Special Operations Executive
The Special Operations Executive was a British World War II organisation. It was formed on 22 July 1940 under Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton, from the amalgamation of three existing secret organisations, its purpose was to conduct espionage and reconnaissance in occupied Europe against the Axis powers, to aid local resistance movements. Few people were aware of SOE's existence; those who were part of it or liaised with it were sometimes referred to as the "Baker Street Irregulars", after the location of its London headquarters. It was known as "Churchill's Secret Army" or the "Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare", its various branches, sometimes the organisation as a whole, were concealed for security purposes behind names such as the "Joint Technical Board" or the "Inter-Service Research Bureau", or fictitious branches of the Air Ministry, Admiralty or War Office. SOE operated in all territories occupied or attacked by the Axis forces, except where demarcation lines were agreed with Britain's principal Allies.
It made use of neutral territory on occasion, or made plans and preparations in case neutral countries were attacked by the Axis. The organisation directly employed or controlled more than 13,000 people, about 3,200 of whom were women. After the war, the organisation was dissolved on 15 January 1946. A memorial to SOE's agents was unveiled in October 2009 on the Albert Embankment by Lambeth Palace in London; the organisation was formed from the merger of three existing secret departments, formed shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War. After Germany annexed Austria in March 1938, the Foreign Office created a propaganda organisation known as Department EH, run by Canadian newspaper magnate Sir Campbell Stuart; that month, the Secret Intelligence Service formed a section known as Section D, under Major Lawrence Grand RE, to investigate the use of sabotage and other irregular means to weaken an enemy. In the autumn of the same year, the War Office expanded an existing research department known as GS and appointed Major J. C. Holland RE as its head to conduct research into guerrilla warfare.
GS was renamed MI in early 1939. These three departments worked with few resources until the outbreak of war. There was much overlap between their activities. Section D and EH duplicated much of each other's work. On the other hand, the heads of Section D and MI knew shared information, they agreed to a rough division of their activities. During the early months of the war, Section D was based first at St Ermin's Hotel in Westminster and the Metropole Hotel near Trafalgar Square; the Section attempted unsuccessfully to sabotage deliveries of vital strategic materials to Germany from neutral countries by mining the Iron Gate on the River Danube. MI meanwhile produced technical handbooks for guerrilla leaders. MI was involved in the formation of the Independent Companies, autonomous units intended to carry out sabotage and guerrilla operations behind enemy lines in the Norwegian Campaign, the Auxiliary Units, stay-behind commando units based on the Home Guard which would act in the event of an Axis invasion of Britain, as seemed possible in the early years of the war.
On 13 June 1940, at the instigation of newly appointed Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Lord Hankey persuaded Section D and MI that their operations should be coordinated. On 1 July, a Cabinet level meeting arranged the formation of a single sabotage organisation. On 16 July, Hugh Dalton, the Minister of Economic Warfare, was appointed to take political responsibility for the new organisation, formally created on 22 July 1940. Dalton recorded in his diary that on that day the War Cabinet agreed to his new duties and that Churchill had told him, "And now go and set Europe ablaze." Dalton used the Irish Republican Army during the Irish War of Independence as a model for the organisation. Sir Frank Nelson was nominated by SIS to be director of the new organisation, a senior civil servant, Gladwyn Jebb, transferred from the Foreign Office to it, with the title of Chief Executive Officer. Campbell Stuart left the organisation, the flamboyant Major Grand was returned to the regular army. At his own request, Major Holland left to take up a regular appointment in the Royal Engineers.
However, Holland's former deputy at MI, Brigadier Colin Gubbins, returned from command of the Auxiliary Units to be Director of Operations of SOE. One department of MI, MI R, involved in the development of weapons for irregular warfare, was not formally integrated into SOE but became an independent body codenamed MD1. Directed by Major Millis Jefferis, it was located at The Firs in Whitchurch and nicknamed "Churchill's Toyshop" from the Prime Minister's close interest in it and his enthusiastic support; the director of SOE was referred to by the initials "CD". Nelson, the first director to be appointed, was a former head of a trading firm in India, a back bench Conservative Member of Parliament and Consul in Basel, Switzerland. There he had been engaged in undercover intelligence work. In February 1942 Dalton became President of the Board of Trade and was replaced as Minister of Economic Warfare by Lord Selborne. Selborne in turn retired Nelson, who had s
Cathedral Square, Gibraltar
Cathedral Square is a square within the city centre of the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It is the location of the Church of England Cathedral of the Holy Trinity which stands to the eastern end of the square. Other features at the square include Duke of Kent House home to the Gibraltar Tourist Board, the Bristol Hotel a children's play park and Sir Herbert Miles Promenade, a boulevard lined with nine cannon overlooking the harbour; the open space here was once a street called Columbine Street, named after lieutenant-general Francis Columbine, a deputy governor. The Moorish looking Cathedral dates from 1839, it had been designed by a military engineer for John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham as a church in 1825
The Baltimore Sun
The Baltimore Sun is the largest general-circulation daily newspaper based in the American state of Maryland and provides coverage of local and regional news, issues and industries. Founded in 1837, the newspaper is owned by Tribune Publishing; the Sun was founded on May 17, 1837, by printer/editor/publisher/owner Arunah Shepherdson Abell and two associates, William Moseley Swain, Azariah H. Simmons from Philadelphia, where they had started and published the Public Ledger the year before. Abell was born in Rhode Island, where he began journalism with the Providence Patriot and worked with Newspapers in New York City and Boston; the Abell family and descendents owned The Sun (later after 1910 colloquially known in Baltimore as The Sunpapers until that same year of 1910, when the local Black and Garrett families of wealthy financial means invested funds in the paper under the suggestion of former rival owner/publisher of The News, Charles H. Grasty, they, along with Grasty gained a controlling interest.
That same year, an additional daily publication was established called The Evening Sun under the guidance of former reporter, editor/columnist Henry Louis Mencken, From 1947 to 1986, The Sun was the owner of Maryland's first television station, WMAR-TV, founded 1947 and longtime affiliate of the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS television network, along with several radio stations. In the postwar years, The Sun expanded its overseas presence; the newspaper opened its first foreign bureau in London in 1924. Between 1955 and 1961, it added four new foreign offices; as Cold War tensions grew, it set up shop in Bonn, West Germany, in February 1955. Eleven months The Sun opened a Moscow bureau, becoming one of the first U. S. newspapers to do so. A Rome office followed in July 1957, in 1961, The Sun expanded to New Delhi. At its height, The Sun' ran eight foreign bureaus, giving rise to its boast in a 1983 advertisement that "The Sun never sets on the world."The paper was sold under recent non-family publisher Reg Murphy in 1986 to the Times-Mirror Company of the Los Angeles Times.
The same week, the 115 year old rivalry with The News American, came to an end, as that ancient old paper with publishing antecedents since 1773, with subsequent mergers, announced that it would fold. The oldest paper in the city, it had been owned by William Randolph Hearst and his Hearst Corporation since the 1920s. A decade in 1997, The Sun acquired the Patuxent Publishing Company, a local suburban newspaper publisher that had a stable of 15 weekly papers and a few magazines in several communities and counties. In the 1990s and 2000s, The Sun began cutting back its foreign coverage. In 1995 and 1996, closed its Tokyo, Mexico City and Berlin bureaus. Two more — Beijing and London — fell victim to cost-cutting in 2005; the final three bureaus — Moscow and Johannesburg, South Africa — fell a couple years later. All were closed by 2008, as the Tribune Co. streamlined and downsized the newspaper chain's foreign reporting. Some material from The Sun's foreign correspondents is archived at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County.
In the 21st century, The Sun, like most legacy newspapers in the United States, has suffered a number of setbacks in the competition with Internet and other sources, including a decline in readership and ads, a shrinking newsroom staff, competition in 2005 from a new free daily, The Baltimore Examiner that lasted two years to 2007, along with a similar Washington publication of a small chain started by new owners that took over the old Hearst flagship paper, the San Francisco Examiner. In 2000, the Times-Mirror company was purchased by the Tribune Company of Chicago. I, 2014 it transferred its newspapers, including The Sun, to Tribune Publishing. On September 19, 2005, again on August 24, 2008, The Baltimore Sun as the paper now titled itself, introduced new layout designs, its circulation as of 2010 was 343,552 on Sundays. On April 29, 2009, the Tribune Company announced that it would lay off 61 of the 205 staff members in the Sun newsroom. On September 23, 2011, it was reported that the Baltimore Sun would be moving its web edition behind a paywall starting October 10, 2011.
The Baltimore Sun is the flagship of the Baltimore Sun Media Group, which produces the b free daily newspaper and more than 30 other Baltimore metropolitan-area community newspapers and Web sites. BSMG content reaches more than one million Baltimore-area readers each week and is the region's most read source of news. On February 20, 2014, The Baltimore Sun Media Group announced that they would buy the alternative weekly City Paper. In April, the Sun acquired the Maryland publications of Landmark Media Enterprises. Although there is now only a morning edition, for many years there were two distinct newspapers—The Sun in the morning and The Evening Sun in the afternoon— each with its own separate reporting and editorial staff; the Evening Sun was first published in 1910 under the leadership of Charles H. Grasty, former owner of the Evening News, a firm believer in the evening circulation. For most of its existence, The Evening Sun led its morning sibling in circulation. In 1959, the afternoon edition's circulation was 220,174, compared to 196,675 for the morning edition.
However, by the 1980s, cultural and economic shifts in America were eating away at afternoon newspapers' market share, with readers flocking to either morning papers or switching to nightly televisi
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
The Gibraltar National Museum is a national museum of history and natural history located within the city centre of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. Founded in 1930 by the Governor of Gibraltar, General Sir Alexander Godley, the museum houses an array of displays portraying The Rock's millennia-old history and the unique culture of its people; the museum incorporates the remains of a 14th-century Moorish bathhouse. Its director since 1991 is Prof. Clive Finlayson. There were several unsuccessful attempts. Significant local finds could not be kept on The Rock because there was no museum, resulting in the first known adult Neanderthal skull went to the Natural History Museum in London; this was the second Neanderthal fossil to be found and was excavated in 1848 at Forbes' Quarry on the north face of the Rock of Gibraltar. The first known collection established in Gibraltar was due to the Reverend John White, chaplain at Gibraltar from 1756 to 1774. Encouraged by his elder brother Gilbert White, he collected zoological specimens which he studied and sent to England.
He took advice from Giovanni Antonio Scopoli and later wrote in England, what is considered the first detailed zoological account of Gibraltar. However, Fauna Calpensis was never published, it and his collections are now lost; the next known recording of something that could resemble a museum dates from 1830. St Bernard's Hospital is recognised to have had a room for specimens of natural history and morbid anatomy. Again, no remains of such collection are kept; the first proposal to open a museum in Gibraltar was discussed in 1835 at a meeting of the Gibraltar Scientific Society - a group of British Army officers who met at the Garrison Library. The first museum was housed in rented accommodation; the museum became so important. One of the milestones of the existence of the Society was the presentation of the Gibraltar skull on the 3rd of March, 1848, although its importance was not recognised at the time, it was to the Society, by its secretary, Lieutenant Edmund Flint of the Royal Artillery.
The museum's establishment is credited to General Sir Alexander Godley, installed as Governor of Gibraltar in 1928. Upon his arrival, he gave an opening address in which he highlighted his reformist aims, which would: "help to restore to its prosperity, showing signs of waning". One of the elements of this reformist mission was the creation of a national museum. After nine months in office, on 30 July 1929, the Gibraltar Society was launched, its primary objective was to assist the colonial authorities in the foundation of a museum. Godley was able to get two adjacent military quarters for use as a museum; the choice was fortunate as under one of them, Ordnance House, the former residence of the Assistant Director of Ordnance Stores, lay chambers of a bathhouse from the Moorish period, used as a semi-underground stable. The Gibraltar Museum was opened on 24 July 1930 and on the first anniversary, the Gibraltar Museum Ordinance was passed as "An Ordinance relating to Ancient Monuments and Antiquities and to provide for the management of the Gibraltar Museum".
In the 1970s, the Gibraltar Museum housed the first office of the Gibraltar Ornithological & Natural History Society. Founders of the organisation included curator of the museum Joaquin Bensusan and Clive Finlayson, the current museum director. In 2018, the Heritage Trust Act 1989 which provided the legal framework for the management of the museum, was replaced with the Heritage and Antiquities Act 2018; the new legislation updated the name of the museum to officialy recognise it as the national museum of Gibraltar. Rooms dedicated to Gibraltarian social history. Film about the history of Gibraltar. Rooms dedicated to The Rock as a symbol, from the Pillars of Hercules to today including Phoenician and Carthaginian collections. Rooms devoted to the natural history of Gibraltar including reconstructions of past landscapes, walk-in cave and Neanderthals. A room dedicated to the variety of marine species living around Gibraltar's coastline. Room dedicated to the Great Siege of Gibraltar; this was an unsuccessful attempt by Spain and France to capture Gibraltar from the British during the American War of Independence.
This was the largest action fought during the war in terms of numbers the Grand Assault of 18 September 1782. At three years and seven months, it is the longest siege endured by the British Armed Forces; the John Fernandez Rooms include a 8 metres long scale model of Gibraltar and includes old photographs of Gibraltar. The model was completed in 1865 from a survey by Lieut. Charles Warren R. E. who took a leading role in the Jack the Ripper investigations. It was made at the direction of Major General Edward Charles Frome R. E. and painted by Captain B. A. Branfill in 1868. Devoted to The Rock's Latin name, Calpe. A 19th-century fox hunt and a Royal Navy reserve unit. A room containing medieval artefacts excavated within the city of Gibraltar. An open-air excavation covering seven centuries of Gibraltar's history. Located within the museum's basement level lie the remains of a Moorish bath house built around the 14th century during the rule of Marinid dynasty; these private baths are known to have been within the Palace of the Governor of Gibraltar.
The building was used as stables while the building was under control of the British military with a floor of one of the rooms was raised so high that horse-drawn coaches could be moved into the remaining space in the room. The site is now smaller than it was as the building suffered extensive damage du
The Hotel Bristol is the name of more than 200 hotels around the world. They range from grand European hotels, such as Hôtel Le Bristol Paris and the Bristol in Warsaw or Vienna to budget hotels, such as the SRO Bristol in San Francisco, they are not a chain, except in Brazil, where Bristol Hoteis & Resorts has around a dozen hotels throughout the country with the Bristol name. The first known Hotel Bristol was in Place Vendôme in Paris, it opened in 1816 and became a favourite of the Prince of Wales Edward VII, who had a suite there. When it closed in 1916, its name was fought over, won by Hippolyte Jammet, who opened Hôtel Le Bristol Paris in nearby Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, today one of the city's five-star palace hotels. Two possible origins of the name are the association with the English port-city of Bristol, Frederick Hervey, the fourth Earl of Bristol and Bishop of Derry. According to his biographer: "So famed was the Bishop as a traveller, so great his reputation as a connoisseur of all good things, that Lord Bristol's hotel...came to be the best known and regarded in every city or town where he sojourned and was thus the precursor of the Hotels Bristol to be found all over Europe."
Lord Bristol died in Italy at the start of the Napoleonic wars. The Bristol in Paris was one of many opened in the ensuing peace, hoping to re-establish the Continental tourist trade; the fact that many hotels, such as the Bernini Bristol in Rome, use the coat of arms of the City of Bristol in their logos leads to speculation that they are named after the city and not the Earl-Bishop. But there is no evidence that the Bristol family granted use of their arms to any hotel, while the city's coat of arms can be adopted to give an aristocratic image. Italy now has the most hotels of this name, with more than 50, whilst France has around 30. Many luxury Bristol hotels from the Edwardian era have not survived, but a new Hotel Bristol opened in St Petersburg in 2012, the Bristol Hotel, Odessa has reclaimed its name after changing it to the Krasnaya Hotel during the Soviet era. One of the oldest still functioning is the Bernini Bristol in Rome, which opened in 1874. Bristol hotels have a presence in the Middle East in Beirut since 1951 with Le Bristol Hotel Beirut.
Modern hotels to use the name include those in San Diego and Gurgaon, India. The city of Bristol in England did not have a Bristol hotel until 2007 when Jurys Hotel Bristol changed its name to The Bristol. Hôtel Le Bristol Paris is a favourite of film stars, has monthly fashion shows in the Bristol Bar. P. G. Wodehouse was kept there by the Germans during World War II. Amschel Mayor James Rothschild was found hanged in his room there in 1996 and Polish millionairess Kinga Legg was murdered in her room in 2008. Valerie Solanas, author of the S. C. U. M. Manifesto and attempted assassin of Andy Warhol, died in room 202 of the Hotel Bristol, 56 Mason Street, San Francisco. Richard Ramirez stayed in the same hotel, room 315, during his killing spree in 1985; the comedy film What's Up, Doc?, starring Barbra Streisand and Ryan O'Neal, features the Hilton Hotel as the "Hotel Bristol, San Francisco". The famous Black Cat Bar was in the basement of this building named the Athens Hotel, from 1906 to 1921; the Black Cat was located in North Beach at 710 Montgomery Street in San Francisco.
The Hotel Bristol, was where, in November 1939, Hans Ferdinand Mayer "a German scientist, on your side" wrote the Oslo Report, a major leak of technical information passed to the British. Hotel Bristol, Warsaw opened in 1901 on Krakowskie Przedmieście. Refurbished in its original style in the 1990s it was reopened by Margaret Thatcher, an event that forms the final chapter of her memoirs. Hotel Bristol opened in 1891 and was destroyed in an air raid in 1943, it held the first international IAA motor show, in 1897, was involved in the Krupp scandal, detailed in William Manchester's book on the arms manufacturer. The five-star luxury hotel in Vienna opposite the Vienna State Opera House is one of the most exclusive hotels in Austria and was restructured by the hotelier Georg Hochfilzer, it has hosted many historical figures including Teddy Roosevelt. It was here that the Prince of Wales and Wallis Simpson sojourned at the height of their affair, in 1936. In 1938, the hotel underwent Aryanization when its Jewish owner Samuel Schallinger was forced to sell his shares before being deported to Theresienstadt concentration camp where he died.
Leon Trotsky was accused of meeting with others to plot against Stalin in the Hotel Bristol. An alibi was established in 1937 when the Dewey Commission showed that the hotel had burned down in 1917; the Le Bristol Hotel, is one of the most exclusive hotels in Beirut where the Lebanese Independence from the occupying Syrian military force was prepared in 2005. Hotel Bristol, opened in 1912, it was declared a cultural monument in 1987. Bristol Hotel Hotel Bristol Vienna, by Andreas Augustin, ISBN 978-3-900692-11-7, published 2008The Earl of Bristol Didn't Sleep Here, But the Hotel Might Be Named After Him, Wall Street Journal, Sept 27, 2008. All the Bristol Hotels in the World by Roger Williams Hotel Bristol Stories by Roger Williams (B
Napier of Magdala Battery
Napier of Magdala Battery is a former coastal artillery battery on the south-western cliffs of the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar, overlooking the Bay of Gibraltar. It overlooks Rosia Bay from the north, as does Parson's Lodge Battery from the south, it contains one of two surviving Armstrong 100-ton guns. In 1883 the British Government installed a single 100-ton gun: a 450 mm rifled muzzle-loading gun made by Armstrong Whitworth, at the battery by Rosia Bay that they named Napier of Magdala Battery after Field Marshal Robert Napier, 1st Baron Napier of Magdala, who had served as Governor of Gibraltar from 1876 to 1883. Earlier, in 1879, they had mounted another such gun in Gibraltar at Victoria Battery; these two batteries, together with two in Malta, were a response to the Italians having, in 1873, built the battleship Duilio, to receive four Armstrong Guns of the same design. The British authorised the construction of Victoria and Napier of Magdala batteries in December 1878; because the British viewed the two batteries as part of the one large fortress, the Rock of Gibraltar, the batteries lacked all-round protection and any of the close-in defences such as the dry moats with caponiers or counterscarp galleries that the British installed at Cambridge Battery and Fort Rinella, both of which were free-standing pentagonal forts.
The gun, now at Napier of Magdala Battery armed Victoria Battery, but the British moved it to Napier when the original gun there split during firing practice. The gun at Napier Battery received the nickname, "The Rockbuster". During World War II, the British Army stationed a battery of four 3.7" and two Bofors quick-firing anti-aircraft guns at the site. In 1945 they fired upon an Iberia Airlines Junkers Ju 88 that had wandered into Gibraltar's airspace while on a flight from Málaga to Tetouan; the "Rockbuster" was last fired in 2002 to mark the 2002 Calpe Conference between Gibraltar and Malta. In 2010 Gibraltar and Malta jointly issued a four-stamp set of stamps featuring the two countries' 100-ton guns. Two stamps show the gun at Napier of Magdala Battery, two the gun at Fort Rinella. One of each pair is a view from 1882, the other is a view from 2010; the stamps from Gibraltar bear a denomination of 75 pence, while those from Malta bear a denomination of 0.75 euros. Fa, Darren; the Fortifications of Gibraltar 1068-1945.
Gibraltar Museum. P. 64. ISBN 9781846030161. Paco Galliano. History of Galliano's Bank: The Smallest Bank in the World. Gibraltar: Gibraltar Books. Gibraltar.gov's site on the Napier of Magdala Battery