Filton is a suburban town and civil parish in South Gloucestershire, north of the City of Bristol and 5 miles from the city centre. The town centres upon Filton Church, which dates back to the 12th century and is a Grade II listed building; the name of the town comes from the Old English feleþe, tūn. The name dates back to at least 1187. Filton has large areas of open space which include several playing fields, a golf course and the former Filton Airport. Filton can be reached from Junction 16 of the M5 motorway; the town is well served by rail with Filton Abbey Wood serving areas in the south of the town, Bristol Parkway serving areas to the north and east and Patchway in the west of the town. Districts within the town include Filton Park and Northville. East Filton, which has grown up east of the Bristol-South Wales railway line and is in the neighbouring civil parish of Stoke Gifford, contains the offices of the Ministry of Defence's Defence Procurement Agency, plus a shopping park. Filton Park is a suburb of Bristol and lies directly on the city border, sandwiched between the A38 trunk road and Southmead Road.
Filton itself lies to the east of Filton Park. Monks Park is to the south. Housing in Filton Park is privately owned, semi-detached and 1930s built. Pre-World War I properties in the district tend to be quite large, with generous gardens. Extensive playing fields border the north-western side of Southmead Road; the golf links, on the hillside beyond, is owned by Filton Golf Club. The area has a playgroup. Filton Park is regarded as a desirable place to live since it is close to major centres of employment such as BAE Systems, Defence Equipment & Support at Abbey Wood. Filton's educational facilities include South Gloucestershire and Stroud College, Abbeywood Community School and several primary schools; the University of the West of England is at nearby Frenchay. Filton has two main shopping areas – the Shield Centre and Abbey Wood Retail Park, as well as other shops. To the east of the town there is a small area of woodland known as Splatt's Abbey Wood. Filton has an aerospace connection dating back to the establishment of the Bristol Aeroplane Company.
Aerospace companies in Filton include BAE Systems, Airbus, GKN, Rolls-Royce and MBDA, all located around the former Filton Aerodrome. The Concorde supersonic airliner was built here in the late 1970s; this museum houses the Bristol Aero Collection and examples of helicopters and missiles built at Filton. Other employers include the MOD, Hewlett Packard, Hewlett Packard Enterprise and the Royal Mail. Filton is home to the regional blood processing facility, NHS Blood and Transplant Filton. Bristol Cars was a manufacturer of hand-built luxury cars, based in Filton. Bristol Cars dealt directly with customers, they claimed to be the last wholly British-owned luxury car builder. The company went into administration on 3 March 2011; the population of the parish at the 2011 Census was 10,607. The Filton built-up area defined by the Office for National Statistics is a large outer suburban area north of Bristol which includes Almondsbury, Little Stoke, Stoke Gifford and Bradley Stoke, had a population of 59,495 in 2011.
Filton is an ethnically diverse town, with a proportion of white British residents close to the national average. Filton Town Council is a parish council made up of thirteen councillors and forming the first tier of local government. Filton was in Gloucestershire until 1974. In 1996 the Avon authority was abolished and the area became part of the unitary authority of South Gloucestershire and rejoined the ceremonial county of Gloucestershire. Filton is represented in the House of Commons by Jack Lopresti, Conservative Party Member of Parliament for the constituency of Filton and Bradley Stoke. An electoral ward with the same name exists; the area and population are identical to those of the parish. For history related to aeroplanes and flying, see Bristol Filton Airport#History. Thousands of mites and other coins of the Roman emperors, Domitian and Constans were found in a bank by some boys in 1880. Many of the coins were in excellent condition. At the dawn of the 20th century, Filton was a small village, still detached from the city of Bristol to the south.
Farming was the principal occupation. However, there was a large factory-like laundry in the village, opposite Filton House, owned by Samuel Shield; the Bristol to South Wales railway line passed through the village. There was a small station near the site of the current Abbey Wood station. A much larger railway station, known as Filton Junction, opened in 1910, after the alternate rail route from Bristol to London was finished. In 1907 the northern terminus for Bristol Tramways was moved out from Horfield to Filton. Tram production in the tramway sheds commenced in 1908; the manufacture of aeroplanes started in the Bristol Tramway sheds in 1910 and aero-engine production started in 1920. Between the wars, Filton expanded to become a suburb of Bristol. Development was concentrated on the western side of the A38, in an area known as Filton Park. In the 1930s, the area on the eastern side of the A38 started to be developed. Filton became part of the Bristol conurbation, although it remained, as it do
Cornish Riviera Express
The Cornish Riviera Express is a British express passenger train that has run between London Paddington and Penzance in Cornwall since 1904. Introduced by the Great Western Railway, the name Cornish Riviera Express has been applied to the late morning express train from London to Penzance continuously through nationalisation under British Rail and privatisation under First Great Western, only ceasing during the two World Wars; the name is applied to the late morning express train running in the opposite direction from Penzance to London. Through performance and publicity the Cornish Riviera Express has become one of the most famous named trains in the United Kingdom and is renowned for the publicity employed by the Great Western Railway in the 1930s which elevated it to iconic status. Today it is operated by the Great Western Railway train operating company.... There no train... to which the word romance could be more aptly applied than to the Limited Through trains from London Paddington to Penzance began running on 1 March 1867 and included fast services such as the 10:15 Cornishman and 11:45 Flying Dutchman, but these still took nine hours or more for the journey.
In the early years of the 20th century there was keen competition between the Great Western Railway and the London and South Western Railway for the rail traffic between London and Plymouth. The LSWR route via Salisbury was 15 miles shorter than the GWR via Bristol, but to counter this the GWR started running non-stop to Exeter, this provided the basis of a plan for a fast train to Plymouth and Penzance. A new express service with limited stops was promoted by the GWR, commencing on 1 July 1904, it left London at 10:10 and was timed to reach Penzance at 17:10 running to Plymouth in 4 hours 25 minutes, a cut of 28 minutes on the previous fastest service. It conveyed six carriages to Penzance, including a dining car, one more carriage for Falmouth, detached at Truro added to a branch train to complete its journey. Other stops were made at Plymouth North Road, Gwinear Road, St Erth; the return train from Penzance called additionally at Devonport. A public competition was announced in the August 1904 edition of the Railway Magazine to choose the name, the prize being three guineas.
Among the 1,286 entries were two suggestions, The Cornish Riviera Limited and The Riviera Express, which were combined as The Cornish Riviera Express, although railwaymen tended to call it The Limited. For the first two years, the new train ran only during the summer, but from the third year became a year-round feature of the timetable. With the opening of a 20 1⁄4 mile shorter route along the Langport and Castle Cary Railway in 1906, it was possible to start the train twenty minutes from Paddington and still arrive in Penzance at the same time. New 68 ft Concertina carriages were scheduled for the train at the same time. Additional slip coaches were added to be dropped from the train on the move at various stations to serve holiday destinations such as Weymouth, Minehead and Newquay, the train began to run non-stop to Newton Abbot where a pilot engine was added for the climb over the Dainton and Rattery banks, the southern outliers of Dartmoor. By the middle of World War I the train had grown to 14 coaches running in two portions on summer Saturdays, but the train was suspended in January 1917 as a wartime economy measure.
Running of The Limited resumed in summer 1919 although a 60 mph blanket speed limit was still in force, it was not until autumn 1921 that pre-war timings were reinstated. In 1923 new steel-panelled coaches and, more the introduction of the Castle Class locomotives, billed as the "most powerful locomotive in Britain"; this allowed the train to travel to Plymouth without the need to stop to attach a pilot locomotive, use of slip coaches keeping the load below the 310 ton limit for the Castle Class. However the pre-eminence of the Castle class did not last long as the Southern Railway Lord Nelson class of 1926 topped them for tractive effort, so the King class was developed with the heavy West-country holiday trains in mind, their introduction from 1927 allowed arrival in Plymouth to reach the 4 hour mark, although the increased weight of these locos prevented their use in Cornwall. The King class were permitted an increased maximum load of 360 tons between Newton Abbot and Plymouth. In 1935, new coaches in the shape of the 9 ft 7 in wide Centenary carriages, but there were few other significant changes until World War II.
At the outbreak of war all trains to the West Country were to travel via Bristol, departure of the Cornish Riviera was moved to 14:35, although this change only lasted until October when the departure time returned to 10:30 with Exeter as the first stop. By summer 1941 it seemed that everyone was taking their summer holidays in the West Country, the Cornish Riviera ran in five sections for Penzance, St Ives, Paignton and Newton Abbot respectively; the Limited ran throughout the war, but was cancelled in the winter of 1946/47 due to a coal shortage, not being restored until the following summer. Nonetheless, in the summer 1952 timetable, the non-stop run had been extended to Truro, 279 miles from Paddington, although the working timetable showed a 4-minute stop at Newton Abbot to attach a pilot locomotive to assist over the South Devon Banks and a similar stop at Devonport to change locomotives as the King class locomotives were not permitted over the Royal Albert Bridge; the pre-WW2 schedules were not regained until autumn 1955 by which time the railways had been nationalised and the 1
Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century. With headquarters in Elswick, Newcastle upon Tyne, Armstrong Whitworth built armaments, locomotives and aircraft; the company was founded by William Armstrong in 1847, becoming Armstrong Mitchell and Armstrong Whitworth through mergers. In 1927, it merged with Vickers Limited to form Vickers-Armstrongs, with its automobile and aircraft interests purchased by J D Siddeley. In 1847, the engineer William George Armstrong founded the Elswick works at Newcastle, to produce hydraulic machinery and bridges, soon to be followed by artillery, notably the Armstrong breech-loading gun, with which the British Army was re-equipped after the Crimean War. In 1882, it merged with the shipbuilding firm of Charles Mitchell to form Armstrong Mitchell & Company and at the time its works extended for over a mile along the bank of the River Tyne. Armstrong Mitchell merged again with the engineering firm of Joseph Whitworth in 1897.
The company expanded into the manufacture of cars and trucks in 1902, created an "aerial department" in 1913, which became the Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft subsidiary in 1920. In 1927, it merged with Vickers Limited to form Vickers-Armstrongs; the Armstrong Whitworth was manufactured from 1904, when the company decided to diversify to compensate for a fall in demand for artillery after the end of the Boer War. It took over construction of the Wilson-Pilcher, designed by Walter Gordon Wilson, produced cars under the Armstrong Whitworth name until 1919, when the company merged with Siddeley-Deasy and to form Armstrong Siddeley; the Wilson-Pilcher was an advanced car with a 2.4-litre engine, made in London from 1901 until 1904 when production moved to Newcastle. When Armstrong Whitworth took over production two models were made, a 2.7-litre flat four and a 4.1-litre flat six, the cylinders on both being identical with bore and stroke of 3.75in. The engines had the flywheel at the front of the engine, the crankshaft had intermediate bearings between each pair of cylinders.
Drive was to the rear wheels via helical bevel axle. The cars were listed at £ 900 for the six, they were still theoretically available until 1907. According to Automotor in 1904, "Even the first Wilson-Pilcher car that made its appearance created quite a sensation in automobile circles at the time on account of its remarkably silent and smooth running, of the total absence of vibration"; the first Armstrong Whitworth car was the 28/36 of 1906 with a water-cooled, four-cylinder side-valve engine of 4.5 litres which unusually had "oversquare" dimensions of 120 mm bore and 100 mm stroke. Drive was via a four-speed shaft to the rear wheels. A larger car was listed for 1908 with a choice of either 5-litre 30 or 7.6-litre 40 models sharing a 127 mm bore but with strokes of 100 mm and 152 mm respectively. The 40 was listed at £798 in bare chassis form for supplying to coachbuilders; these large cars were joined in 1909 by the 4.3-litre 18/22 and in 1910 by the 3.7-litre 25, which seems to have shared the same chassis as the 30 and 40.
In 1911, a new small car appeared in the shape of the 2.4-litre 12/14, called the 15.9 in 1911, featuring a monobloc engine with pressure lubrication to the crankshaft bearings. This model had an 88-inch wheelbase compared with the 120 inches of the 40 range; this was joined by four larger cars ranging from the 2.7-litre 15/20 to the 3.7-litre 25.5. The first six-cylinder model, the 30/50 with 5.1-litre 90 mm bore by 135 mm stroke engine came in 1912 with the option of electric lighting. This grew to 5.7 litres in 1913. At the outbreak of war, as well as the 30/50, the range consisted of the 3-litre 17/25 and the 3.8-litre 30/40. The cars were if not always bodied by external coachbuilders and had a reputation for reliability and solid workmanship; the company maintained a London sales outlet at New Bond Street. When Armstrong Whitworth and Vickers merged, Armstrong Whitworth's automotive interests were purchased by J D Siddeley as Armstrong Siddeley, based in Coventry. An Armstrong Whitworth car is displayed in the Discovery Newcastle upon Tyne.
Armstrong Whitworth established an Aerial Department in 1912. This became the Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Company; when Vickers and Armstrong Whitworth merged in 1927 to form Vickers-Armstrongs, Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft was bought out by J. D. Siddeley and became a separate entity; the Elswick Ordnance Company was created in 1859 to separate William Armstrong's armaments business from his other business interests, to avoid a conflict of interest as Armstrong was Engineer of Rifled Ordnance for the War Office and the company's main customer was the British Government. Armstrong held no financial interest in the company until 1864 when he left Government service, Elswick Ordnance was reunited with the main Armstrong businesses to form Sir W. G. Armstrong & Company. EOC was the armaments branch of W. G. Armstrong & Company and of Armstrong Whitworth. Elswick Ordnance was a major arms developer before and during World War I; the ordnance and ammunition it manufactured for the British Government were stamped EOC, while guns made for export were marked "W.
G. Armstrong". After the Great War, Armstrong Whitworth converted its Scotswood Works to build railway locomotives. From 1919 it penetrated the locomotive market due to its modern plant, its two largest contracts were 200 2-8-0s for the Belgian State Railways in 1920 and 327 Black 5 4-6-0s
Auxiliary power unit
An auxiliary power unit is a device on a vehicle that provides energy for functions other than propulsion. They are found on large aircraft and naval ships as well as some large land vehicles. Aircraft APUs produce 115 V alternating current at 400 Hz, to run the electrical systems of the aircraft. APUs can provide power through single- or three-phase systems. During World War I, the British Coastal class blimps, one of several types of airship operated by the Royal Navy, carried a 1.75 horsepower ABC auxiliary engine. These powered a generator for the craft's radio transmitter and, in an emergency, could power an auxiliary air blower. One of the first military fixed-wing aircraft to use an APU was the British, World War 1, Supermarine Nighthawk, an anti-Zeppelin Night fighter. During World War II, a number of large American military aircraft were fitted with APUs; these were known as putt–putts in official training documents. The putt-putt on the B-29 Superfortress bomber was fitted in the unpressurised section at the rear of the aircraft.
Various models of four-stroke, Flat-twin or V-twin engines were used. The 7 horsepower engine drove DC generator, rated 28.5 Volts and 200 Amps. The putt-putt provided power for starting the main engines and was used after take-off to a height of 10,000 feet; the putt-putt was restarted. Some models of the B-24 Liberator had a putt–putt fitted at the front of the aircraft, inside the nose-wheel compartment; some models of the Douglas C-47 Skytrain transport aircraft carried a putt-putt under the cockpit floor. The first German jet engines built during the Second World War used a mechanical APU starting system designed by the German engineer Norbert Riedel, it consisted of a 10 horsepower two-stroke flat engine, which for the Junkers Jumo 004 design was hidden in the intake diverter functioning as a pioneering example of an auxiliary power unit for starting a jet engine. A hole in the extreme nose of the diverter contained a manual pull-handle which started the piston engine, which in turn rotated the compressor.
Two spark plug access ports existed in the Jumo 004's intake diverter to service the Riedel unit's cylinders in situ, for maintenance purposes. Two small "premix" tanks for the Riedel's petrol/oil fuel were fitted in the annular intake; the engine was considered an extreme short stroke design so it could fit within the intake diverter of jet engines like the Jumo 004. For reduction it had an integrated planetary gear, it was produced by Victoria in Nuremberg and served as a mechanical APU-style starter for all three German jet engine designs to have made it to at least the prototype stage before May 1945: the Junkers Jumo 004, the BMW 003, the prototypes of the more advanced Heinkel HeS 011 engine, which mounted it just above the intake passage in the sheetmetal of the engine nacelle nose. The Boeing 727 in 1963 was the first jetliner to feature a gas turbine APU, allowing it to operate at smaller airports, independent from ground facilities; the APU can be identified on many modern airliners by an exhaust pipe at the aircraft's tail.
A typical gas turbine APU for commercial transport aircraft comprises three main sections: The power section is the gas generator portion of the engine and produces all the shaft power for the APU. The load compressor is a shaft-mounted compressor that provides pneumatic power for the aircraft, though some APUs extract bleed air from the power section compressor. There are two actuated devices: the inlet guide vanes that regulate airflow to the load compressor and the surge control valve that maintains stable or surge-free operation of the turbo machine; the gearbox transfers power from the main shaft of the engine to an oil-cooled generator for electrical power. Within the gearbox, power is transferred to engine accessories such as the fuel control unit, the lubrication module, cooling fan. In addition, there is a starter motor connected through the gear train to perform the starting function of the APU; some APU designs use a combination starter/generator for APU starting and electrical power generation to reduce complexity.
On the Boeing 787 more-electric aircraft, the APU delivers only electricity to the aircraft. The absence of a pneumatic system simplifies the design, but high demand for electricity requires heavier generators. Onboard solid oxide fuel cell APUs are being researched. On June 4, 2018, Boeing and Safran announced their 50-50 partnership to design and service APUs after regulatory and antitrust clearance in the second-half of 2018. Boeing produced their derivatives in the early 1960s. Safran produces helicopters and business jets APUs but stopped the large APUs since Labinal exited the APIC joint venture with Sundstrand in 1996; this could threaten the dominance of United Technologies. Honeywell has a 65% share of the mainliner APU market and is the sole supplier for the A350, the B777 and all single-aisles: the B737 MAX, Bombardier CSeries, Comac C919, Irkut MC-21 and A320neo since Airbus eliminated the P&WC APS3200 option. P&WC claims the remaining 35% with the A380, B787 and B747-8, it should take at least a decade for the Boeing/Safran JV to reach $100 million in service revenue.
The 2017 market for production was worth $800 million: $700m civil and $100m military, while the MRO market was worth $2,400 million, spread between civil and military. T
Bristol Cars is a dormant manufacturer of hand-built luxury cars headquartered at Mychett Place, England. Bristol Cars Limited is a newly formed company, incorporated in 2011 after the original company fell into administration that same year and was dissolved by a court appointed administrator, after changing its name to BCL 2011 Ltd. After the Second World War, the car division of the Bristol Aeroplane Company was formed becoming Bristol Cars Limited. Bristol has only one sales showroom, on Kensington High Street in London; the company maintains an enthusiastic and loyal clientele. Bristol has always been a low-volume manufacturer; the company suspended manufacturing in March 2011, when administrators were appointed, 22 staff were made redundant at the factory in Filton and subsequently the company was dissolved. In April 2011, a new company was formed by the administrator to sell the original assets to Kamkorp. Since 2011, the company has been restoring and selling all models of the marque while a new model was being developed.
The company had revealed a desire to return to automotive production in 2018 with an all-new model, called the "Bullet" dubbed "Project Pinnacle". The car was first revealed to the public on 26 July 2016, homologation was set to have begun some time in 2018; the British aircraft industry suffered a dramatic loss of orders and great financial difficulties following the Armistice of 1918. To provide immediate employment for its considerable workforce, the Bristol Aeroplane Company undertook the manufacture of a light car, the construction of car bodies for Armstrong Siddeley and bus bodies for their sister company, Bristol Tramways. On the outbreak of World War II, Sir George Stanley White, managing director of the Bristol Aeroplane Company from 1911–1954, was determined not to suffer the same difficulties a second time; the company now employed 70,000 and he knew he must plan for the time when the voracious wartime demand for Bristol aircraft and aircraft engines would end. The company began working with AFN Ltd, makers of Frazer Nash cars and British importer of BMWs before the war, on plans for a joint venture in automotive manufacture.
As early as 1941, a number of papers were written or commissioned by George S. M. White, Sir Stanley's son, proposing a post-war car manufacturing division, it was decided to purchase an existing manufacturer for this purpose. Alvis, Aston Martin, Lagonda, ERA and Lea-Francis were considered. A chance discussion took place in May 1945, between D. A. Aldington, a director of Frazer Nash serving as an inspector for the wartime Ministry of Aircraft Production, Eric Storey, an assistant of George White at the Bristol Aeroplane Company, it led to the immediate take-over of Frazer Nash by the Aeroplane Company. Aldington and his two brothers had marketed the Frazer Nash BMW before the war, proposed to build an updated version after demobilisation; this seemed the perfect match for the aeroplane company's own ambitions to manufacture a high quality sports car. With the support of the War Reparations Board, H. J. Aldington travelled to Munich and purchased the rights to manufacture three BMW models and the 328 engine.
By July 1945, BAC had created a car division and bought a controlling stake in AFN. A factory was established near Bristol. George White and Reginald Verdon-Smith of the Aeroplane Company joined the new Frazer Nash Board, but in January 1947, soon after the first cars had been produced, differences between the Aldingtons and Bristol led to the resale of Frazer Nash; the Bristol Car Division became an independent entity. Bristol Cars was sold after its parent joined with other British aircraft companies in 1960 to create the British Aircraft Corporation, which became part of British Aerospace; the car division merged with Bristol Siddeley Engines, was marked for closure, but was bought in September 1960 by George S. M. White the chairman and effective founder. White retained the direction of the company, but sold a forty per cent shareholding to Tony Crook, a leading Bristol agent. Crook became sole distributor. In September 1969, only a month before the unveiling of the new Bristol 411 at the Earl's Court Motor Show, Sir George White suffered a serious accident in his Bristol 410.
The car was only superficially damaged. As time passed it became clear that he would never regain his health sufficiently to return to full-time work. To safeguard the future of his workforce, he decided in 1973 to sell his majority shareholding to Crook; as the ties with the White family were severed, British Aerospace requested the company to move its factory from Filton Aerodrome and it found new premises in nearby Patchway. The showroom on Kensington High Street became the head office, with Crook shuttling between the two in Bristol's light aircraft. Under Crook's direction the company produced at least six types, the names of which were borrowed from Bristol's distinguished aeronautical past: the Beaufighter, Blenheim and Brigand. In February 1997, Crook aged 77, sold a fifty per cent holding in Bristol Cars to Toby Silverton, with an option to take full control within four years. Silverton son-in-law of Joe Lewis of the Tavistock Group and son of Arthur Silverton of Overfinch, joined the board with his father.
Crook and Toby Silverton produced the Speedster, Bullet and 411 Series 6, though 2002 saw the transfer of Bristol Cars into the ownership of Silverton and the Tavistock Group, with Silverton in the chair and Crook remaining as m
The English Electric Company Limited was a British industrial manufacturer formed after the armistice of World War I by amalgamating five businesses which, during the war, had been making munitions and aeroplanes. It specialised in industrial electric motors and transformers, railway locomotives and traction equipment, diesel motors and steam turbines, its activities were expanded to include consumer electronics, nuclear reactors, guided missiles, military aircraft and mainframe computers. Two English Electric aircraft designs became landmarks in British aeronautical engineering. In 1960, English Electric Aircraft merged with Vickers and Bristol to form British Aircraft Corporation. In 1968, English Electric's operations were merged with GEC's, the combined business employing more than 250,000 people. Aiming to turn their employees and other assets to peaceful productive purposes, the owners of a series of businesses decided to merge them forming The English Electric Company Limited in December 1918.
English Electric was formed to acquire ownership of: Coventry Ordnance Works of Coventry which retained a separate identity and Scotstoun sold by April 1920 Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Company of Bradford Dick, Kerr & Co. of Preston founded 1880 and its subsidiaries: United Electric Car Company of Preston Willans & Robinson of Rugby which retained a separate identity—not wholly owned. The owners of the component companies took up the shares in English Electric. John Pybus was appointed managing director in March 1921 and chairman in April 1926. J H Mansell of Coventry Ordnance Works, John Pybus of Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing and W Rutherford of Dick, Kerr were joint managing directors; the five independent major operations under their control had these principal capabilities: Coventry Ordnance Works: the plant was built for the production of heavy armaments but was suitable for the manufacture of large generating units Phoenix Dynamo Works: during the war production was shells and aeroplanes but by July 1919 had been returned to electric motors Dick and United Electric Car: special war work munitions and metallic filament lamps, prior to the war locomotives and tram cars Willans & Robinson: made steam turbines and diesel motors, there was a foundryTogether these businesses covered the whole field of electrical machinery from the smallest fan motor to the largest turbo-generator.
In November 1919, English Electric bought the Stafford works of Siemens Brothers Dynamo Works Ltd. In 1931 Stafford became English Electric's centre. However, there was no post-war boom in electrical generation. Though English Electric products were indeed in heavy demand, potential buyers were unable to raise the necessary capital funds. In 1922, a drastic reorganisation of the works was carried through and that managed to halve overheads; the Coventry Ordnance Works was closed down. Cables and wireless equipment were in buoyant demand, but that would have been a new field for the company to enter. English Electric's business was in mechanical plant. Both the 1926 general strike and the miners strike caused heavy losses. In 1929 part of the Coventry Ordnance Works was sold and the pattern shop at Preston, neither of, required. By the end of 1929, it was clear the only solution to English Electric's financial difficulties was a financial restructure; the restructure acknowledged the loss of much of the shareholders' capital and brought in new capital to re-equip with new plant and machinery.
In the event, an American syndicate fronted by Lazard Brothers and Co. bankers came up with the new capital, but left control in the hands of the previous shareholders. In June 1930, four fresh directors were appointed. Ten days there was a formal announcement of an American Arrangement. "English Electric, with works at Preston, Rugby and Coventry, had entered into a comprehensive arrangement" with Westinghouse Electric International Company of New York and Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company of East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA, whereby there would be an exchange of technical information between the two organisations on steam turbines and electrical apparatus. It was made clear that this technical and manufacturing link did not carry with it any control from America. In recognition of the exchange arrangement, Westinghouse had offered to provide further capital, which would be less than 10% of the total, including that new capital organised earlier by Lazard Brothers. Seven weeks the chairman, W L Hichens, who had temporarily replaced P J Pybus in 1927 retired at the end of July 1930 and was replaced by Sir Holberry Mensforth as a director and as chairman.
It was announced that a Mr George H Nelson had been appointed to the board and would take up the position of managing director early in October. Mensforth had been taken away from his position as general manager of American Westinghouse Trafford Park Manchester —where George Nelson had been his apprentice— in 1919 by the Minister of Transport; the Minister had given Mensforth the responsibility of easing the transition of the nation's munitions businesses back into peacetime industry. It was Mensforth, they began to reorganise. The main base of the company's operation was moved from London to Stafford including the sales departments and factory accounts and the principal executives in London; the managing director was to divide his time between the various works but would be in Stafford or in LondonOn 30 December 1930 the engineering shops at Preston closed leaving the following distribution: Preston: specialists
The Rolls-Royce Pegasus the Bristol Siddeley Pegasus, is a turbofan engine designed by Bristol Siddeley. It was manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc; the engine is not only able to power a jet aircraft forward, but to direct thrust downwards via swivelling nozzles. Loaded aircraft equipped with this engine can manoeuvre like a helicopter. In particular, they can perform vertical landings. In US service, the engine is designated F402; the unique Pegasus engine powers all versions of the Harrier family of multi-role military aircraft. Rolls-Royce licensed Whitney to build the Pegasus for US built versions; however Pratt & Whitney never completed any engines, with all new build being manufactured by Rolls-Royce in Bristol, England. The Pegasus was the planned engine for a number of aircraft projects, among which were the prototypes of the German Dornier Do 31 VSTOL military transport project. Michel Wibault, the French aircraft designer, had the idea to use vectored thrust for vertical take-off aircraft.
This thrust would come from four centrifugal blowers shaft driven by a Bristol Orion turboprop, the exhaust from each blower being vectored by rotating the blower scrolls. Although the idea of vectoring the thrust was quite novel, the engine proposed was considered to be far too heavy; as a result, an engineer at Bristol Engine Company, Gordon Lewis, began in 1956 to study alternative engine concepts, where possible, existing engine components from the Orpheus and Olympus engine series. The work was overseen by the Technical Director Stanley Hooker. One concept which looked promising was the BE52, which used the Orpheus 3 as the engine core and, on a separate coaxial shaft, the first two stages of an Olympus 21 LP compressor, which acted as a fan, delivering compressed air to two thrust vectoring nozzles at the front of engine. At this point in the design exercise, the exhaust from the LP turbine discharged through a conventional rear nozzle. There were separate intakes for the fan and core compressor because the fan did not supercharge the core compressor.
Although the BE.52 was a self-contained power plant and lighter than Wibault's concept, the BE.52 was still complicated and heavy. As a result, work on the BE.53 concept started in February 1957. In the BE.53 the Olympus stages were fitted close to the Orpheus stages. The Olympus stages now supercharged the Orpheus core, improving the overall pressure ratio, creating what is now considered a conventional turbofan configuration. For a year Bristol designed the engine in isolation, with little feedback from the various airframe manufacturers furnished with data. However, in May 1957 the team received a supportive letter from Sydney Camm of Hawker Aviation They were looking for a Hawker Hunter replacement; the aircraft designer, Ralph Hooper, suggested having the four thrust vectoring nozzles, with hot gases from the rear two. Further joint discussions helped to refine the engine design; the 1957 Defence White Paper, which focused on missiles, not manned aircraft – which were declared'obsolete' - was not good news, because it precluded any future government financial support for development of not extant manned combat aircraft.
This prevented any official financial support for the engine or aircraft from the Ministry of Defence. Engine development was financially supported to the tune of 75% from the Mutual Weapons Development Program, Verdon Smith of Bristol Siddeley Engines Limited, which Bristol Engines had by become on its merger with Armstrong Siddeley agreeing to pay the remainder; the first prototype engine, ran on 2 September 1959 and featured a 2-stage fan and used the Orpheus 6 core. Although the fan was overhung, inlet guide vanes were still incorporated; the HP spool comprised a 7-stage compressor driven by a single stage turbine. A 2-stage LP turbine drove the fan. There was no plenum at fan exit. Further development of the engine proceeded in tandem with the aircraft, the Hawker P.1127. The aircraft first flew on 21 October 1960, powered by the BE53/3. Free hover was achieved on 19 November of the same year. Transition to wing-borne flight occurred in 1961. Versions of the P.1127 were fitted with the Pegasus 3 and the Pegasus 5.
The Pegasus 5 was used in the Kestrel, a refinement of the P.1127, of which nine were built for a Tripartite evaluation exercise. The Kestrel was subsequently developed into the Harrier combat aircraft. By the time the Pegasus 5/2 was built, both the fan and HP compressor had been zero-staged and 2nd stage added to the HP turbine; the flight testing and engine development received no government funding. The first engines had enough thrust to lift the plane off the ground due to weight growth problems. Flight tests were conducted with the aircraft tethered, with the first free hover achieved on 19 November 1960; the first, difficult, transition from static hover to conventional flight was achieved on 8 September 1961. The RAF was not much of a convert to the VTOL idea, described the whole project as a toy and a crowd pleaser; the first prototype P1127 made a heavy landing at the Paris Air Show in 1963. Series manufacture and design and development improvement to the Pegasus to produce higher thrusts were continued by Bristol engines beyond 1966, when Rolls-Royce Ltd bought the Company.
A related engine design, the 39,500 lbf Bristol Siddeley BS100 for a supersonic VTOL fighter was not developed to production as the aircraft project was cancelled in 1965. To date, 1,347 engines ha