The Marion-Handley was an automobile built in Jackson, Michigan by the Mutual Motors Company from 1916 to 1919. The Marion-Handley was a continuation of the earlier Marion vehicle, was a popular vehicle. Two models were available, a four-seater roadster; the 6-40 model was built on a 10 ft chassis, the 6-60 was offered with a 10 ft 5 in chassis. The vehicles came equipped with a Continental six-cylinder engine. Wooden artillery wheels were standard equipment on the touring car, but the touring model offered wire wheels as an option on the roadster. Georgano, G. N.. The Complete Encyclopedia of Motorcars, 1885 to Present
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Boulogne-Billancourt is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 8.2 km from the centre of Paris. Boulogne-Billancourt is a subprefecture of the Hauts-de-Seine department and the seat of the Arrondissement of Boulogne-Billancourt. With an average household income in 2013 of €47,592, nearly twice the French average of €25,548, Boulogne-Billancourt is one of the wealthiest cities in France. Boulogne-Billancourt is the most populous suburb of Paris and one of the most densely populated municipalities in Europe. An important industrial site, it has reconverted into business services and is now home to major communication companies headquartered in the Val de Seine business district; the original name of the commune was Boulogne-sur-Seine. Before the 14th century, Boulogne was a small village called Menuls-lès-Saint-Cloud. In the beginning of the 14th century, King Philip IV of France ordered the building in Menuls-lès-Saint-Cloud of a church dedicated to the virgin of the sanctuary of Boulogne-sur-Mer a famous pilgrimage center in northern France.
The church, meant to become a pilgrimage centre closer to Paris than the distant city of Boulogne-sur-Mer, was named Notre-Dame de Boulogne la Petite. The village of Menuls-lès-Saint-Cloud became known as Boulogne-la-Petite, as Boulogne-sur-Seine. In 1924, Boulogne-sur-Seine was renamed Boulogne-Billancourt to reflect the development of the industrial neighbourhood of Billancourt annexed in 1860; as for the name Billancourt, it was recorded for the first time in 1150 as Bullencort, sometimes spelled Bollencort. It comes from Medieval Latin cortem, accusative of cors, meaning "enclosure", "estate", suffixed to the Germanic patronym Buolo, thus having the meaning of "estate of Buolo". On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, the communes of Auteuil and Passy were disbanded and divided between Boulogne-Billancourt and the city of Paris. Boulogne-sur-Seine received a small part of the territory of Passy, about half of the territory of Auteuil.
Some of the shooting events of the 1900 Summer Olympics took place in Boulogne-Billancourt. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne, hitherto divided between the communes of Boulogne-Billancourt and Neuilly-sur-Seine, was annexed in its entirety by the city of Paris. On that occasion, Boulogne-Billancourt, to which most of the Bois de Boulogne belonged, lost about half of its territory. Boulogne-Billancourt is known for being the birthplace of three major French industries, it was the location, in 1906 for the first aircraft factory, that of Appareils d'Aviation Les Freres Voisin, followed by those of many other aviation pioneers, the tradition continues with several aviation related companies still operating in the area. The automobile industry had a large presence with Renault on Île Seguin, Salmson building both cars and aircraft engines; the French film industry started here and, from 1922 to 1992 it was the home of the Billancourt Studios, since becoming a major location for French film production.
It was used as the setting of the TV show Code Lyoko. The ecologic neighborhood of the Trapèze in Boulogne-Billancourt: the district stands on 74ha and will be able to contain up to 18000 inhabitants at the end of its construction. 65 % of the district's energy is brought by geothermal power, which freshens the buildings. Solar panels and a vegetable greenhouse were installed in the aim to link the district to sustainable energies. Bicycle and “soft” travels will of course be put first to reduce the pollution caused by cars, others vehicles which do not run on electricity; the Ambroise Paré Hospital is located in the city. With the city of Sèvres, Boulogne-Billancourt is part of the communauté d'agglomération Val de Seine. Boulogne-Billancourt is served by two stations on Paris Métro Line 10: Boulogne – Jean Jaurès and Boulogne – Pont de Saint-Cloud, it is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 9: Marcel Sembat and Pont de Sèvres. Boulogne-Billancourt hosts the global headquarters of several multinational companies, including: Alcatel-Lucent Carrefour Française des Jeux Pika Édition Renault TF1 Vallourec YoplaitPrior to 2000 Schneider Electric's head office was in Boulogne-Billancourt.
The Musée Albert-Kahn at 14, rue du Port, Boulogne-Billancourt is a national museum and includes four hectares of gardens, joining together landscape scenes of various national traditions. The museum includes historic photographs and film; the Musée des Années Trente is a museum of industrial objects from the 1930s. See also: Enseignement à Boulogne-Billancourt The public collèges in the commune include Jacqueline-Auriol, Paul-Landowski, Jean-Renoir; the public high schools are the Lycée polyvalent Étienne-Jules-Marey. Prior to the September 1968 opening of Prévert, the first high school/sixth-form in Boulogne, an annex of Lycée La Fontaine served the city; the private school Groupe Scolaire Maïmonide Rambam covers maternelle through lycée. There is the private high school Notre-Dame; the latter's performance and ranking in Boulogne-Billancourt are given by its success of baccalaureate rate in different series. According to the ranking of L'Express in 2015, the national rank of Notre-Dame de Boulogne was 1
Jackson Automobile Company
The Jackson Automobile Company was an American Brass Era automobile manufacturer located in and named for Jackson, Michigan. The company produced the Jackson from 1903 to 1923, as well as the 1903 Jaxon steam car and the 1904 Orlo; the three main partners in the 1902 incorporation of the Jackson Automobile Company were Byron J. Carter, George A. Matthews and Charles Lewis. Carter had been a steam-driven press printer who started a bicycle shop with his father, Squire B. Carter, in 1894, he built his first experimental, gasoline-powered car in 1899, used his steam experience to build a steam-powered car which became the Carter in 1901. Matthews owned the local Fuller Buggy Company and built the Fuller automobile in Jackson, before it was absorbed by the Jackson Automobile Company. Both Matthews and Lewis were directors of Jackson banks, Matthews of Jackson City Bank and Lewis of Union Bank of Jackson. Carter convinced the two bankers to support him in forming a company to produce both gasoline- and steam-powered cars.
Full production started in 1903 with a single-cylinder engine car that resembled the Oldsmobile Curved Dash. The cylinder count in the engines doubled the next year, doubled again in 1906. Not long after full production started, Carter left the firm to create the Cartercar, he left due to a disagreement with his partners, who did not wish to use the friction drive transmission he had developed. After Carter left, Jackson automobiles lacked any distinct feature, but they were well-built and long-lasting. In 1910, Matthews bought out Lewis. Lewis left to start the Hollier car. Matthews installed his sons in the president and treasurer positions within the company; the engines used by the company continued to grow, with a Northway six-cylinder engine becoming available in 1913, a Ferro V8 available in 1916. Cars resembled the contemporary Rolls-Royce. Indeed, the company used the phrase "The Car with the Keystone Radiator" in advertisements. During World War I, car production at the firm declined by more than half, since the company was producing materiel for the war effort.
For 1919, all production was geared to military supplies. Many Jackson dealers at this time converted to Jordan dealerships; when car production resumed in 1920, the cars were not as good as previously. One assembly line worker said that the company engineer "should have raised chickens instead"; the 1921 Princess Coupe was a hit at the Chicago Auto Show, but obtaining credit was difficult during that year's recession. In 1923, Dixie Flyer and National merged into Associated Motor Industries; the Dixie Flyer and Jackson were transformed into the National 6-51, respectively. These models lasted just a year and, by the end of 1924, Associated Motors was no more, taking all three marques with it. Carter further developed his automobile patenting a 3-cylinder steam engine of 6 horsepower; this became the basis of the 1903 Jaxon automobile. All Jaxons were steam-powered, with the Jackson name reserved for the gasoline-powered cars. There were two models on offer: the $975 Model A riding on a 72" wheelbase, the $800 Model B on a 7" shorter wheelbase.
Advertisements proclaimed that "steam is reliable and understood". The Orlo was built only in 1904; the Orlo was a five-seat side-entrance model, equipped with a 16/17 hp two-cylinder engine. The engine was located under the front seat and the drive was through a chain drive; the engine was water-cooled by a finned-coil mounted beneath the front of the bonnet. The Orlo cost $1,125. There is some debate over whether this is a different marque of automobile produced by the company or just a Jackson model, it was referred to as the Jackson Back Seat Steer. This gives new meaning to the term "back seat driver" because this is the actual location of the steering controls; the company introduced the car to see if having a car with the passengers seated in the front seat would be a winning sales proposition. Since this car only was around in 1913, it is not that there were many purchasers for such an unusual car. G. N. Georgano, Nick; the Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000.
ISBN 1-57958-293-1 Kimes, Beverly Rae and Clark Jr, Henry Austin. Standard Catalog of American Cars: 1805-1942. Iola, WI: Krause. 1996. ISBN 0-87341-428-4
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Hollier known as the Vincent-Hollier, was an automobile built in Chelsea and Jackson, Michigan by Charles Lewis, president of the Lewis Spring and Axle Company from 1915-21. The Hollier was available with a V-8 engine of their own design. A offering, starting in 1917, was powered by a six-cylinder Falls engine. Only open models were built. After the war ended, the company name was changed. Georgano, G. N.. The Complete Encyclopedia of Motorcars, 1885 to Present
The windshield or windscreen of an aircraft, bus, motorbike or tram is the front window, which provides visibility whilst protecting occupants from the elements. Modern windshields are made of laminated safety glass, a type of treated glass, which consists of two curved sheets of glass with a plastic layer laminated between them for safety, bonded into the window frame. Motorbike windshields are made of high-impact polycarbonate or acrylic plastic. Windshields protect the vehicle's occupants from wind and flying debris such as dust and rocks, provide an aerodynamically formed window towards the front. UV coating may be applied to screen out harmful ultraviolet radiation. However, this is unnecessary since most auto windshields are made from laminated safety glass; the majority of UV-B is absorbed by the glass itself, any remaining UV-B together with most of the UV-A is absorbed by the PVB bonding layer. On motorbikes their main function is to shield the rider from wind, though not as as in a car, whereas on sports and racing motorcycles the main function is reducing drag when the rider assumes the optimal aerodynamic configuration with his or her body in unison with the machine and does not shield the rider from wind when sitting upright.
Early windshields were made of ordinary window glass, but that could lead to serious injuries in the event of a crash. A series of crashes led up to the development of stronger windshields; the most notable example of this is the Pane vs. Ford case of 1917 that decided against Pane in that he was only injured through reckless driving, they were replaced with windshields made of toughened glass and were fitted in the frame using a rubber or neoprene seal. The hardened glass shattered into many harmless fragments when the windshield broke; these windshields, could shatter from a simple stone chip. In 1919, Henry Ford solved the problem of flying debris by using the new French technology of glass laminating. Windshields made using this process were two layers of glass with a cellulose inner layer; this inner layer held the glass together. Between 1919 and 1929, Ford ordered the use of laminated glass on all of his vehicles. Modern, glued-in windshields contribute to the vehicle's rigidity, but the main force for innovation has been the need to prevent injury from sharp glass fragments.
All nations now require windshields to stay in one piece if broken, except if pierced by a strong force. Properly installed automobile windshields are essential to safety. Today's windshields are a safety device just like airbags; the urethane sealant is protected from UV in sunlight by a band of dark dots around the edge of the windshield. The darkened edge transitions to the clear windshield with smaller dots to minimize thermal stress in manufacturing; the same band of darkened dots is expanded around the rearview mirror to act as a sunshade. In many places, laws restrict the use of tinted glass in vehicle windshields; some vehicles have noticeably more tint in the uppermost part of the windshield to block sunglare. In aircraft windshields, an electric current is applied through a conducting layer of tin oxide to generate heat to prevent icing. A similar system for automobile windshields, introduced on Ford vehicles as "Quickclear" in Europe in the 1980s and through the early 1990s, used this conductive metallic coating applied to the inboard side of the outer layer of glass.
Other glass manufacturers utilize a grid of micro-thin wires to conduct the heat on the European Ford Transit vans. These systems are more utilized by European auto manufacturers such as Jaguar and Porsche; the use of thermal glass prevents some navigation systems from functioning as the embedded metal blocks the satellite signal. The RF signal tends to flow along the metal wires or layer so little radiation can pass; this can be resolved by using an external antenna. Mobile telephones can have problems; the term windshield is used throughout North America. The term windscreen is the usual term in the British Australasia for all vehicles. In the US windscreen refers to the mesh or foam placed over a microphone to minimize wind noise, while a windshield refers to the front window of a car. In the UK, the terms are reversed, although the foam screen is referred to as a microphone shield, not a windshield. Sports or racing cars would sometimes have aero screens, which were small semi-circular or rectangular windshields.
These were mounted in pairs behind a foldable flat windshield. Aero screens are less than 20 cm in height, they are known as aero screens. The twin aeroscreen setup was popular among modern cars in vintage style. A wiperless windshield is a windshield that uses a mechanism other than wipers to remove snow and rain from the windshield; the concept car Acura TL features a wiperless windshield using a series of jet nozzles in the cowl to blow pressurized air onto the windshield. Several glass manufacturers have experimented with nano type coatings designed to repel external contaminants with varying degrees of success but to date none of these have made it to commercial applications. Accordi