A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an sudden and violent release of energy. Detonations inflict damage principally through ground- and atmosphere-transmitted mechanical stress, the impact and penetration of pressure-driven projectiles, pressure damage, explosion-generated effects. Bombs have been utilized since the 11th century starting in East Asia; the term bomb is not applied to explosive devices used for civilian purposes such as construction or mining, although the people using the devices may sometimes refer to them as a "bomb". The military use of the term "bomb", or more aerial bomb action refers to airdropped, unpowered explosive weapons most used by air forces and naval aviation. Other military explosive weapons not classified as "bombs" include shells, depth charges, or land mines. In unconventional warfare, other names can refer to a range of offensive weaponry. For instance, in recent Middle Eastern conflicts, homemade bombs called "improvised explosive devices" have been employed by insurgent fighters to great effectiveness.
The word comes from the Latin bombus, which in turn comes from the Greek βόμβος, an onomatopoetic term meaning "booming", "buzzing". Explosive bombs were used by a Jurchen Jin army against a Chinese Song city. Bombs built using bamboo tubes appear in the 11th century. Bombs made of cast iron shells packed with explosive gunpowder date to 13th century China; the term was coined for this bomb during a Jin dynasty naval battle of 1231 against the Mongols. The History of Jin 《金史》 states that in 1232, as the Mongol general Subutai descended on the Jin stronghold of Kaifeng, the defenders had a "thunder-crash bomb" which "consisted of gunpowder put into an iron container... when the fuse was lit there was a great explosion the noise whereof was like thunder, audible for more than thirty miles, the vegetation was scorched and blasted by the heat over an area of more than half a mou. When hit iron armour was quite pierced through." The Song Dynasty official Li Zengbo wrote in 1257 that arsenals should have several hundred thousand iron bomb shells available and that when he was in Jingzhou, about one to two thousand were produced each month for dispatch of ten to twenty thousand at a time to Xiangyang and Yingzhou.
The Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing describes the use of poisonous gunpowder bombs, including the "wind-and-dust" bomb. During the Mongol invasions of Japan, the Mongols used the explosive "thunder-crash bombs" against the Japanese. Archaeological evidence of the "thunder-crash bombs" has been discovered in an underwater shipwreck off the shore of Japan by the Kyushu Okinawa Society for Underwater Archaeology. X-rays by Japanese scientists of the excavated shells confirmed. Explosive shock waves can cause situations such as body displacement, internal bleeding and ruptured eardrums. Shock waves produced by explosive events have two distinct components, the positive and negative wave; the positive wave shoves outward from the point of detonation, followed by the trailing vacuum space "sucking back" towards the point of origin as the shock bubble collapses. The greatest defense against shock injuries is distance from the source of shock; as a point of reference, the overpressure at the Oklahoma City bombing was estimated in the range of 28 MPa.
A thermal wave is created by the sudden release of heat caused by an explosion. Military bomb tests have documented temperatures of up to 2,480 °C. While capable of inflicting severe to catastrophic burns and causing secondary fires, thermal wave effects are considered limited in range compared to shock and fragmentation; this rule has been challenged, however, by military development of thermobaric weapons, which employ a combination of negative shock wave effects and extreme temperature to incinerate objects within the blast radius. This would be fatal to humans. Fragmentation is produced by the acceleration of shattered pieces of bomb casing and adjacent physical objects; the use of fragmentation in bombs dates to the 14th century, appears in the Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing. The fragmentation bombs were filled with iron pieces of broken porcelain. Once the bomb explodes, the resulting shrapnel is capable of piercing the skin and blinding enemy soldiers. While conventionally viewed as small metal shards moving at super-supersonic and hypersonic speeds, fragmentation can occur in epic proportions and travel for extensive distances.
When the SS Grandcamp exploded in the Texas City Disaster on April 16, 1947, one fragment of that blast was a two-ton anchor, hurled nearly two miles inland to embed itself in the parking lot of the Pan American refinery. Fragmentation should not be confused with shrapnel, which relies on the momentum of a shell to cause damage. To people who are close to a blast incident, such as bomb disposal technicians, soldiers wearing body armor, deminers, or individuals wearing little to no protection, there are four types of blast effects on the human body: overpressure, fragmentation and heat. Overpressure refers to the sudden and drastic rise in ambient pressure that can damage the internal organs leading to permanent damage or death. Fragmentation includes the shrapnel described above but can include sand and vegetation from the area surrounding the blast source; this is common in anti-personnel mine blasts. The projection of materials poses a lethal threat caused by cuts in soft tiss
Trinitrotoluene, or more 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H23CH3. This yellow solid is sometimes used as a reagent in chemical synthesis, but it is best known as an explosive material with convenient handling properties; the explosive yield of TNT is considered to be the standard measure of bombs and the power of explosives. In chemistry, TNT is used to generate charge transfer salts. TNT was first prepared in 1863 by German chemist Julius Wilbrand and used as a yellow dye, its potential as an explosive was not recognized for several years because it was so difficult to detonate and because it was less powerful than alternatives. Its explosive properties were first discovered by another German chemist, Carl Häussermann, in 1891. TNT can be safely poured when liquid into shell cases, is so insensitive that it was exempted from the UK's Explosives Act 1875 and was not considered an explosive for the purposes of manufacture and storage; the German armed forces adopted it as a filling for artillery shells in 1902.
TNT-filled armour-piercing shells would explode after they had penetrated the armour of British capital ships, whereas the British Lyddite-filled shells tended to explode upon striking armour, thus expending much of their energy outside the ship. The British started replacing Lyddite with TNT in 1907; the United States Navy continued filling armor-piercing shells with explosive D after some other nations had switched to TNT, but began filling naval mines, depth charges, torpedo warheads with burster charges of crude grade B TNT with the color of brown sugar and requiring an explosive booster charge of granular crystallized grade A TNT for detonation. High-explosive shells were filled with grade A TNT, which became preferred for other uses as industrial chemical capacity became available for removing xylene and similar hydrocarbons from the toluene feedstock and other nitrotoluene isomer byproducts from the nitrating reactions. In industry, TNT is produced in a three-step process. First, toluene is nitrated with a mixture of nitric acid to produce mononitrotoluene.
The MNT is separated and renitrated to dinitrotoluene. In the final step, the DNT is nitrated to trinitrotoluene using an anhydrous mixture of nitric acid and oleum. Nitric acid is consumed by the manufacturing process, but the diluted sulfuric acid can be reconcentrated and reused. After nitration, TNT is stabilized by a process called sulfitation, where the crude TNT is treated with aqueous sodium sulfite solution to remove less stable isomers of TNT and other undesired reaction products; the rinse water from sulfitation is known as red water and is a significant pollutant and waste product of TNT manufacture. Control of nitrogen oxides in feed nitric acid is important because free nitrogen dioxide can result in oxidation of the methyl group of toluene; this reaction is exothermic and carries with it the risk of a runaway reaction leading to an explosion. In the laboratory, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene is produced by a two-step process. A nitrating mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids is used to nitrate toluene to a mixture of mono- and di-nitrotoluene isomers, with careful cooling to maintain temperature.
The nitrated toluenes are separated, washed with dilute sodium bicarbonate to remove oxides of nitrogen, carefully nitrated with a mixture of fuming nitric acid and sulfuric acid. Towards the end of the nitration, the mixture is heated on a steam bath; the trinitrotoluene is separated, washed with a dilute solution of sodium sulfite and recrystallized from alcohol. TNT is one of the most used explosives for military and mining applications. TNT has been used in conjunction with hydraulic fracturing, a process used to recover oil and gas from shale formations; the technique involves displacing and detonating nitroglycerin in hydraulically induced fractures followed by wellbore shots using pelletized TNT. TNT is valued because of its insensitivity to shock and friction, with reduced risk of accidental detonation compared to more sensitive explosives such as nitroglycerin. TNT melts at 80 °C, far below the temperature at which it will spontaneously detonate, allowing it to be poured or safely combined with other explosives.
TNT neither absorbs nor dissolves in water, which allows it to be used in wet environments. To detonate, TNT must be triggered by a pressure wave from a starter explosive, called an explosive booster. Although blocks of TNT are available in various sizes, it is more encountered in synergistic explosive blends comprising a variable percentage of TNT plus other ingredients. Examples of explosive blends containing TNT include: Amatex: Amatol: Ammonal:. Baratol: Composition B Composition H6 Cyclotol Ednatol Hexanite Minol Octol Pentolite Picratol Tetrytol Torpex Tritonal Upon detonation, TNT decomposes as follows: 2 C7H5N3O6 → 3 N2 + 5 H2O + 7 CO + 7 C 2 C7H5N3O6 → 3 N2 + 5 H2 + 12 CO + 2 CThe reaction is exothermic but has a high activation energy in the gas phase; the condensed phases show markedly lower activation energies of 35 kcal/mol due to unique bimolecular decomposition routes at elevated densities. Because of the production of carbon, TNT explosions have a sooty appearance; because TNT has an excess of carbon, explosive mixtures with oxygen-rich compounds can yield more energy per kilogram than TNT alone.
During the 20th century, amatol, a mixture of TNT with ammonium nitrate was a used mil
Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it. Detonations occur in both conventional liquid explosives, as well as in reactive gases; the velocity of detonation in solid and liquid explosives is much higher than that in gaseous ones, which allows the wave system to be observed with greater detail. A wide variety of fuels may occur as gases, droplet fogs, or dust suspensions. Oxidants include halogens, hydrogen peroxide and oxides of nitrogen. Gaseous detonations are associated with a mixture of fuel and oxidant in a composition somewhat below conventional flammability ratios, they happen most in confined systems, but they sometimes occur in large vapor clouds. Other materials, such as acetylene and hydrogen peroxide are detonable in the absence of dioxygen. Detonation was discovered in 1881 by two pairs of French scientists Marcellin Berthelot and P. Vieille and Ernest-François Mallard and Henry Louis Le Chatelier.
The mathematical predictions of propagation were carried out first by David Chapman in 1899 and by Émile Jouguet in 1905, 1906 and 1917. The next advance in understanding detonation was made by Zel'dovich, von Neumann, W. Doering in the early 1940s; the simplest theory to predict the behaviour of detonations in gases is known as Chapman-Jouguet theory, developed around the turn of the 20th century. This theory, described by a simple set of algebraic equations, models the detonation as a propagating shock wave accompanied by exothermic heat release; such a theory confines the chemistry and diffusive transport processes to an infinitesimally thin zone. A more complex theory was advanced during World War II independently by Zel'dovich, von Neumann, W. Doering; this theory, now known as ZND theory, admits finite-rate chemical reactions and thus describes a detonation as an infinitesimally thin shock wave followed by a zone of exothermic chemical reaction. With a reference frame of a stationary shock, the following flow is subsonic, so that an acoustic reaction zone follows behind the lead front, the Chapman-Jouguet condition.
There is some evidence that the reaction zone is semi-metallic in some explosives. Both theories describe one-dimensional and steady wave fronts. However, in the 1960s, experiments revealed that gas-phase detonations were most characterized by unsteady, three-dimensional structures, which can only in an averaged sense be predicted by one-dimensional steady theories. Indeed, such waves are quenched; the Wood-Kirkwood detonation theory can correct for some of these limitations. Experimental studies have revealed some of the conditions needed for the propagation of such fronts. In confinement, the range of composition of mixes of fuel and oxidant and self-decomposing substances with inerts are below the flammability limits and for spherically expanding fronts well below them; the influence of increasing the concentration of diluent on expanding individual detonation cells has been elegantly demonstrated. Their size grows as the initial pressure falls. Since cell widths must be matched with minimum dimension of containment, any wave overdriven by the initiator will be quenched.
Mathematical modeling has advanced to predicting the complex flow fields behind shocks inducing reactions. To date, none has adequately described how structure is formed and sustained behind unconfined waves; when used in explosive devices, the main cause of damage from a detonation is the supersonic blast front in the surrounding area. This is a significant distinction from deflagrations where the exothermic wave is subsonic and maximum pressures are at most one eighth as great. Therefore, detonation is a feature for destructive purpose while deflagration is favored for the acceleration of firearms' projectiles. However, detonation waves may be used for less destructive purposes, including deposition of coatings to a surface or cleaning of equipment and explosively welding together metals that would otherwise fail to fuse. Pulse detonation engines use the detonation wave for aerospace propulsion; the first flight of an aircraft powered by a pulse detonation engine took place at the Mojave Air & Space Port on January 31, 2008.
Unintentional detonation when deflagration is desired is a problem in some devices. In internal combustion engines it is called engine knocking or pinging or pinking, it causes a loss of power, excessive heating, eventual engine failure in some cases. In firearms, it may cause catastrophic and lethal failure. Carbon detonation Detonator Detonation of an explosive charge Detonation diamond Detonation flame arrester Sympathetic detonation Nuclear testing Predetonation Chapman-Jouguet condition Engine knocking Deflagration Relative effectiveness factor Youtube video demonstrating physics of a blast wave GALCIT Explosion Dynamics Laboratory Detonation Database
A grenade is an explosive weapon thrown by hand, but can refer to projectiles shot out of grenade launchers. A grenade consists of an explosive charge, a detonating mechanism, firing pin inside the grenade to trigger the detonating mechanism. Once the soldier throws the grenade, the safety lever releases, the striker throws the safety lever away from the grenade body as it rotates to detonate the primer; the primer ignites the fuze. The fuze burns down to the detonator. There are several types of grenades like the fragmentation, high explosive concussion and smoke grenades. Fragmentation grenades are the most common in modern armies, they are missiles designed to disperse shrapnel on detonation. The body is made of a hard synthetic material or steel, which will provide limited fragmentation through sharding and splintering, though in modern grenades a pre-formed fragmentation matrix inside the grenade is used; the pre-formed fragmentation may be spherical, wire or notched wire. Most anti-personnel grenades are designed to detonate either on impact.
When the word grenade is used colloquially, it is assumed to refer to a fragmentation grenade. Stick grenades have a long handle attached to the grenade directly, providing leverage for longer throwing distance, at the cost of additional weight and length; the term "stick grenade" refers to the German Stielhandgranate style stick grenade introduced in 1915 and developed throughout World War I. A friction igniter was used. Grenades are round-shaped with a "pineapple" or "baseball"-style design, or an explosive charge on a handle, referred to as a "stick grenade"; the stick grenade design has been considered obsolete since the Cold War period. They saw extensive use in World War I and in World War II; the WWI and WWII era "stick grenade" was used in trench and built-up warfare by the Central Powers and Nazi Germany, while the Triple Entente and Allied powers would use some improvised earlier grenades or round-shaped fragmentation grenades. The word "grenade" is derived from Old French pomegranate and influenced by Spanish granada, as the bomb is reminiscent of the many-seeded fruit, together with its size and shape.
Its first use in English dates from the 1590s. Rudimentary incendiary grenades appeared in the Eastern Roman Empire, not long after the reign of Leo III. Byzantine soldiers learned that Greek fire, a Byzantine invention of the previous century, could not only be thrown by flamethrowers at the enemy but in stone and ceramic jars. Glass containers were employed; the use of Greek fire spread to Muslim armies in the Near East, from where it reached China by the 10th century. In China, during the Song Dynasty, weapons known as Zhen Tian Lei were created when Chinese soldiers packed gunpowder into ceramic or metal containers. In 1044, a military book Wujing Zongyao described various gunpowder recipes in which one can find, according to Joseph Needham, the prototype of the modern hand grenade; the mid-14th-century book Huolongjing, written by Jiao Yu, recorded an earlier Song-era cast iron cannon known as the "flying-cloud thunderclap cannon". The manuscript stated that: The shells are made of cast iron, as large as a bowl and shaped like a ball.
Inside they contain half a pound of'divine fire'. They are sent flying towards the enemy camp from an eruptor, when they get there a sound like a thunder-clap is heard, flashes of light appear. If ten of these shells are fired into the enemy camp, the whole place will be set ablaze... The first cast iron bombshells and grenades did not appear in Europe until 1467. A hoard of several hundred ceramic hand grenades was discovered during construction in front of a bastion of the Bavarian city of Ingolstadt, Germany dated to the 17th century. Many of the grenades igniters. Most the grenades were intentionally dumped in the moat of the bastion prior to 1723. In 1643, it is possible that "Grenados" were thrown amongst the Welsh at Holt Bridge during the English Civil War; the word "grenade" originated during the events surrounding the Glorious Revolution in 1688, where cricket ball-sized iron spheres packed with gunpowder and fitted with slow-burning wicks were first used against the Jacobites in the battles of Killiecrankie and Glen Shiel.
These grenades were not effective and, as a result, saw little use. Grenades were used during the Golden Age of Piracy: pirate Captain Thompson used "vast numbers of powder flasks, grenade shells, stinkpots" to defeat two pirate-hunters sent by the Governor of Jamaica in 1721. Improvised grenades were used from the mid-19th century, being useful in trench warfare. In a letter to his sister, Colonel Hugh Robert Hibbert described an improvised grenade, employed by British troops during the Crimean War: We have a new invention to annoy our friends in their pits, it consists in filling empty soda water bottles full of powder, old twisted nails and any other sharp or cutting thing we can find at the time, sticking a bit of tow-in for a fuse lighting it and throwing it into our neighbors’ pit where it bursts, to their great annoyance. You may
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy used to describe the energy released in an explosion. The "ton of TNT" is a unit of energy defined by that convention to be 4.184 gigajoules, the approximate energy released in the detonation of a metric ton of TNT. In other words, for each gram of TNT exploded, 4,184 joules of energy are released; this convention intends to compare the destructiveness of an event with that of traditional explosive materials, of which TNT is a typical example, although other conventional explosives such as dynamite contain more energy. The "kiloton" is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 terajoules. The "megaton" is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 petajoules. The kiloton and megaton of TNT have traditionally been used to describe the energy output, hence the destructive power, of a nuclear weapon; the TNT equivalent appears in various nuclear weapon control treaties, has been used to characterize the energy released in such other destructive events as an asteroid impact.
Alternative values for TNT equivalency can be calculated according to which property is being compared and when in the two detonation processes the values are measured. Where for example the comparison is by energy yield, an explosive's energy is expressed for chemical purposes as the thermodynamic work produced by its detonation. For TNT this has been measured as 4686 J/g from a large sample of air blast experiments, theoretically calculated to be 4853 J/g, but on this basis, comparing the actual energy yields of a large nuclear device and an explosion of TNT can be inaccurate. Small TNT explosions in the open, don't tend to burn the carbon-particle and hydrocarbon products of the explosion. Gas-expansion and pressure-change effects tend to "freeze" the burn rapidly. A large open explosion of TNT may maintain fireball temperatures high enough so that some of those products do burn up with atmospheric oxygen; such differences can be substantial. For safety purposes a range as wide as 2673–6702 J has been stated for a gram of TNT upon explosion.
So, one can state. These complications have been sidestepped by convention; the energy liberated by one gram of TNT was arbitrarily defined as a matter of convention to be 4184 J, one kilocalorie. A kiloton of TNT can be visualized as a cube of TNT 8.46 metres on a side. 1 ton TNT equivalent is approximately: 1.0×109 calories 4.184×109 joules 3.96831×106 British thermal units 3.08802×109 foot pounds 1.162×103 kilowatt hours The relative effectiveness factor relates an explosive's demolition power to that of TNT, in units of the TNT equivalent/kg. The RE factor is the relative mass of TNT to which an explosive is equivalent: The greater the RE, the more powerful the explosive; this enables engineers to determine the proper masses of different explosives when applying blasting formulas developed for TNT. For example, if a timber-cutting formula calls for a charge of 1 kg of TNT based on octanitrocubane's RE factor of 2.38, it would take only 1.0/2.38 kg of it to do the same job. Using PETN, engineers would need 1.0/1.66 kg to obtain the same effects as 1 kg of TNT.
With ANFO or ammonium nitrate, they would require 1.0 / 1.0 / 0.42 kg, respectively. Calculating a single RE factor for a explosive is, impossible, it depends on the specific case of use. Given a pair of explosives, one can produce 2× the shockwave output but the difference in direct metal cutting ability maybe 4× higher for one type of metal and 7× higher for another type of metal; the relative differences between two explosives in shaped charges will be greater. The table below should be taken as an example and not as a precise source of data. *: TBX or EBX, in a small, confined space, may have over twice the power of destruction. The total power of aluminized mixtures depends on the condition of explosions. Brisance Net explosive quantity Nuclear weapon yield Orders of magnitude Relative effectiveness factor Table of explosive detonation velocities Ton Tonne Tonne of oil equivalent, a unit of energy exactly 10 tonnes of TNT Thompson, A.. N.. Guide for the Use of the International System of Units.
NIST Special Publication. 811. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Version 3.2. Nuclear Weapons FAQ Part 1.3 Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-7761-4. Cooper, Paul W. Explosives Engineering, New York: Wiley-VCH, ISBN 978-0-471-18636-6 HQ Department of the Army, Field Manual 5-25: Explosives and Demolitions, Washington, D. C.: Pentagon Publishing, pp. 83–84, ISBN 978-0-9759009-5-6 Explosives - Compositions, Alexandria, VA: GlobalSecurity.org, retrieved September 1, 2010 Urbański, Tadeusz and Technology of Explosives, Volumes I–IV, Oxford: Pergamon Mathieu, Jörg. Thermobaric Explosives, Advanced Energetic Materials, 2004; the National Academies Press, nap.edu, 2004
C-4 or Composition 4 is a common variety of the plastic explosive family known as Composition C. A similar British plastic explosive, based on RDX but with different plasticizer than Composition C-4, is known as PE-4. C-4 is composed of explosives, plastic binder, plasticizer to make it malleable, a marker or odorizing taggant chemical. C-4 can be molded into any desired shape. C-4 can be exploded only by the shock wave from a detonator or blasting cap; the Composition C-4 used by the United States Armed Forces contains 91% RDX, 5.3% dioctyl sebacate or dioctyl adipate as the plasticizer, 2.1% polyisobutylene as the binder, 1.6% of a mineral oil called "process oil." Instead of "process oil," low-viscosity motor oil is used in the manufacture of C-4 for civilian use. The British PE4 consists of 88.0% cyclonite, 1.0% pentaerythrite dioleate and 11.0% DG-29 lithium grease. The newer PE7 consists of 88.0% cyclonite, 1.0% DMNB taggant and 11.0% of a plasticizer composed of low molecular mass hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene, along with an antioxidant and an agent preventing hardening of the binder upon prolonged storage.
The PE8 consists of 86.5% cyclonite, 1.0% DMNB taggant and 12.5% of a binder composed of di sebacate thickened with high molecular mass polyisobutylene. Technical data according to the Department of the Army for the Composition C-4 follows. C-4 is manufactured by combining the above ingredients with binder dissolved in a solvent. Once the ingredients have been mixed, the solvent is extracted through filtering; the final material is a solid with a dirty white to light brown color, a putty-like texture similar to modeling clay, a distinct smell of motor oil. Depending on its intended usage and on the manufacturer, there are differences in the composition of C-4. For example, a 1990 U. S. Army technical manual stipulated that Class IV composition C-4 consists of 89.9±1% RDX, 10±1% polyisobutylene, 0.2±0.02% dye, itself made up of 90% lead chromate and 10% lamp black. RDX classes A, B, E, H are all suitable for use in C-4. Classes are measured by granulation; the manufacturing process for Composition C-4 specifies that wet RDX and plastic binder are added in a stainless steel mixing kettle.
This is called the aqueous slurry-coating process. The kettle is tumbled to obtain a homogeneous mixture; this mixture must be dried after transfer to drying trays. Drying with forced air for 16 hours at 50 °C to 60 °C is recommended to eliminate excess moisture. C-4 is stable and insensitive to most physical shocks. C-4 can not be detonated by dropping it onto a hard surface, it does not explode when exposed to microwave radiation. Detonation can only be initiated such as when a detonator inserted into it is fired; when detonated, C-4 decomposes to release nitrogen and carbon oxides as well as other gases. The detonation proceeds at an explosive velocity of 8,092 m/s. A major advantage of C-4 is that it can be molded into any desired shape to change the direction of the resulting explosion. C4 has high cutting ability. For example, the complete severing of a 14WF426 beam takes between 5.3 and 6 kg of C4 when properly applied in thin sheets. Military grade C-4 is packaged as the M112 demolition block.
The demolition charge M112 is a rectangular block of Composition C-4 2 inches by 1.5 inches and 11 inches long, weighing 1.25 lb. The M112 is wrapped in a sometimes olive color Mylar-film container with a pressure-sensitive adhesive tape on one surface; the M112 demolition blocks of C-4 are manufactured into the M183 "demolition charge assembly", which consists of 16 M112 block demolition charges and four priming assemblies packaged inside military Carrying Case M85. The M183 is used to breach obstacles or demolish large structures where larger satchel charges are required; each priming assembly includes a five- or twenty-foot length of detonating cord assembled with detonating cord clips and capped at each end with a booster. When the charge is detonated, the explosive is converted into compressed gas; the gas exerts pressure in the form of a shock wave, which demolishes the target by cutting, breaching, or cratering. Other forms include M18A1 Claymore Mine. Composition C-4 exists in the US Army Hazardous Components Safety Data Sheet on sheet number 00077.
Impact tests done by the US military indicate composition C-4 is less sensitive than composition C-3 and is insensitive. The insensitivity is attributed to using a large amount of binder in its composition. A series of shots were fired at vials containing C-4 in a test referred to as "the rifle bullet test". Only 20 percent of the vials burned, none exploded. While C-4 passed the Army's bullet impact and fragment impact tests at ambient temperature, it did in fact fail the shock stimulus, sympathetic detonation and shaped charge jet tests. Additional tests were done including the "pendulum friction test", which measured a five-second explosion temperature of 263 °C to 290 °C; the minimum initiating charge required is 0.1 grams of tetryl. The results of 100 °C heat test are: 0.13 percent loss in the first 48 hours, no los
Trauzl lead block test
The Trauzl lead block test called the Trauzl test or just Trauzl, is a test used to measure the strength of explosive materials. It was developed by Isidor Trauzl in 1885; the test is performed by loading a 10-gram foil-wrapped sample of the explosive into a hole drilled into a lead block with specific dimensions and properties. The hole is topped up with sand, the sample is detonated electrically. After detonation, the volume increase of the cavity is measured; the result, given in cm3, is called the Trauzl number of the explosive. The Trauzl test is not useful for some modern higher-powered explosives as their power cracks or otherwise ruptures the lead block, leaving no hole to measure. A variant of the test uses an aluminium block to avoid exposure of participants to lead-related hazards. Explosive power of chemical explosives by Trauzl number