Hip hop or hip-hop, is a culture and art movement that began in the Bronx in New York City during the early 1970s. The origin of the word is disputed, it is argued as to whether hip hop started in the South or West Bronx. While the term hip hop is used to refer to hip hop music, hip hop is characterized by nine elements, of which only four elements are considered essential to understand hip hop musically; the main elements of hip hop consist of four main pillars. Afrika Bambaataa of the hip hop collective Zulu Nation outlined the pillars of hip hop culture, coining the terms: "rapping", a rhythmic vocal rhyming style. Other elements of hip hop subculture and arts movements beyond the main four are: hip hop culture and historical knowledge of the movement; the fifth element, although debated, is considered either street knowledge, hip hop fashion, or beatboxing. The Bronx hip hop scene emerged in the mid-1970s from neighborhood block parties thrown by the Black Spades, an African-American group, described as being a gang, a club, a music group.
Brother-sister duo Clive Campbell, aka DJ Cool Herc, Cindy Campbell additionally hosted DJ parties in the Bronx and are credited for the rise in the genre. Hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the United States and subsequently the world; these elements were adapted and developed particularly as the art forms spread to new continents and merged with local styles in the 1990s and subsequent decades. As the movement continues to expand globally and explore myriad styles and art forms, including hip hop theater and hip hop film, the four foundational elements provide coherence and a strong foundation for Hip Hop culture. Hip hop is a new and old phenomenon. Sampling older culture and reusing it in a new context or a new format is called "flipping" in hip hop culture. Hip hop music follows in the footsteps of earlier African-American-rooted musical genres such as blues, rag-time and disco to become one of the most practiced genres worldwide. In 1990, Ronald "Bee-Stinger" Savage, a former member of the Zulu Nation, is credited for coining the term "Six elements of the Hip Hop Movement" by being inspired by Public Enemy's recordings.
The "Six Elements Of The Hip Hop Movement" are: Consciousness Awareness, Civil Rights Awareness, Activism Awareness, Political Awareness, Community Awareness in music. Ronald Savage is known as the Son of The Hip Hop Movement. In the 2000s, with the rise of new media platforms and Web 2.0, fans discovered and downloaded or streamed hip hop music through social networking sites beginning with Myspace, as well as from websites like YouTube, SoundCloud, Spotify. Keith "Cowboy" Wiggins, a member of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, has been credited with coining the term in 1978 while teasing a friend who had just joined the US Army by scat singing the made-up words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers. Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into his stage performance; the group performed with disco artists who would refer to this new type of music by calling them "hip hoppers." The name was meant as a sign of disrespect but soon came to identify this new music and culture.
The song "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang, released in 1979, begins with the phrase "I said a hip, the hippie the hippie to the hip hip hop, you don't stop". Lovebug Starski — a Bronx DJ who put out a single called "The Positive Life" in 1981 — and DJ Hollywood began using the term when referring to this new disco rap music. Bill Alder, an independent consultant, once said, "There was hardly a moment when rap music was underground, one of the first so-called rap records, was a monster hit. Hip hop pioneer and South Bronx community leader Afrika Bambaataa credits Love-bug Starski as the first to use the term "hip hop" as it relates to the culture. Bambaataa, former leader of the Black Spades did much to further popularize the term; the words "hip hop" first appeared in print on September 21, 1982, in The Village Voice in a profile of Bambaataa written by Steven Hager, who published the first comprehensive history of the culture with St. Martins' Press. In the 1970s, an underground urban movement known as "hip hop" began to form in the Bronx, New York City.
It focused on emceeing over neighborhood block party events, held outdoors. Hip hop music has been a powerful medium for protesting the impact of legal institutions on minorities police and prisons. Hip hop arose out of the ruins of a post-industrial and ravaged South Bronx, as a form of expression of urban Black and Latino youth, whom the public and political discourse had written off as marginalized communities. Jamaican-born DJ Clive "Kool Herc" Campbell pioneered the use of DJing percussion "breaks" in hip hop music. Beginning at Herc's home in a high-rise apartment at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the movement spread across the entire borough. On August 11, 1973 DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at
Whiteladies Road is a main road in Bristol, England. It runs north from the Victoria Rooms to Durdham Down, separates Clifton on the west side from Redland and Cotham on the east, it forms part of the A4018. Significant buildings on Whiteladies Road include: Broadcasting House and studios of the British Broadcasting Corporation; this was the main easterly route into Bristol and through route towards London and Bath from New Passage where there was a ferry from Wales, as well as the route in to Bristol and onwards from the Port at Avonmouth, most of the traffic from Wales was removed after the building of the M4 Severn Crossing in the 1960s and further reduced by the M32, however the A4018 still goes along much of the same route through Bristol and now meats the M5 at Cribbs Causeway and is today is still one of the important routes into Bristol from the motorway. The main route from Avonmouth was superseded by the building of The Portway in the 1920s. A shopping centre has been built around Clifton Down station, to the north of the station Whiteladies Road has long been an important shopping area.
The upper part of the road is known as Blackboy Hill, named after the Black Boy Inn which stood on the hill until 1874. "Black Boy" was a common name for pubs after the Restoration. Charles II was known as "the black boy" due to his black hair and the pub sign on Blackboy Hill had, until recently, a portrait of Charles II on it; the origin of the name of Whiteladies Road appears to be a pub, known as the White Ladies Inn, shown on maps in 1746 and 1804. There is a popular belief in Bristol that the naming of both Whiteladies Road and Blackboy Hill had connections with the slave trade, but this is an urban myth. Both names appear to be derived from pubs. A map of 1826 shows a house called White Ladies, the road at least as far as Whiteladies Gate had been given its name by that time. At that time the road north of Whiteladies Gate was a turnpike leading to New Passage
Inkie is a London-based painter and street artist from Clifton, Bristol. He is cited as being part of Bristol's graffiti heritage, along with 3D and Nick Walker. Inkie began working as part of Crime Incorporated Crew in 1983, along with Joe Braun, he was the head of the many artists arrested in 1989 during "Operation Anderson", the UK's largest graffiti bust. He arranged 1998's Walls on Fire event on the site of the future At-Bristol centre, he has subsequently worked in the video game industry, including some time as head of creative design at Sega, where his work was included in Jet Set Radio. Inkie was one artist present to do live painting at the launch of Banksy's book Bristol: Home Sweet Home. Inkie has likened, he now teaches art and graphic design to young children and college students. Inkie's works have been described as "diverse", incorporating styles from Maya architecture, William Morris, Mouse & Kelly, Alphonse Mucha, the Arts and Crafts movement and Islamic geometry. CIC painted a mural in the canteen of South Gloucestershire and Stroud College, where Inkie and Felix Braun were students.
Inkie's works were featured in a 2009 exhibition at Bristol's Royal West of England Academy and he curated 2009's Ibiza street art festival, Urban in Ibiza. He hosted a show of his works in 2010 for which 25% of the proceeds would be donated to Southmead Hospital's cochlear implant programme, his works have included murals in buildings in the Bristol area, including a friend's restaurant in Keynsham and Clifton pub The Grapes. He has taken part in the largest free urban paint festival in Europe. In August 2011 and 2012 Inkie was named as the organiser of a major street art event in Bristol, See No Evil, which involved painting the buildings of an entire street, turning it into Europe's largest outdoor art gallery. Nelson Street, in the city centre, was painted by a large number of international graffiti artists over a two-week period. Between 30 January and 29 February 2013, Inkie's work was featured at Art Below's first "pop up" billboard show in America in New Orleans. For the show, billboard space used for advertising featured a mix of urban and contemporary art.
A curated selection of 20 billboards flanked. Running alongside the billboard show was an exhibition of the artists original works at Gallery Orange in the French Quarter. Scenes and moments from this exhibition were screened on the Art Below web site in April 2012
Portishead are an English band formed in 1991 in Bristol. They are considered one of the pioneers of trip hop music; the band are named after the nearby town of the same name, eight miles west of Bristol, along the coast. Portishead consists of Geoff Barrow, Beth Gibbons and Adrian Utley, while sometimes citing a fourth member, Dave McDonald, an engineer on their first records, their debut album, was met with critical acclaim in 1994. Two other studio albums have been issued: Portishead in 1997 and Third in 2008. Portishead's first album Dummy was released in 1994; the cover features a still from the band's own short film To Kill a Dead Man. The credits indicate that at this juncture, Portishead was a duo of Beth Gibbons. Adrian Utley, who co-produced the album with them, became an official band member shortly after its release. Despite the band's aversion to press coverage, the album was successful in both Europe and the United States. Dummy was positively described by the Melody Maker as "musique noire for a movie not yet made".
Rolling Stone praised its music as "Gothic hip-hop". Dummy spawned three singles: "Numb", "Sour Times" and "Glory Box", won the Mercury Music Prize in 1995; the success of the album saw the band nominated for Best British Newcomer at the 1995 Brit Awards. In 2003, the album was ranked number 419 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time; the album is considered one of the greatest trip hop albums to date and is a milestone in the definition of the genre. After their initial success, Portishead withdrew from the spotlight for three years until their second album, was released in 1997; the album's sound differed from Dummy, characterised as "grainy and harsher." Three singles, "All Mine", "Over" and "Only You" were released, the first one achieving a Top 10 placing in the UK. In 1997, the band performed a one-off show with strings at the Roseland Ballroom in New York City. A live album featuring these new orchestral arrangements of the group's songs was released in 1998.
There was a long-form VHS video of the performance, a DVD followed in 2002, with substantial extra material including many early music videos. In 1999, Portishead recorded the song "Motherless Child" with Tom Jones for his album Reload. For the next few years, the band members concentrated on other pursuits. In February 2005, the band appeared live for the first time in seven years at the Tsunami Benefit Concert in Bristol. Around that time, Barrow revealed. In August 2006, the band posted two new tracks on its MySpace page, described by Barrow as "doodles". Around the same time, Portishead covered Serge Gainsbourg's "Un Jour Comme un Autre" on the tribute album Monsieur Gainsbourg Revisited. On 2 October 2007, Portishead stated that the new album Third had been mixed and was nearly complete, was due for release in early April 2008; the release was pushed to 28 April. On 8 and 9 December 2007, the band curated the All Tomorrow's Parties festival in England; the festival featured their first full live sets in nearly 10 years.
They premiered five tracks from the new album: "Silence", "Hunter", "The Rip", "We Carry On", "Machine Gun". On 21 January 2008, a European tour to support the album was announced, together with a headline spot at the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival on 26 April 2008, their only U. S. date on the tour. Third was made available on Last.fm the week before release, attracting 327,000 listeners in just under 24 hours. It was the first time; the album was released on 29 April 2008 to coincide with the band's appearance at Coachella. Portishead's Geoff Barrow realised a "boyhood fantasy" when Chuck D of Public Enemy joined the band onstage at the "ATP I'll Be Your Mirror" festival curated by Portishead in Asbury Park, NJ in October 2011, he contributed his verse from the P. E. song "Black Steel in the Hour of Chaos" over Portishead's single "Machine Gun". On 18 May 2008, Barrow expressed Portishead's enthusiasm for recording new material on their official website's blog, stating that he "can't wait to write some new tunes".
On 28 September 2009, Barrow announced "big plans" for a new project with a new angle, hinting that an album could arrive as soon as late 2010. Whilst the album had yet to materialise, on 9 December 2009, the band released the song "Chase the Tear" for Human Rights Day to raise money for Amnesty International UK. Additionally, on 3 December 2008, Universal Music Japan reissued the albums Dummy and Portishead in limited edition on SHM-CD. During Summer 2011, Portishead performed at a number of festivals in Europe, Pohoda Festival, Exit Festival, Benicàssim Festival in Spain, Rock Werchter, Paleo Festival, Roskilde Festival, the Hurricane/Southside Festivals in Germany, the Super Bock Super Rock music festival; the band headlined and curated the line-up for two All Tomorrow's Parties music festivals entitled I'll Be Your Mirror, in London at Alexandra Palace on 23 and 24 July. The second took place in New Jersey from 30 September -- 2 October. Portishead visited several cities in North America, including New York, Toronto, Mexico City, Los Angeles, Seattle and Denver during October.
The Chicago Tribune hailed the concert and noted: "horror-movie accents—Gothic organ, guitar lines thick with menacing reverb, spooky theremin—ensured a certain darkness". They finished their tour with a jaunt to New Zealand. Barrow stated i
Drum and bass
Drum and bass, is a genre and branch of electronic music which emerged from rave and jungle scenes in Britain during the early 1990s. The style is characterised by fast breakbeats with heavy bass and sub-bass lines, sampled sources, synthesizers; the popularity of drum and bass at its commercial peak ran parallel to several other homegrown dance styles in the UK including big beat and hard house. Drum and bass incorporates a number of styles. A major influence on jungle and drum and bass was the original Jamaican reggae sound. Another feature of the style is the complex syncopation of the drum tracks' breakbeat. Drum and bass subgenres include breakcore, ragga jungle, darkstep, neurofunk, ambient drum and bass, liquid funk, jump up, drumfunk, sambass and drill'n' bass. From its roots in the UK, the style has established itself around the world. Drum and bass has influenced many other genres like hip hop, big beat, house, trip hop, ambient music, jazz and pop. Drum and bass is dominated by a small group of record labels.
The major international music labels had shown little interest in the drum and bass scene, until BMG Rights Management acquired RAM in February 2016. Drum and bass remains most popular in the UK although it has developed scenes all around the world, in countries such as the United States, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Canada, the Czech Republic and Australia. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, a growing nightclub and overnight outdoor event culture gave birth to a new electronic music style in the rave scene, which combined sampled syncopated beats or breakbeats, other samples from a wide range of different musical genres and samples of music and effects from films and television programmes. A faster subgenre was known as "hardcore" but from as early as 1991, some musical tracks made up of these high-tempo break beats, with heavy basslines and samples of older Jamaican music, were referred to as "jungle techno", a genre influenced by Jack Smooth and Basement Records, just "jungle", which became recognised as a separate musical genre popular at raves and on pirate radio in Britain.
It is important to note when discussing the history of drum and bass that prior to jungle, the music was getting faster and more experimental. Professional DJ and producer C. K. states, "There was a progression. Anyone buying vinyl every week from 1989 to 1992 noticed this." By 1994, jungle had begun to gain mainstream popularity and fans of the music became a more recognisable part of youth subculture. The genre further developed and fusing elements from a wide range of existing musical genres, including the raggamuffin sound, dancehall, MC chants, dub basslines, complex edited breakbeat percussion. Despite the affiliation with the ecstasy-fuelled rave scene, jungle inherited some associations with violence and criminal activity, both from the gang culture that had affected the UK's hip-hop scene and as a consequence of jungle's aggressive or menacing sound and themes of violence. However, this developed in tandem with the positive reputation of the music as part of the wider rave scene and dancehall-based Jamaican music culture prevalent in London.
By 1995, whether as a reaction to, or independently of this cultural schism, some jungle producers began to move away from the ragga-influenced style and create what would become collectively labelled, for convenience, as drum and bass. As the genre became more polished and sophisticated technically, it began to expand its reach from pirate radio to commercial stations and gain widespread acceptance, it began to split into recognisable subgenres such as jump-up and Hardstep. As a lighter and jazz-influenced style of drum and bass gained mainstream appeal, additional subgenres emerged including techstep which drew greater influence from techno music and the soundscapes of science fiction and anime films; the popularity of drum and bass at its commercial peak ran parallel to several other homegrown dance styles in the UK including big beat and hard house. But towards the turn of the millennium its popularity was deemed to have dwindled as the UK garage style known as speed garage yielded several hit singles.
Speed garage shared high tempos and heavy basslines with drum and bass, but otherwise followed the established conventions of "house music", with this and its freshness giving it an advantage commercially. London DJ/producer C. K. says, "It is forgotten by my students that a type of music called "garage house" existed in the late 1980s alongside hip house, acid house and other forms of house music." He continues, "This new garage of the mid 90s was not a form of house or a progression of garage house. The beats and tempo that define house are different; this did cause further confusion in the presence of new house music of the mid-1990s being played alongside what was now being called garage." Despite this, the emergence of further subgenres and related styles such as liquid funk brought a wave of new artists incorporating new ideas and techniques, supporting continual evolution of the genre. To this day drum and bass makes frequent appearances in mainstream media and popular culture including in television, as well as being a major reference point for subsequent genres such as grime and dubstep and successful artists including Chase & Status and Australia's Pendulum
Kosheen were a British electronic music group based in Bristol, United Kingdom. The group consisted of singer-songwriter Sian Evans, songwriter-producer Markee Ledge and producer-songwriter Darren Decoder; the name Kosheen derives from the name of Cochise. When in Japan, it was discovered that a combination of the Japanese words for "old" and "new" would make "Kosheen" in Japanese, their first album, was released in September 2001 on Moksha recordings/BMG and reached number eight in the UK album chart. It spawned the singles " Suicide", "Hide U", "Catch", "Hungry" and "Harder", their second album, Kokopelli — released in August 2003 on Moksha Recordings/Sony and named after a mythical Native American spirit — focused less on drum and bass beats and more on guitar riffs and darker-toned lyrics. It outperformed its predecessor in the UK album chart by reaching number seven, the single "All In My Head" reached number seven, but it did not sell as well as its predecessor, their third album, was released in Europe via Moksha/Universal Germany in March 2007.
The UK edition of Damage, featuring two new tracks—"Analogue Street Dub" and "Professional Friend" —was released via Moksha Recordings in September 2007. The first single from Damage was "Overkill", released in March and August 2007. In 2010, Kosheen set up their own label, with its first release, "Warning", released on 27 September. On 19 December 2010, they posted the first track, "Belladonna", from Independence, on their Facebook page, along with three more tracks on their Soundcloud page. On 25 October 2011, fresh from the success of Sian Evans collaboration with DJ Fresh "Louder" which had reached number 1 in the UK Singles Chart in July, Kosheen confirmed an album release in May 2012, a single, titled "Get a New One", on 13 February; the second single, "Holding On", features Susie Ledge as the guest vocalist. An announcement was made by the band on their official website that Independence would be released at the end of September 2012, it was released on 1 October 2012. "Mannequin" was released as the third single from the album.
Other songs on the album include "Waste", "Spies", "Addict" and "Tightly". On 8 November 2013, Kosheen debuted a video for a new song titled "Harder They Fall" as an introduction to their fifth studio album, Solitude. Four days the band uploaded the artwork to Solitude along with a release date of 25 November 2013. In October 2015 Kosheen performed their last live show. In September 2015, Markee Ledge announced he was releasing a solo album, featuring Susie Ledge on the title track. Kosheen are working on their solo projects. Sian Evans is performing with her Live Band shows and is in the recording studio. Kosheen.com Moksha Records website Kosheen.tv, YouTube site for videos and live footage Kosheen Twitter for Resist and Damage albums
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno in reference to a specific genre of music was in 1988. Many styles of techno now exist, but Detroit techno is seen as the foundation upon which a number of sub-genres have been built. In Detroit, techno resulted from the melding of black styles including Chicago house, funk and electric jazz with electronic music by artists such as Kraftwerk, Giorgio Moroder, Yellow Magic Orchestra. Added to this is the influence of futuristic and fictional themes relevant to life in American late capitalist society, with Alvin Toffler's book The Third Wave being a notable point of reference. Pioneering producer and DJ Juan Atkins cites Toffler's phrase "techno rebels" as inspiring him to use the word techno to describe the musical style he helped to create; this unique blend of influences aligns techno with the aesthetic referred to as afrofuturism.
To producers such as Derrick May, the transference of spirit from the body to the machine is a central preoccupation. In this manner: "techno dance music defeats what Adorno saw as the alienating effect of mechanisation on the modern consciousness". Stylistically, techno is repetitive instrumental music produced for use in a continuous DJ set; the central rhythmic component is most in common time, where time is marked with a bass drum on each quarter note pulse, a backbeat played by snare or clap on the second and fourth pulses of the bar, an open hi-hat sounding every second eighth note. The tempo tends to vary between 120 to 150 beats per minute, depending on the style of techno; the creative use of music production technology, such as drum machines and digital audio workstations, is viewed as an important aspect of the music's aesthetic. Many producers use retro electronic musical devices to create what they consider to be an authentic techno sound. Drum machines from the 1980s such as Roland's TR-808 and TR-909 are prized, software emulations of such retro technology are popular among techno producers.
Music journalists and fans of techno are selective in their use of the term. The initial blueprint for techno developed during the mid-1980s in Belleville, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit by Juan Atkins, Kevin Saunderson and Derrick May, all of whom attended school together at Belleville High, with the addition of Eddie Fowlkes, Blake Baxter and James Pennington. By the close of the 1980s, the pioneers had recorded and released material under various guises: Atkins as Model 500, Magic Juan. There were a number of joint ventures, including Kevin Saunderson's group Inner City, which saw collaborations with Atkins, vocalist Paris Grey, fellow DJs James Pennington and; the Electrifying Mojo was the first radio DJ to play music by Atkins and Saunderson. Mojo refused to follow pre-established radio formats or playlists, he promoted social and cultural awareness of the African American community. In exploring techno's origins writer Kodwo Eshun maintains that "Kraftwerk are to Techno what Muddy Waters is to the Rolling Stones: the authentic, the origin, the real."
Juan Atkins has acknowledged that he had an early enthusiasm for Kraftwerk and Giorgio Moroder Moroder's work with Donna Summer and the producer's own album E=MC2. Atkins mentions that "around 1980 I had a tape of nothing but Kraftwerk, Devo, Giorgio Moroder and Gary Numan, I'd ride around in my car playing it." Atkins has claimed he was unaware of Kraftwerk's music prior to his collaboration with Richard "3070" Davis as Cybotron, two years after he had first started experimenting with electronic instruments. Regarding his initial impression of Kraftwerk, Atkins notes that they were "clean and precise" relative to the "weird UFO sounds" featured in his "psychedelic" music. Derrick May identified the influence of Kraftwerk and other European synthesizer music in commenting that "it was just classy and clean, to us it was beautiful, like outer space. Living around Detroit, there was so little beauty... everything is an ugly mess in Detroit, so we were attracted to this music. It, ignited our imagination!".
May has commented that he considered his music a direct continuation of the European synthesizer tradition. He identified Japanese synthpop act Yellow Magic Orchestra member Ryuichi Sakamoto, British band Ultravox, as influences, along with Kraftwerk. YMO's song "Technopolis", a tribute to Tokyo as an electronic mecca, is considered an "interesting contribution" to the development of Detroit techno, foreshadowing concepts that Atkins and Davis would explore with Cybotron. Kevin Saunderson has acknowledged the influence of Europe but he claims to have been more inspired by the idea of making music with electronic equipment: "I was more infatuated with the idea that I can do this all myself." Prior to achieving notoriety, Saunderson and Fowlkes shared common interests as budding musicians, "mix" tape traders, aspiring DJs. They found musical inspiration via the Midnight Funk Association, an eclectic five-hour late-night radio program hosted on various Detroit radio stations, including WCHB, WGPR, WJLB-FM from 1977 through the mid-1980s by DJ Charles "The Electrifying Mojo" Johnson.