilities.
The practice of assigning only one inmate to each cell in a prison is called single-celling. In many countries, the cells are dirty and have few facilities. Other countries may house many offenders in prisons. In the United Kingdom, cells in a police station are the responsibility of the Custody Sergeant, who logs each detainee and allocates him or her an available cell. Custody Sergeants ensure cells are clean and as germ-free as possible, in accordance with the Human Rights Act of 1998. In the United States, the standard cell is equipped with either a ledge or a steel bedstead that holds a mattress. A one-piece sink/toilet constructed of welded, putatively stainless steel is provided. Bars typify older jails, while newer ones have doors that feature a small safety glass window and a metal flap that can be opened to serve meals. A limited number of United States prisons offer upgrades. Costing around $100 a night, these cells are considered cleaner and quieter, some of them offer extra facilities.
Different standards for cells exist in a single country and in a single jail. Some of those cells are reserved for "isolation", where a convict is kept alone in a cell as punishment method; some isolation cells contain no services at all. Celebrity Justice: Prison Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous, Matt Clarke 91111 Now
Regency Square, Brighton
Regency Square is a large early 19th-century residential development on the seafront in Brighton, part of the British city of Brighton and Hove. Conceived by speculative developer Joshua Hanson as Brighton underwent its rapid transformation from fishing village to fashionable resort, the three-sided "set piece" of around 70 houses and associated structures was designed and built over a ten-year period by Brighton's most important Regency-era architects: the partnership of Charles Busby, Amon Wilds and his son Amon Henry Wilds; the site was Belle Vue Field—used at various times as a military camp, a showground and the location of a windmill. The square was a high-class development, attracting the social elite; the square lost its prestige status after the First World War as hotels started to move in. The square's central garden private, has been council-owned since 1884 and is publicly accessible, an underground car park was built beneath it in 1969. Most of the buildings in and around the square have been designated Listed buildings: six blocks of houses are each listed at Grade II*, the second-highest designation, while five other residential buildings, a war memorial, a nearby inn and a set of bollards outside it have each been given the lower Grade II status.
The house at the southwest corner is now numbered as part of King's Road but was built as part of Regency Square, is Grade II*-listed. Regency Square was built on one of the fields surrounding the fishing village of Brighthelmstone, the predecessor of modern-day Brighton; the field was named Belle Vue Field—probably in connection with the long vanished Belle Vue House, lay to the west of the village. The field ran down to the seafront, was a popular site for travelling shows, military parades and other gatherings; the field contained a windmill known as West Mill. A windmill was not marked on Ogilby's 1762 map. A windmill is shown on Lambert's View of Brighthelmstone, dated 1765; the windmill stood in the field until 28 March 1797, when 86 oxen dragged it 2 miles uphill on a sled to the nearby village of Preston. It was renamed Preston Mill. After several more renamings, it was demolished in 1881, its machinery was cannibalised by the owners of nearby Waterhall Mill. A watercolour painting, now displayed at Preston Manor, shows crowds of people watching the mill's removal to Preston.
By the late 18th century, Brighton had begun to develop into a popular and fashionable seaside resort. Belle Vue Field became more important to the growing town in 1793, when in response to the increased military threat from France, a 10,000-man military encampment was established there; the camp gained a reputation as a place for women to find partners, Jane Austen used it as a setting in her novel Pride and Prejudice. The heroine Elizabeth Bennet's sister is invited to Brighton and elopes with, marries, army officer George Wickham; the camp moved to another site in 1794. A few years the field was acquired by Joshua Flesher Hanson, a businessman. By this time, Brighton's popularity was such that speculators were commissioning architects and builders to design and lay out large-scale sea-facing residential developments to attract wealthy long-term visitors or permanent residents. Royal Crescent was thriving. Hanson decided to follow the trend but take it in a new direction: he divided Belle Vue Field into 70 plots, leased them individually and put strict covenants in place, demanding that each house be built in a specific style in order to ensure architectural harmony.
In return, the leaseholders would have the right to buy, would end up with houses much larger than average for the town, with excellent sea views and with exclusive access to the large central garden. Most leaseholders bought the houses as soon as they could, to Hanson's advantage as he made money and had no ongoing responsibility for the buildings. Restrictions in the covenants included the requirement to erect a façade with an iron balcony, to clad the area below the balcony in stucco, to paint the façade at least every three years, to repair any damage, to pay towards maintenance of the central garden. No stucco was to be applied above the balcony line. Although there is no documentary evidence confirming the architects, all sources attribute most of Regency Square's buildings to the father-and-son partnership of Amon and Amon Henry Wilds, who moved to Brighton from nearby Lewes in 1815 and became two of Brighton's most important architects. Although they worked extensively with fellow architect Charles Busby during the 1820s, historians agree that he was not involved in the overall design of Regency Square, at least not in its early stages: the buildings "appear to lack his distinctive flair" and are not as impressive as those at the Kemp Town estate to the east of Brighton, which all three men were involved with.
Some of the houses may have been the work of Wilds senior and Busby, however. Building work started in 1818 and continued until 1830, although most of the square were complete by 18
The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 or more Iraqis were killed in the first three to four years of conflict. In 2009, official US troops were withdrawn, but American soldiers continued to remain on the ground fighting in Iraq, hired by defence contractors and private military companies; the U. S. became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition. The invasion occurred as part of a declared war against international terrorism and its sponsors under the administration of U. S. President George W. Bush following the unrelated September 11 terrorist attacks. In October 2002, President Bush obtained congressional approval from a Democrat-led Senate and Republican-led House authorizing war-making powers.
The Iraq war began on 19 March 2003, when the U. S. joined by the U. K. and several coalition allies, launched a "awe" bombing campaign. Iraqi forces were overwhelmed as U. S. forces swept through the country. The invasion led to the collapse of the Ba'athist government. However, the power vacuum following Saddam's demise and the mismanagement of the occupation led to widespread sectarian violence between Shias and Sunnis, as well as a lengthy insurgency against U. S. and coalition forces. Many violent insurgent groups were supported by al-Qaeda in Iraq; the United States responded with a troop surge in 2007, a build up of 170,000 troops. The surge in troops gave greater security to Iraq’s government and military, was a success; the winding down of U. S. involvement in Iraq accelerated under President Barack Obama. The U. S. formally withdrew all combat troops from Iraq by December 2011. However, with no stay-behind agreement or advisers left in Iraq, a new power vacuum was created and led to the rise of ISIS.
Nine months after President Trump was elected, U. S.-backed forces captured Raqqa. The Bush administration based its rationale for the war principally on the assertion that Iraq, viewed by the U. S. as a rogue state since the 1990–1991 Gulf War, possessed weapons of mass destruction and that there was concern about an active WMD program, that the Iraqi government posed a threat to the United States and its coalition allies. Select U. S. officials accused Saddam of harbouring and supporting al-Qaeda, while others cited the desire to end a repressive dictatorship and bring democracy to the people of Iraq. Hundreds of chemical weapons were found in Iraq, which were determined to be produced before the 1991 Gulf War, intelligence officials determined they were "so old they couldn't be used as designed." From 2004 to 2011, US troops and American-trained Iraqi troops encountered, on six reported occasions were wounded by, chemical weapons from years earlier in Saddam Hussein's rule. 5,000 chemical warheads, shells or aviation bombs were discovered.
The rationale of U. S. pre-war intelligence faced heavy criticism both domestically and internationally. From 2009 to 2011, the UK conducted a broad inquiry into its decision to go to war chaired by Sir John Chilcot; the Chilcot Report, published in 2016, concluded military action may have been necessary but was not the last resort at the time and that the consequences of invasion were underestimated. In the aftermath of the invasion, Iraq held multi-party elections in 2005. Nouri al-Maliki became Prime Minister in 2006 and remained in office until 2014; the al-Maliki government enacted policies that were seen as having the effect of alienating the country's Sunni minority and worsening sectarian tensions. In the summer of 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant launched a military offensive in Northern Iraq and declared a worldwide Islamic caliphate, eliciting another military response from the United States and its allies; the Iraq War caused over a hundred thousand civilian deaths and tens of thousands of military deaths.
The majority of deaths occurred as a result of the insurgency and civil conflicts between 2004 and 2007. Strong international opposition to the Saddam Hussein regime began after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990; the international community condemned the invasion, in 1991 a military coalition led by the United States launched the Gulf War to expel Iraq from Kuwait. Following the Gulf War, the US and its allies tried to keep Saddam in check with a policy of containment; this policy involved numerous economic sanctions by the UN Security Council. The inspections were carried out by the United Nations Special Commission. UNSCOM, in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, worked to ensure that Iraq destroyed its chemical and nuclear weapons and facilities. In the decade following the Gulf War, the United Nations passed 16 Security Council resolutions calling for the complete elimination of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction. Member states communicated their frustration over the years that Iraq was impeding the work of the special commission and failing to take its disarmament obligations.
Iraqi officials harass