Broadstone lies close to the small village of Gateside in North Ayrshire, Scotland about half a mile east of Beith in the old Barony of Giffen. The ruins of Braidstone or Broadstone Castle remained until about 1850, but when Broadstonehall Farm buildings were being rebuilt, the castle was pulled down and its stones used in the building works. An avenue of trees and the vestiges of a garden had survived until the time of the building of the farm, its site was pointed out by Mr W Kerr of Broadstonehall in 1855. Most baronies had a water mill, under the control of the laird or lord and to which the tenants were thirled or obliged to go to have their grain ground into flour. A proportion of the grain was taken as payment. Thirlage ended in the late 18th century and resulted in a number of mills being abandoned once market forces took a hold; the name'Crooked Dam' relates to a small dwelling that once existed near the Powgree Burn and the remains of a mill pond site shows that this building was the miller's dwelling and the old barony mill once lay below the site of the crooked dam.
The Lordship of Giffen, included the Baronies of Giffen, Hessilhead, Broadstone and Ramshead. The Barony of Braidstone was possessed by John de Lyddale, Dominus de Bradestane in 1452. Robert Montgomerie of Braidstone was second son of the 3rd Lord Montgomerie. Sir Hugh Montgomerie was born here in son of Adam, 5th Laird of Braidstane, he married the daughter of John Montgomery of Hessilhead, before 1568 he purchased lands from Hugh, third Earl of Eglinton. He left a daughter, who married Troilus, the second son of Adam Montgomery of Giffen. Andrew Nevin, inherited the Monkredding estate in 1581 and married Janet, daughter of Adam Montgomery, IV laird of Broadstone Castle. Matthew Montgomerie was a resident at Broadstone, but was recorded as living at Bogstone in 1622. Hugh, first Viscount of the Great-Ardes, granted a mortgage on the lands of Broadstone to his brother-in-law, Sir John Shaw of Greenock in 1650. In 1603 Hugh Montgomery had accompanied King James I and VI on the journey to London to take possession of the English throne and his surviving brother George was the Dean of Norwich, becoming one of the court chaplains to King James.
These close contacts enabled him to obtain a one third portion of the lands of Con O'Neill, Lord of the Claneboys, in Ulster. He entertained Con O'Neill at Broadstone and helped him to obtain a pardon for an accusation of'waging war' against Queen Elizabeth I. Mr James Hamilton, son of the minister of Dunlop James Hamilton, 1st Viscount Claneboye obtained a one third portion of these O'Neill lands. Hugh Montgomery brought a colony of Irish Protestants over from his Irish estates in 1600 and a colony of Protestants from the area were taken over to the Ardes and Clandebora areas of Ireland following the putting down of an Irish revolt. Hugh was knighted in by King James in 1605, giving him precedency over his rival James Hamilton, he was created Viscount Montgomery of the Great Ardes on May 3, 1622; the Earl of Mount Alexander was his grandson, his title deriving from his descent from the family of Alexander, Earls of Stirling. Hugh Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery, is known as one of the "founding fathers" of the Ulster-Scots along with James Hamilton, 1st Viscount Claneboye.
Paterson, the historian, records that the'Laird of Braidstane's Scotch Colony', established in around 1606, was responsible for the introduction of linen weaving and manufacture to the area around Lurgan in Ireland. Some of the family of Hugh Hammil of the nearby lands of Roughwood accompanied Hugh Montgomerie to Ireland and became established there as merchants in the Dublin area; as stated, Hugh Montgomery granted a mortgage on the lands of Broadstone to his brother-in-law, Sir John Shaw in 1650. Sir John stayed at the castle until just after the year 1700; the Shaws alienated the estate in feus until only the farm upon which the castle stood, remained. The family, from Greenock, were resident in 1650; the castle was last occupied in the early 18th century. The lands of Neubottle, now called Windyhouse, comprised Over and Nether Windyhouse and were feued by Sir John Shaw in 1674 to Thomas Shedden; the lands stayed with the Sheddens until James Shedden, who had two sons, one of whom, John joined the army and died in 1821, whilst the other, emigrated to Canada.
Robertson records a Mary Barr of Broadstone, daughter of J. Barr, who married Robert Buntine-Barr of Trearne and had a son Robert who died at sea. In 1827 & 1829 Broadstone Hall was the residence of Sir M. S. Stewart. In 1842 Sir Michael Shaw Stewart, retained the farm, together with the superiority of the whole. In 1798 Hugh Brown, a merchant in Beith, had purchased Hill of Beith Castle, he had purchased part of the Broadstone lands prior to this, as well as part of the lands of Geilsland, a portion of the lands of Crummock and part of the lands of Lyonshields in the barony of Hessilhead. He built his mansion house at Brae-head House known as Crummock Park, his son Hugh inherited in 1809 and another Hugh Brown of Broadstone inherited in 1857. A memorial at Beith Auld Kirk commemorates the second Hugh Brown of Broadstone and his wife Margaret Caldwell. Marshalland and Geilsland houses lie across the nearby P
A bolection is a decorative moulding which projects beyond the face of a panel or frame in raised panel walls and fireplaces. It is used when the meeting surfaces are at different levels to hold floating panels in place while allowing them to expand and contract with changes in temperature and humidity. Sometimes called balection or bilection, the term is of uncertain etymology and was first used in the early 18th century. Bolection was used to great effect by Christopher Wren. Bolection mouldings are rabbeted on their underside to the depth of the lower element, but attached to the upper or both
Kirk is a Scottish and Northern English word meaning "church", or more the Church of Scotland. Many place names and personal names are derived from it; as a common noun, kirk is found in Scots, Scottish English, Ulster-Scots and some English dialects, attested as a noun from the 14th century onwards, but as an element in placenames much earlier. Both words and church, derive from the Koine Greek κυριακόν meaning Lord's, borrowed into the Germanic languages in late antiquity in the course of the Gothic missions. Whereas church displays Old English palatalisation, kirk is a loanword from Old Norse and thus has the original mainland Germanic consonants. Compare cognates: Icelandic & Faroese kirkja; as a proper noun, The Kirk is an informal name for the Church of Scotland, the country's national church. The Kirk of Scotland was in official use as the name of the Church of Scotland until the 17th century, still today the term is used in the press and everyday speech, though in the Church's own literature.
However, Kirk Session is still the standard term in church law for the court of elders in the local congregation, both in the Church of Scotland and in any of the other Scottish Presbyterian denominations. More The Free Kirk is heard as an informal name for the Free Church of Scotland, the remnant of an evangelical presbyterian church formed in 1843 when its founders withdrew from the Church of Scotland. See: Free Church of Scotland Free Church of Scotland High Kirk is the term sometimes used to describe a congregation of the Church of Scotland which uses a building, a cathedral prior to the Reformation; as the Church of Scotland is not governed by bishops, it has no cathedrals in the episcopal sense of the word. In more recent times, the traditional names have been revived, so that in many cases both forms can be heard: Glasgow Cathedral, as well as the High Kirk of Glasgow, St. Giles' Cathedral, as well as the High Kirk of Edinburgh; the term High Kirk should, however, be used with some caution.
Several towns have a congregation known as the High Kirk which were never pre-Reformation cathedrals. Examples include: Dundee, where the High Kirk is not the historic Dundee Parish Church known as St Mary's, but St David's. There is no connection between the term'High Kirk' and the term'High Church', a type of Churchmanship within the Anglican Communion; the first court of Presbyterian polity where the Elders of a particular congregation gather as a Session or meeting to govern the spiritual and temporal affairs of the church. The verb to kirk, meaning'to present in church', was first used for the annual church services of some Scottish town councils, known as the Kirking of the Council. Since the establishment of the Scottish Parliament in 1999, the Kirking of the Parliament has become a fixed ceremony at the beginning of a session. A newly married couple would attend public worship as man and wife for the first time at their Kirking. In Nova Scotia, Kirking of the Tartan ceremonies have become an integral part of most Scottish Festivals and Highland Games.
Like words meaning "church" in other languages, kirk is found as an element in many placenames in Scotland and England, in countries with large British expatriate communities. Examples include Falkirk, Kirkwall or numerous Kirkhills in Scotland, Kirkstall, Kirkby, so forth in England, Newkirk, Oklahoma in the United States. What may be surprising is that this element is found not only in place names of Anglo-Saxon origin, but in some Southern Scottish names of Gaelic origin such as Kirkcudbright. Here, the Gaelic element cil- might be expected; the reason appears to be that kirk was borrowed into Galwegian Gaelic, though it was never part of Gaelic as it was spoken in the Highlands or Ireland. When the element appears in placenames in the former British empire, a distinction can be made between those where the element is productive and those where it is transferred. Kirkland, Washington is an exception, being named after English settler Peter Kirk; the element kirk is used in anglicisations of continental European place names formed from one of the continental Germanic cognates.
Thus Dunkirk is a rendering of an original standard Dutch form, Duinkerke. Kirk is in use as both a surname and a male forename. For lists of these, see Kirk and Kirk, Kirkby. Parallels in other languages are far rarer than with placenames, but English Church can be a surname. Kirk Party
In heraldry, the term star may refer to any star-shaped charge with any number of rays, which may appear straight or wavy, may or may not be pierced. While there has been much confusion between the two due to their similar shape, a star with straight-sided rays is called a mullet while one with wavy rays is called an estoile. While a mullet may have any number of points, it is presumed to have five unless otherwise specified in the blazon, pierced mullets are common. In Scottish heraldry, an estoile is the same as in English heraldry, but it has been said that mullet refers only to a mullet pierced, while one, not pierced is called a star; the use of the word star in blazons, how that charge appears in coat armory, varies from one jurisdiction to another. In Scots heraldry, both star and mullet interchangeably mean a star with five straight rays. In Canadian heraldry the usual term is mullet, but there is the occasional six-pointed star, what others would blazon as a six-pointed mullet; the United States Army Institute of Heraldry, the official heraldic authority in the United States, uses the term mullet in its blazons, but elsewhere, as in US government documents describing the flag of the United States and the Great Seal of the United States, the term star is used, these nearly always appear with five straight-sided points.
The term mullet or molet refers to a star with straight sides having five or six points, but may have any number of points specified in the blazon. If the number of points is not specified, five points are presumed in Gallo-British heraldry, six points are presumed in German-Nordic heraldry. Unlike estoiles, mullets have straight rays and may have represented the rowel of a spur, rather than a celestial star; the term is said to be derived from French molette, a spur-rowel, although it was in use in heraldry before rowel spurs. The term estoile refers to wavy-sided stars of six points, though they may be blazoned with a different number of points eight, many variants feature alternating straight and wavy rays; the term derives from Old French estoile'star', in reference to a celestial star, from Latin stella'star'. Stars are comparatively rare in European heraldry during the medieval period. An early reference of dubious historicity is reported by Johannes Letzner, who cites Conradus Fontanus to the effect that one Curtis von Meinbrechthausen, a knight of Saxony, in 1169 after committing a murder lost his rank and arms, described as an eight-pointed star beneath a chevron.
Examples of stars in a late medieval heraldry of the Holy Roman Empire include those of Wentz von Niederlanstein, Geyer von Osterberg, Enolff Ritter von Leyen. Under the system of cadency in use in England and Ireland since the late 15th century, a third son bears a mullet as a difference. Stars become much more popular as heraldic charges in the early modern era in then-recent family coats of arms of burghers and patricians, as well as in coats of arms of cities; the coat of arms of Valais originates in the 16th century, when seven stars representing its Seven Tithings were added to the party per pale coat of arms of the Bishop of Sion. Of the higher nobility in Siebmachers Wappenbuch, the landgrave of Hessen and the counts of Waldeck and Erbach have stars in their coats of arms, as do several Swiss knights. Stars are nearly ubiquitous in United States heraldry and vexillology and nearly always appear unpierced with five straight-sided points. In the flag of the United States, each star represents one state.
The flag adopted in 1777 is the attributed origin of the thirteen stars, representing the thirteen United States, appearing on the Great Seal since 1780. A mullet "barbed to chief" appears in the arms of the 240th Signal Battalion of the 40th Infantry Division of the California Army National Guard United States Army. In the design of modern flags, stars when standing alone represent concepts like "unity" or "independence", in the case of the communist star of the flag of the Soviet Union and other communist states the unity of the Communist Party; when arranged in groups, they enumerate provinces or other components of the nation. In the flags of Nauru and the Marshall Islands, this enumeration is done by the points of a single star rather than by a number of stars; some flags of countries on the southern hemisphere show a depiction of the Southern Cross consisting of four or five stars. The star and crescent symbol is found in flags of states succeeding the Ottoman Empire, which used flags with this symbol during 1793-1923.
The twelve stars on the Flag of Europe symbolize unity. The green five-pointed star on the Esperanto flag symbolizes the five inhabited continents; the 50 stars of the US flag is the largest number on any national flag. The second-largest number of stars on a current national flag is 27, on the flag of Brazil; the current national flags featuring stars include: Not bearing heraldic stars as such, the 1915 Flag of Morocco and the 1996 flag of Ethiopia h
Historic Scotland was an executive agency of the Scottish Government from 1991 to 2015, responsible for safeguarding Scotland's built heritage, promoting its understanding and enjoyment. Under the terms of a Bill of the Scottish Parliament published on 3 March 2014, Historic Scotland was dissolved and its functions were transferred to Historic Environment Scotland on 1 October 2015. HES took over the functions of the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Historic Scotland was a successor organisation to the Ancient Monuments Division of the Ministry of Works and the Scottish Development Department, it was created as an agency in 1991 and was attached to the Scottish Executive Education Department, which embraces all aspects of the cultural heritage, in May 1999. As part of the Scottish Government, Historic Scotland was directly accountable to the Scottish Ministers. In 2002, proposals to restore Castle Tioram in the West Highlands, by putting a roof back on, were blocked by Historic Scotland, which favoured stabilising it as a ruin.
This position was supported in an extensive local Public Inquiry at which the arguments for both sides were heard. It has been implied. After widespread consultation, Historic Scotland published a comprehensive series of Scottish Historic Environment Policy papers, consolidated into a single volume in October 2008; the agency's Framework Document set out the responsibilities of the Scottish Ministers and the agency's Chief Executive. Its Corporate Plan sets out its targets and performance against them. Historic Scotland and the Glasgow School of Art's Digital Design Studio formed the Centre for Digital Documentation and Visualization to promote the documentation and 3D representation of heritage objects and environments with laser scanning and 3D visualization software. Historic Scotland had direct responsibility for maintaining and running over 360 monuments in its care, about a quarter of which are manned and charge admission entry; these properties have additional features such as guidebooks and other resources.
Historic Scotland sought to increase the number of events run at its sites, most designed to engage young people with history. New museums and visitor centres were opened, notably at Arbroath Abbey and Urquhart Castle. There was a hospitality section, which makes some properties available for wedding receptions and other functions. Membership of Historic Scotland was promoted by the organisation, with benefits such as free entry to all their properties and over 400 events for the duration of the annual membership, as well as half price entry to properties in England and the Isle of Man, becoming free in subsequent years. Lifetime memberships were available, all members received a quarterly magazine'Historic Scotland'. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland Scottish Ten Official website
A cavetto is a concave moulding with a regular curved profile, part of a circle used in architecture as well as furniture, picture frames and other decorative arts. In describing vessels and similar shapes in pottery and related fields, "cavetto" may be used of a variety of concave curves running round objects; the word comes from Italian, as a diminutive of cave, from the Latin for "hollow". A vernacular alternative is "cove", most used where interior walls curve at the top to make a transition to the roof, or for "upside down" cavettos at the bases of elements; the cavetto moulding is the opposite of the convex, ovolo, common in the tradition of Western classical architecture. Both bring the surface forward, are combined with other elements of moulding, they include a curve through about a quarter-circle. A concave moulding of about a full semi-circle is known as a "scotia". Only a minor element of decoration in classical architecture, the prominent cavetto cornice is a common feature of the ancient architecture of Egypt and the Ancient Near East.
Ancient Egyptian architecture made especial use of large cavetto mouldings as a cornice, with only a short fillet above, a torus moulding below. This cavetto cornice is sometimes known as an "Egyptian cornice", "hollow and roll" or "gorge cornice", has been suggested to be a reminiscence in stone architecture of the primitive use of bound bunches of reeds as supports for buildings, the weight of the roof bending their tops out. Many types of Egyptian capitals for columns are cavettos running round the shaft with added decoration; these include the types known as "bell capitals" or "papyrus capitals". These features are reproduced in Egyptian Revival architecture, as in the Egyptian Building in Richmond, Virginia; the cavetto cornice forming less than a quarter-circle, influenced Egypt's neighbours and as well as appearing in early Greek architecture, it is seen in Syria and ancient Iran, for example at the Tachara palace of Darius I at Persepolis, completed in 486 BC. Inspired by this precedent, it was revived by Ardashir I, the founder of the Sasanian dynasty.
The cavetto took the place of the Greek cymatium in many Etruscan temples painted with vertical "tongue" patterns, combined with the distinctive "Etruscan round moulding" painted with scales. This emphasis on the cavetto was different from its role in mature Ancient Greek architecture, where cavetto elements were small and subordinated to vertical elements, setting the style for the subsequent Western classical tradition. An cavetto section is decorated, in Gothic architecture smothering the shape beneath. In general the Greeks made much more use of the cyma moulding, where a cavetto and ovolo were placed one above the other to produce a "S" shape. There are two forms, depending on which curve is uppermost: in the cyma recta the cavetto is on top, in the cyma reversa the ovolo. A cavetto alone was sometimes employed in the place of the cymatium of a cornice, as in the Doric order of the Theatre of Marcellus in Rome, one of the standard models for revived classical architecture from the Renaissance onwards.
But small cavetto mouldings were normal at various places, including integrated ones, not distinguished as a distinct zone by lines or borders, at the bottom of the shaft of columns, beginning the transition to the wider base. These are called an apophyge, or "concave sweep". Claude Perrault, the architect of Louis XIV's rebuilding of the Louvre Palace, explained in his architectural textbook Ordonnance for the five kinds of columns after the method of the Ancients why he had replaced a cavetto with a cyma in his illustration of the Doric capital: "a cavetto is not as strong and is more broken than the other molding". In plates and other flattish shapes, cavetto is used for the curving area linking the base and the rim; this is the case whether the rim is a broad flat surface, or the edge of the cavetto. The term refers to the top surface of the vessel; the cavetto is often left undecorated, but may have decoration of a different sort from the middle or a flat rim, the term is used when it is necessary to describe this.
In complicated pottery shapes, where the normal vocabulary of mouldings is appropriate, cavetto may be used in that sense for any concave curving section. In the terminology of archaeology relating to pottery, a cavetto zone or cavetto is a "sharp concavity encircling the body of a vessel", a "deep but narrow neck", both used in relation to upright vessels for storing or cooking food. Gibson, Alex M. Prehistoric Pottery for the Archaeologist, 1997, A&C Black, ISBN 071851954X, 9780718519544, google books Perrault, Ordonnance for the Five Kinds of Columns after the Method of the Ancients, translated by Indra Kagis McEwenand and edited by Alberto Perez-Gomez, 1996, Getty Publications, ISBN 0892362324, 9780892362325, google books Summerson, The Classical Language of Architecture, 1980 edition and Hudson World of Art series, ISBN 0500201773 Winter, Nancy A. "Monumentalization of the Etruscan Round Moulding in Sixth Century BCE Central Italy", in Monumentality in Etrusca