Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals via a system of pumps and pipes. Irrigation is covered separately. In 2010, about 56% of the global population had access to piped water supply through house connections or to an improved water source through other means than house, including standpipes, water kiosks, spring supplies and protected wells. However, about 13% did not have access to an improved water source and had to use unprotected wells or springs, lakes or rivers for their water needs. A clean water supply—in particular, water, not polluted with fecal matter from lack of sanitation—is the single most important determinant of public health. Destruction of water supply and/or sanitation infrastructure after major catastrophes poses the immediate threat of severe epidemics of waterborne diseases, several of which can be life-threatening. Water supply systems get water from a variety of locations after appropriate treatment, including groundwater, surface water, the sea through desalination.
The water treatment steps include, in most cases, disinfection through chlorination and sometimes fluoridation. Treated water either flows by gravity or is pumped to reservoirs, which can be elevated such as water towers or on the ground. Once water is used, wastewater is discharged in a sewer system and treated in a sewage treatment plant before being discharged into a river, lake or the sea or reused for landscaping, irrigation or industrial use. In the United States, the typical single family home uses about 520 l of water per day or 222 l per capita per day; this includes several common residential end use purposes like toilet use, tap use, washing machine use, other and dishwasher use. Water supply service quality has many dimensions: continuity. Many people in developing countries receive a poor or poor quality of service. Continuity of water supply is taken for granted in most developed countries, but is a severe problem in many developing countries, where sometimes water is only provided for a few hours every day or a few days a week.
It is estimated that about half of the population of developing countries receives water on an intermittent basis. Drinking water quality has a physico-chemical dimension. There are thousands of parameters of water quality. In public water supply systems water should, at a minimum, be disinfected—most through the use of chlorination or the use of ultra violet light—or it may need to undergo treatment in the case of surface water. For more details, please see the separate entries on water quality, water treatment and drinking water. Water pressures vary in different locations of a distribution system. Water mains below the street may operate at higher pressures, with a pressure reducer located at each point where the water enters a building or a house. In poorly managed systems, water pressure can be so low as to result only in a trickle of water or so high that it leads to damage to plumbing fixtures and waste of water. Pressure in an urban water system is maintained either by a pressurised water tank serving an urban area, by pumping the water up into a water tower and relying on gravity to maintain a constant pressure in the system or by pumps at the water treatment plant and repeater pumping stations.
Typical UK pressures are 4–5 bar for an urban supply. However, some people can get below one bar. A single iron main pipe may cross a deep valley, it will have the same nominal pressure, however each consumer will get a bit more or less because of the hydrostatic pressure. So people at the bottom of a 30-metre hill will get about 3 bars more than those at the top; the effective pressure varies because of the pressure loss due to supply resistance for the same static pressure. An urban consumer may have 5 metres of 15 mm pipe running from the iron main, so the kitchen tap flow will be unrestricted, so high flow. A rural consumer may have a kilometre of rusted and limed 22 mm iron pipe, so their kitchen tap flow will be small. For this reason, the UK domestic water system has traditionally employed a "cistern feed" system, where the incoming supply is connected to the kitchen sink and a header/storage tank in the attic. Water can dribble into this tank through a 12 mm pipe, plus ball valve, supply the house on 22 or 28 mm pipes.
Gravity water has a small pressure. This is fine for baths and toilets but is inadequate for showers. A booster pump or a hydrophore is installed to maintain pressure. For this reason urban houses are using mains pressure boilers which take a long time to fill a bath but suit the high back pressure of a shower. A great variety of institutions have responsibilities in water supply. A basic distinction is between institutions responsible for regulation on the one hand. Water supply policies and regulation are defined by one or several Ministries, in consultation with the legislative branch. In the United States the United States Environmental Protection Agency, whose administrator repo
South East Queensland
South East Queensland is a bio-geographical and administrative region of the state of Queensland in Australia, which contains 3.5 million people out of the state's population of 4.8 million. The area covered by South East Queensland varies, depending on the definition of the region, though it tends to include Queensland's three largest cities: the capital city Brisbane, its most common use is for political purposes, covers 22,420 square kilometres and incorporates 11 local government areas, extending 240 kilometres from Noosa in the north to the Gold Coast and New South Wales border in the south, 140 kilometres west to Toowoomba. South East Queensland was the first part of Queensland to be explored by Europeans. Settlements arose in the Brisbane and Ipswich areas with activity by European immigrants spreading in all directions from there. Various industries such as timber cutting and agriculture developed at locations around the region from the 1840s onwards. Transport links have been shaped by the range of terrains found in South East Queensland.
The economy of South East Queensland supports and relies on a wide diversity of agricultural manufacturing industries and tourism. The region has TransLink. South East Queensland, classified as an interim Australian bioregion, comprises 7,804,921 hectares and includes the Moreton Basin, South Burnett, the Scenic Rim along with ten other biogeographic subregions; the term South East Queensland has no equivalent political representation. The area covers many lower house seats at the federal and state levels; as Queensland has no upper house, there are no Legislative Council provinces or regions to bear the name either. South East Queensland was home to around 20,000 Aboriginals prior to British occupation; the local tribes of the area were the Yuggurapul of the Central Brisbane area. According to history researchers the Aboriginal population declined to around 10,000 over the next 60 years. Early explorers in the area including Matthew Flinders, Allan Cunningham, John Oxley and Patrick Logan. Around 1839, European settlers were able to move into the region.
Logging was the first industry to develop. The first railway built in Queensland linked Grandchester to Ipswich in 1865 along a narrow 1067 mm gauge. Major floods were experienced in 1893, 1974 and 2011. In 2005, the region suffered its worst drought in recorded history. Queensland's third highest peak, Mount Barney, is located in the south of the region; the Cunningham Highway passes southwest to the Darling Downs via Cunninghams Gap. Several highways including the Bruce Highway, Warrego Highway and the Pacific Motorway link to the adjoining regions; the region is mountainous. McPherson Range, Teviot Range, D'Aguilar Range, Little Liverpool Range, Blackall Range as well as the Springbrook Plateau and Tamborine Mountain Plateau. Isolated volcanic peaks are found at the Glass House Mountains. Along the coast are several large islands including Bribie Island, Moreton Island and North Stradbroke Island with many smaller islands in Moreton Bay. Several major water supply and flood mitigation dams have been constructed here.
The Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme and Gold Coast Desalination Plant were built to counter the effects of drought in South East Queensland. South East Queensland consists of the following regions, each of, a local government area: Brisbane – the capital and largest city of Queensland; the Brisbane metropolitan area consists of the City of Brisbane, as well as the following local governments: Ipswich City – an outer-suburban city with an industrial and mining heritage west of Brisbane. Logan City – a residential area between Brisbane and the Gold Coast. Moreton Bay Region – a residential area between Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast. Redland City – a residential and agricultural area on the shores of Moreton Bay to the south-east of Brisbane. City of Gold Coast – a major tourist and retirement destination to the south of Brisbane, the largest non-capital city in Australia. Sunshine Coast Region – a coastal tourist and agricultural region to the north of Brisbane; the Glass House Mountains are a symbol of this region.
West Moreton, a rural area in the Great Dividing Range consisting of: Toowoomba City – the Toowoomba city is included in both the South East Queensland region and within Western Downs region due to its importance to both regions as a gateway city providing access to the west of the state. Lockyer Valley Region – an agricultural area west of Ipswich, known for its fruit and vegetable production. Scenic Rim Region – a pastoral area inland from the Gold Coast known for its scenic mountains and villages. Somerset Region – a pastoral area north west of Brisbane and location of two major dams supplying South East Queensland with water; this area is known as the Brisbane Valley. The Tweed Shire is within NSW but is included in planning processes for SEQ. While not part of the
Lord Mayor of Brisbane
The Lord Mayor of Brisbane is the chief executive of the City of Brisbane, the capital of the Australian state of Queensland, the head of the Brisbane City Council. The current Lord Mayor is Adrian Schrinner of the Liberal National Party, sworn in on 8 April 2019, following the resignation of Graham Quirk; the Lord Mayor serves a four-year term running concurrently with that of the City Council, is elected by optional preferential voting. As Brisbane is by far the largest local government area in Australia, the Lord Mayor is elected by the largest single-member electorate in the Commonwealth. Like all mayors in Queensland, the Lord Mayor has broad executive powers and additional civic and ceremonial duties; the Lord Mayor is responsible for policy development, implementing policies enacted by the council and controlling the business of council, preparing the budget and directing the chief executive and senior managers. He or she chairs the council's Civic Cabinet and is an ex officio member of all council committees.
List of mayors and lord mayors of Brisbane
Campbell Kevin Thomas Newman is a former Australian politician who served as the 38th Premier of Queensland from 26 March 2012 to 14 February 2015. Newman served as the Member for Ashgrove in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland between March 2012 and 31 January 2015, he was the Leader of the Liberal National Party from 2 April 2011 to 7 February 2015, was the 15th Lord Mayor of Brisbane from 27 March 2004 to 3 April 2011. Newman was elected lord mayor as a member of the Liberal Party, he became a member of the LNP following the July 2008 merger of the Queensland Liberals and The Nationals. In March 2011, Newman announced that he would challenge Leader of the Opposition John-Paul Langbroek for the leadership of the LNP. Langbroek resigned, Newman was elected his successor; as Newman was not a member of the Legislative Assembly, former state Nationals' leader Jeff Seeney was elected interim opposition leader while Newman headed the party's election team from outside the legislature. Newman led the LNP to a landslide victory in the 2012 state election winning 78 of 89 seats from a 44-seat, 13.7-point two-party swing, allowing the LNP to form their first majority government.
At the same time, he won election to the seat of Ashgrove in western Brisbane. He was sworn in as premier two days becoming the first Brisbane-based non-Labor premier in 97 years. At the 2015 state election, the Newman-led LNP suffered a 14.0-point two-party swing, resulting in a hung parliament − of 89 seats, Labor won 44 seats and the statewide two-party vote while the LNP were reduced to 42 seats. Newman himself lost his own seat to Kate Jones. On 10 February 2015, Newman submitted his resignation and he was replaced as Premier of Queensland by Annastacia Palaszczuk four days as the Australian Labor Party formed a minority government. Campbell Newman was born on 12 August 1963 in Canberra, to parents who both represented Tasmania in the federal parliament and were both ministers in Liberal–National coalition governments, his father, represented the federal seat of Bass from 1975 to 1984, was a minister in the Fraser government. His mother, Jocelyn Newman, was a minister in the Howard government.
Campbell Newman was raised in Tasmania, attending Launceston Church Grammar School returned to Canberra. He joined the Australian Army as a staff cadet at the Royal Military College, Duntroon in 1981, graduating as a lieutenant in 1985, he spent 13 years in the army. He has an honours degree in civil engineering from the University of New South Wales, he moved to Queensland, where he graduated with an MBA from the University of Queensland worked as a consultant for PA Consulting Group, subsequently for the agricultural storage company Grainco, before deciding to stand for election as lord mayor of Brisbane. In the 2004 election, Newman narrowly defeated Labor incumbent Tim Quinn. However, a majority of wards returned Labor councillors, meaning Newman had to work with a Labor-dominated civic cabinet and a Labor deputy mayor; the most significant infrastructure item initiated or delivered during this first term was the TransApex package of bridge and tunnel projects. In the 2008 election, Newman was reelected and the Liberals took control of the council by taking at least six wards from Labor.
Newman was selected as one of 25 mayors from across the world shortlisted for the 2010 World Mayor Prize, an online competition aimed at raising the profile of civic leaders. When the results were announced, Newman was declared the fifth best mayor in the world. On 18 March 2011, Nine News Queensland's Spencer Jolly reported that the LNP's organisational wing was engineering a plan to make Newman the leader of the LNP. According to Jolly, party president Bruce McIver was trying to arrange for Bruce Flegg, the former leader of the Queensland Liberals and the MP for Moggill, the only safe LNP seat in Brisbane at the time, to resign and hand his seat to Newman. Under this plan, once Newman was safely in the legislature, he would have challenged Opposition Leader John-Paul Langbroek—who, like Newman, is from the Liberal side of the LNP merger—for the leadership of the LNP. Newman subsequently acknowledged. Although he did not rule out running in the next state election he stated that, for the time being, he was committed to serving out his term as lord mayor and running for reelection in 2012.
However, on 22 March, Newman announced that he was seeking the LNP preselection for the west Brisbane seat of Ashgrove, held by Labor's Kate Jones, in the election due for 2012. If he won preselection, Newman said, he would make a bid for the LNP leadership. According to ABC News, the LNP's organisational wing wanted Newman to run for a state seat and the leadership when polls showed he was the only non-Labor politician who matched Premier Anna Bligh's popularity during the 2010–2011 Queensland floods. Jones held Ashgrove with a margin of 7.1 points. However, according to Australian Broadcasting Corporation elections analyst Antony Green, Newman carried The Gap ward, which contains the bulk of Ashgrove, with 56 percent of the two-party vote in 2004 and 70 percent in 2008. According to Green, if Newman repeated his past performance in The Gap, he would be able to take Ashgrove off Labor. Within hours of Newman's announcement and deputy leader Lawrence Springborg both resigned their posts. Langbroek had been under growing pressure from the LNP's organisational wing to stand down after Labor's polling numbers rebounded in the wake of the floods.
However, as la
Mount Crosby Weir
The Mount Crosby Weir is a weir on the Brisbane River at Mount Crosby in South East Queensland, Australia. The project was instigated by John Petrie at the end of the 19th century; the town of Brisbane was expanding and seeking more reliable sources of drinking water than Enoggera Dam and Gold Creek Dam could provide. The location was selected because it was just above the upstream tidal flow of seawater at Colleges Crossing; the concrete structure was completed in April 1892. The dam wall is 81.4 metres in length. The weir has a capacity of 3,430 megalitres, making it one of the largest weirs in the region. Above the weir is a one-lane road, open to the public; the nearby Mount Crosby Pumping Station is used to transport drinking water, sourced from the weir as well as Lake Manchester Dam built shortly after the Mount Crosby Weir. Without an ongoing eradication program water hyacinth weed can choke the waters behind the weir, all the way upstream to Fernvale. In 2009 the weir was flushed to remove algai and organic matter.
List of dams in Queensland South East Queensland Water Grid
Bill Gunn Dam
The Bill Gunn Dam is an earth-fill embankment dam with an un-gated spillway located off-stream in the South East region of Queensland, Australia. The main purpose of the dam is for irrigation of the Lockyer Valley; the resultant reservoir is called Lake Dyer. Located 1.5 kilometres west of the town of Laidley, the dam was developed to increase the capacity of the existing Lake Dyer, a natural lake adjacent to Laidley Creek, a tributary of Lockyer Creek. The dam is managed by SEQ Water; the 1,170 m long earthfill structure has a maximum height of 12 m and an overflow spillway which diverts excess water into Laidley Creek. The dam has a maximum surface area of 108 hectares. Water from the dam is used in the densely cropped Lockyer Valley. Bill Gunn Dam suffers from high drawdowns and summer evaporation which together with phosphate fertilizer creates significant blue green algae problems. In November 2005, during drought conditions in the area, the dam's water level declined to just 1%. A boating permit is not required, however a maximum of eight boats are allowed on the lake at once.
A single concrete boat ramp and some facilities for visitors, including campers, are available at a lakeside caravan park, managed by the local council. The dam is stocked with silver perch and golden perch, while bony bream, spangled perch and eel-tailed catfish breed naturally. A Stocked Impoundment Permit is required to fish in the dam; the poor water quality means that fish caught in the dam may, at times of an algae outbreak, be a health hazard if eaten. List of dams in Queensland Sweetwater Fishing, Lake Dyer/Bill Gunn Dam
Shire of Caboolture
The Shire of Caboolture was a local government area located in the Australian state of Queensland on the northern urban fringe of the capital and south of the Sunshine Coast. The Shire covered an area of 1,224.4 square kilometres, of which one-quarter was urban, existed as a local government entity from 1879 until 2008, when it amalgamated with the City of Redcliffe and Shire of Pine Rivers to form the Moreton Bay Region. Caboolture Division was created on 11 November 1879 as one of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879, it was centred on Caboolture, at that time a small logging town, covered all of Moreton Bay and much of the Sunshine Coast, but by 1890 had shrunk with the separate incorporation of the Pine Division, Redcliffe Division and Maroochy Division. Caboolture Division became the Shire of Caboolture on 31 March 1903 after the Local Authorities Act 1902 was enacted. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the Shire of Caboolture merged with the City of Redcliffe and the Shire of Pine Rivers to form the Moreton Bay Region.
The Shire of Caboolture included the following suburbs: 1881: William Pettigrew 1927: Anders Anderson Fredin 2000-2008: Joy Leishman University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Caboolture Shire Official website at the Wayback Machine