Nationwide Building Society
Nationwide Building Society is a British mutual financial institution, the seventh largest cooperative financial institution and the largest building society in the world with over 15 million members. It has its headquarters in Swindon, with an office in Threadneedle Street and administration centres based in Bournemouth and Glasgow. Made up of over a hundred mergers — most notably its merger with Anglia Building Society in 1987 and Portman Building Society in 2007 — Nationwide is now the second largest provider of household savings and mortgages in the UK, it has a 7.7% market share of current accounts and was ranked number one for customer service satisfaction amongst its high street peer group for the three months ending 31 March 2016. For the financial year 2015/2016, Nationwide had assets of around £208.9 billion compared to £331 billion for the entire building society sector, making it larger than the remaining 44 British building societies combined. It is a member of the Building Societies Association, the Council of Mortgage Lenders and Co-operatives UK.
In 2016 Nationwide appeared 3rd in The Sunday Times'Top 25 Big Companies To Work For' poll, up from 6th in 2015. The Society's origins lie in the Northampton Town & County Freehold Land Society and the Southern Co-operative Permanent Building Society, London; the Co-operative Permanent, based at New Oxford House in the London Borough of Camden, changed its name to Nationwide Building Society in 1970, reflecting an organisation that had coverage throughout the country, after a decision by the British Co-operative Union in August 1970. The new name was put with members voting 135,675 to 15,585 in favour. In 1987, the Northampton-based Anglia Building Society merged with Nationwide; the new society was known as Nationwide Anglia Building Society at first, but the Anglia name was dropped in 1992. Nationwide launched an early UK internet banking service on 27 May 1997. In 1999, together with various UK tabloid newspapers and media, launched a campaign against controversial cash machine fees; the campaign reached a peak when Barclays Bank announced a plan to charge all customers of rival banks and financial providers, including those of Nationwide, £1 for every cash machine withdrawal made from a Barclays-owned cash machine.
This prompted Nationwide to warn Barclays that it would take legal action against the bank if it did not back down. Nationwide claimed Barclays had broken the rules of the LINK network of cash machines, which the bank had joined earlier in the year; the following year, withdrawals from most cash machines owned by UK banks were made free for customers of all banks and building societies throughout the UK. Nationwide completed a merger with Portman Building Society on 28 August 2007, creating a mutual body with assets of over £160 billion and around 13 million members. Portman's earliest component was the Provident Union Building Society founded in Ramsbury, Wiltshire in 1846. In the financial crisis of 2007–2008, the Nationwide acted to safeguard the mutual sector, acquiring the ailing Cheshire and Derbyshire building societies in September 2008, followed by the Dunfermline Building Society on 30 March 2009. On 24 March 2009 Nationwide opened a direct savings branch in Dublin, Ireland called Nationwide UK, to distinguish it from the unconnected and now-defunct Irish Nationwide Building Society.
However, Nationwide ceased all operations in the Irish Republic in 2017. In 2012, the society announced that it would integrate the Cheshire and Dunfermline building societies into Nationwide; the societies had operated under their own brands as divisions of the society. The rebranding of each business was phased, with the Dunfermline first to be merged in June 2014; the Cheshire and Derbyshire followed in November 2014 respectively. On 22 May 2015, it was announced that the Society's Chief Executive, Graham Beale, intended to retire. On 16 November 2015, Nationwide announced that Joe Garner, CEO of Openreach, would succeed Graham as Nationwide CEO in Spring 2016. Joe Garner joined the Society as Chief Executive on 5 April 2016. In May 2016, the society confirmed that it would be closing its subsidiary on the Isle of Man, Nationwide International, following a review of its business; the branch, based in Douglas, provided a range of offshore savings accounts in euros, pound sterling and US dollars.
It held assets in excess of £2.76 billion as at 31 March 2008, increasing to £3.69 billion by 31 March 2009, making it one of the largest deposit takers in the Isle of Man. Nationwide confirmed it would close on 30 June 2017. On 1 October 2016, Carillion began providing services for Nationwide's Headquarters in Swindon,'specifically aligned to Nationwide's sustainability strategy'; this contract is expected to be worth £350 million, building on an existing partnership of nearly nine years. In April 2017, the society confirmed that it would be closing its subsidiary on the Republic of Ireland, Nationwide UK, following a review of its business, its branch at 13 Merrion Row, Dublin 2 closed on 31 May 2017. The remainder of the business closed at the end of the year. Nationwide is committed to staying mutual and is keen to emphasise that it has members rather than shareholders. However, it has had challenges against its mutual status in the past. Nationwide was by far the largest British building society that did not convert to a bank in the wave of demutualisations that occurred from the late 1980s to the late 1990s.
In 1998, society members seeking a windfall, branded as carpetbaggers by the UK media, meant Nationwide members had to vote on whether to demutualise the society and float on the London Stock Exchange. The attempt failed, despite media reports of possible pay-outs to members of around £1,000 to £
Association of Teachers and Lecturers
The Association of Teachers and Lecturers was a trade union, teachers' union and professional association, affiliated to the Trades Union Congress, in the United Kingdom representing educators from nursery and primary education to further education. In March 2017, ATL members endorsed a proposed merger with the National Union of Teachers to form a new union known as the national education union, which came into existence on 1 September 2017. At that time 120,000 individuals belonged to the union, making it the third largest teaching and education union in the UK. ATL had members throughout England, Wales, Northern Ireland, the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man, British Service schools overseas; the ATL brand continues as a subsidiary of the National Education Union. ATL was led by its Executive Committee. All senior officers and officials were elected by an Association wide ballot and the overall direction was determined by the Annual Conference which had delegates from each branch; the ATL President served a one-year term.
From September 2009, Lesley Ward. From September 2010, Andy Brown. From September 2011, Alice Robinson. From September 2012, Hank Roberts. From September 2013, Alison Sherratt. From September 2014, Mark Baker. From September 2015, Kim Knappett. From September 2016, Shelagh Hirst; the final ATL General Secretary was Dr Mary Bousted. The origins of ATL go back to 1884 when 180 women met to create the Association of Assistant Mistresses; these women worked in schools founded for higher education of girls. Their concern was for the pupils. However, in 1921, the AAM appointed representatives to the newly formed Burnham Committee on Salaries in Secondary Schools. 1891 saw the formation of the Association of Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools. Its purpose was to improve the conditions of service of secondary teachers. Between 1899 and 1908 it played an influential part in obtaining security of tenure for assistant teachers through the Endowed Schools Act. In 1978 AAM and AMA merged to form the Assistant Masters and Mistresses Association with a membership of 75,000.
The name was changed in 1993 to the Association of Lecturers. ATL affiliated to the TUC in 1999, it resigned from the Irish Congress of Trade Unions in 2015. In January 2011, the Association for College Management merged into ATL. 2009 Liverpool 2010 Manchester 2011 Liverpool 2012 Manchester 2013 Liverpool 2014 Manchester 2015 Liverpool 2016 Liverpool 1978: Andrew Hutchings and Joyce Baird 1979: Geoff Beynon and Joyce Baird 1988: Peter Smith and Joyce Baird 1990: Peter Smith 2003: Mary Bousted Education in the United Kingdom Official website Catalogue of the AMMA archives held at the Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick Catalogue of the Association of Assistant Mistresses archives, held at the Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick
The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the English Football League; the Premier League is a corporation. Seasons run from August to May with each team playing 38 matches. Most games are played on Sunday afternoons; the Premier League has featured 47 English and two Welsh clubs since its inception, making it a cross-border league. The competition was formed as the FA Premier League on 20 February 1992 following the decision of clubs in the Football League First Division to break away from the Football League, founded in 1888, take advantage of a lucrative television rights deal; the deal was worth £1 billion a year domestically as of 2013–14, with BSkyB and BT Group securing the domestic rights to broadcast 116 and 38 games respectively. The league generates € 2.2 billion per year in international television rights. Clubs were apportioned revenues of £2.4 billion in 2016–17. The Premier League is the most-watched sports league in the world, broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million homes and a potential TV audience of 4.7 billion people.
In the 2014–15 season, the average Premier League match attendance exceeded 36,000, second highest of any professional football league behind the Bundesliga's 43,500. Most stadium occupancies are near capacity; the Premier League ranks second in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons, as of 2018. Forty-nine clubs have competed since the inception of the Premier League in 1992. Six of them have won the title since then: Manchester United, Arsenal, Manchester City, Blackburn Rovers, Leicester City; the record of most points in a Premier League season is 100, set by Manchester City in 2017–18. Despite significant European success in the 1970s and early 1980s, the late 1980s marked a low point for English football. Stadiums were crumbling, supporters endured poor facilities, hooliganism was rife, English clubs were banned from European competition for five years following the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985; the Football League First Division, the top level of English football since 1888, was behind leagues such as Italy's Serie A and Spain's La Liga in attendances and revenues, several top English players had moved abroad.
By the turn of the 1990s the downward trend was starting to reverse: at the 1990 FIFA World Cup, England reached the semi-finals. In the 1980s, major English clubs had begun to transform into business ventures, applying commercial principles to club administration to maximise revenue. Martin Edwards of Manchester United, Irving Scholar of Tottenham Hotspur, David Dein of Arsenal were among the leaders in this transformation, it gave the top clubs more power. By threatening to break away, clubs in Division One managed to increase their voting power, they took a 50% share of all television and sponsorship income in 1986. Revenue from television became more important: the Football League received £6.3 million for a two-year agreement in 1986, but by 1988, in a deal agreed with ITV, the price rose to £44 million over four years with the leading clubs taking 75% of the cash. According to Scholar, involved in the negotiations of television deals, each of the First Division clubs received only around £25,000 per year from television rights before 1986, this increased to around £50,000 in the 1986 negotiation to £600,000 in 1988.
The 1988 negotiations were conducted under the threat of ten clubs leaving to form a "super league", but they were persuaded to stay with the top clubs taking the lion share of the deal. As stadiums improved and match attendance and revenues rose, the country's top teams again considered leaving the Football League in order to capitalise on the influx of money into the sport. In 1990, the managing director of London Weekend Television, Greg Dyke, met with the representatives of the "big five" football clubs in England over a dinner; the meeting was to pave the way for a break away from The Football League. Dyke believed that it would be more lucrative for LWT if only the larger clubs in the country were featured on national television and wanted to establish whether the clubs would be interested in a larger share of television rights money; the five clubs decided to press ahead with it. The FA did not enjoy an amicable relationship with the Football League at the time and considered it as a way to weaken the Football League's position.
At the close of the 1991 season, a proposal was tabled for the establishment of a new league that would bring more money into the game overall. The Founder Members Agreement, signed on 17 July 1991 by the game's top-flight clubs, established the basic principles for setting up the FA Premier League; the newly formed top division would have commercial independence from The Football Association and the Football League, giving the FA Premier League licence to negotiate
In the history of the United States, carpetbagger was a derogatory term applied by former Confederates to any person from the Northern United States who came to the Southern states after the American Civil War. The term broadly included both individuals who sought to promote Republican politics, those individuals who saw business and political opportunities because of the chaotic state of the local economies following the war. In practice, the term carpetbagger was applied to any Northerner, present in the South during the Reconstruction Era; the term is associated with "scalawag", a pejorative word used to describe native White southerners who supported the Republican Party-led Reconstruction. White Southerners denounced "carpetbaggers" collectively during the post-war years, fearing they would loot and plunder the defeated South and be politically allied with the Radical Republicans. Sixty men from the North, including educated free blacks and slaves who had escaped to the North and returned South after the war, were elected from the South as Republicans to Congress.
The majority of Republican governors in the South during Reconstruction were from the North. Historian Eric Foner argues:... most carpetbaggers combine the desire for personal gain with a commitment to taking part in an effort "to substitute the civilization of freedom for that of slavery".... Carpetbaggers supported measures aimed at democratizing and modernizing the South – civil rights legislation, aid to economic development, the establishment of public school systems. Since the end of the Reconstruction era, the term has been used to denote people in analogous historical situations to describe people who move into a new area to for purely economic or political reasons, despite not having ties to that place; the term carpetbagger, used as a pejorative term, originated from the carpet bags which many of these newcomers carried. The term came to be associated with exploitation by outsiders; the term is now used in the United States to refer to a parachute candidate, that is, an outsider who runs for public office in an area without having lived there for more than a short time, or without having other significant community ties.
In the United Kingdom at the end of the 20th century, carpetbagger developed another meaning: in British English it refers to people who join a mutual organization, such as a building society, in order to force it to demutualize, that is, to convert into a joint stock company. Such individuals are seeking personal financial gain through such actions; the Republican Party in the South comprised three groups after the Civil War, white Democratic Southerners referred to two with derogatory terms. "Scalawags" were white Southerners who supported the Republican party, "carpetbaggers" were recent arrivals in the region from the North, freedmen were freed slaves. Although "carpetbagger" and "scalawag" were terms of opprobrium, they are now used in the scholarly literature to refer to these classes of people. Politically, the carpetbaggers were dominant. However, the Republican Party inside each state was torn between the more conservative scalawags on one side and the more Radical carpetbaggers with their black allies on the other.
In most cases, the carpetbaggers won out, many scalawags moved into the conservative or Democratic opposition. Most of the 430 Republican newspapers in the South were edited by scalawags—20 percent were edited by carpetbaggers. White businessmen boycotted Republican papers, which survived through government patronage. Beginning in 1862, Northern abolitionists moved to areas in the South that had fallen under Union control. Schoolteachers and religious missionaries went to the South to teach the freedmen; some were abolitionists. The bureau established schools in rural areas of the South for the purpose of educating the illiterate black and Poor White population. Other Northerners who moved to the South did so to participate in the profitable business of rebuilding railroads and various other forms of infrastructure, destroyed during the war. During the time most blacks were enslaved, many were prohibited from being educated and attaining literacy. Southern states had no public school systems, upper-class white Southerners either sent their children to private schools or hired private tutors.
After the war, hundreds of Northern white women moved South, many to teach the newly freed African-American children. There they joined like-minded Southerners, most of which were employed by the Methodist and Baptist Churches, who spent much of their time teaching and preaching to slave and freedpeople congregations both before and after the Civil War. Initiatives such as the Southern Homestead Act, Sherman's field orders, Reconstruction-era legislation by Radical Republicans aimed to strip the land and voting rights of Southerners believed to have supported the Confederates during the war. Although the stated purpose of these initiatives was to empower freedmen politically and economically, many carpetbaggers were businessmen who purchased or leased plantations, they became wealthy landowners, hiring freedmen and white Southerners to do the labor through the
Leek is a market town and civil parish in the county of Staffordshire, England, on the River Churnet. It is situated about 10 miles north east of Stoke-on-Trent, it is an ancient borough and was granted its royal charter in 1214. It is the administrative centre for the Staffordshire Moorlands District Council. King John granted Ranulph de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester, the right to hold a weekly Wednesday market and an annual seven-day fair in Leek in 1207. Leek's coat of arms is made up of a Saltire Shield. On the top is the Stafford Knot, either side is the Leek "Double Sunset" and below a gold garb; the crest is a mural crown with three Mulberry leaves on a Mount of Heather on top of which a Moorcock is resting his claw on a small-weave Shuttle. The motto'ARTE FAVENTE NIL DESPERANDUM' translates to: Our skill assisting us, we have no cause for despair; the town had a regular cattle market for hundreds of years, reflecting its role as a centre of local farming. Following the Industrial Revolution it was a major producer of textiles, with silk working in particular coming to dominate the industrial landscape.
However, this industry has now ceased. The mills from the town's textile era remain and many have now been converted into housing. Britannia, the former Building Society, has its headquarters in the town and was a large local employer. Most of the town is at or above 600 feet and is surrounded by the higher countryside of the Staffordshire Moorlands, situated on the southern uplands of the Pennines. Leek is built on the slope and crown of a hill, situated just a few miles south of the Roaches. Leek is situated at the foot of the Peak District National Park and is therefore referred to as the Gateway to the Peak District, although the town is more referred to as the Queen of the Moorlands. Listed buildings include the original parish church, St Edward the Confessor's, a Victorian church, All Saints', designed by Richard Norman Shaw. Many Victorian period buildings still stand in the town. Many of Leek's buildings were built by the family architectural practice of the Sugdens. In 1849 William Sugden came to Leek.
He was an architect and his work on the design of the railway stations for the Churnet Valley Railway brought him to the area. In the following year William’s son, Larner Sugden, was born. After schooling in Yorkshire, Larner returned to Leek in 1866 to be apprenticed to his father as an architect, thus was formed the famous Sugden & Son, whose influence on the town was to be profound; the firm had offices in Derby Street. The building still survives. Larner was a great supporter of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, so Leek’s development was in sympathetic hands; the architectural output from Sugden & Son was both varied. Some of the buildings designed by the Sugdens are as follows: the Congregational Church with its 130’ spire, built in the Victorian Gothic Revival style Myatt’s Mill in Earl Street Mill Street Methodist Chapel and Ragged School, the Cottage Hospital, in memory of silk manufacturer James Allsop, their own houses in Queen Street, complete with monograms for William and for Larner’s French wife, West Street School, the District Bank, which exhibits a strong Richard Norman Shaw influence the Leonard Street Police Station in Scottish Baronial style.
This last was the last joint venture of the father-and-son team because William Sugden died in 1892. The Sugden masterpiece was the Nicholson Institute, built in the Queen Anne style, in 1882; the fact that this building is tucked away behind the 17th century ‘Greystones’ is a further indication of Larner’s regard for old buildings. Larner would not countenance demolition of the old building, so, as the Nicholsons owned the land to the rear, where the Institute was built. Larner cleverly incorporated the busts of Shakespeare, Newton and Tennyson into the building representing 400 years of artistic and scientific achievement from the 16th to the 19th century and embracing literature, science and poetry. In 1899 came the Technical Schools and the Co-operative Society Hall. Although the original town centre cattle market was demolished and replaced with a bus station and shopping centre in the 1960s, the new cattle market was built on the edge of town adjacent to the railway station; this was one of the stations closed following Dr. Beeching's recommendations, a supermarket now stands on the site.
The Nicholson War Memorial was dedicated in 1925. Leek offers some contemporary architecture, most notably the alterations and refurbishment to Trinity Church on Derby Street and new teaching building on Horton Street for Leek College. Leek was the home of the 18th century canal engineer, he built a water-powered corn mill in 1752. This watermill is now preserved as Museum. William Morris, founder of the Arts and Crafts movement and worked in Leek between 1875 and 1878, he studied dyeing with Thomas Wardle, owner of a dyeworks in the town, it was Leek which provided his firm with silk. It was through the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, which he founded in 1877, that he came into contact with Larner Sugden, the local architect, who went on to publish some of Morris' speeches and essays in a series called the Bijour of Leek. Dame Averil Cameron Professor of Late Antique and Byzantine History in the University of Oxford and former Warden of Keble College grew up in Leek. Dave Hill, vocalist for English new wave of British heavy metal band De
Unison (trade union)
Unison, stylised as UNISON, is the largest trade union in the United Kingdom with 1.4 million members. The union was formed in 1993 when three public sector trade unions, the National and Local Government Officers Association, the National Union of Public Employees and the Confederation of Health Service Employees merged. UNISON's current general secretary is Dave Prentis, he was elected on 28 February 2000 and took up the post on 1 January 2001. Members of UNISON are from industries within the public sector and cover both full-time and part-time support and administrative staff; the majority of people joining UNISON are workers within sectors such as local government, the National Health Service Registered Nurses, NHS Managers and Clinical Support Workers. The union admits ancillary staff such as Health Care Assistants and Assistant Practitioners, including Allied Health Professionals. Probation services, police services and transport. These'Service Groups' all have their own national and regional democratic structures within UNISON's constitution.
As a trade union, UNISON provides support to members on work related issues, including protection and representation at work, help with pay and conditions of service and legal advice. Each company or organisation will be represented by a particular UNISON branch and members within that organisation elect volunteer stewards to represent them; the stewards receive training in workplace issues and are able to co-ordinate and represent members both on an individual basis and collectively. Each branch is run by an annually elected committee of members which holds regular meetings, including an annual general meeting for all members to attend. Branches elect delegates to the union's annual National Delegate Conference, the supreme body within the union's constitution with responsibility for setting the union's policies for the forthcoming year. UNISON operate a holiday resort, UNISON Croyde Bay Resort, in North Devon. Members receive a 15% discount as well as have access to a 50% low paid member discount scheme.
To encourage all voices to be heard UNISON has "self organised groups" of black members, women members, gay, bisexual & transgender members, disabled members. Young members and retired members have their own sections within the union. Membership numbers have remained stable at between 1.2 and 1.4 million in the decade to 2014. The levels of subscription are determined by the National Delegate Conference and are recorded as a Schedule in the union rules; the National Delegate Conference has the power to vary the subscriptions levied after a majority vote, although the subscription rates do not change frequently. Local branches may after a majority vote of members, impose an additional'Local Levy' as long as the levy does not exceed one sixth of the subscription payable; this is in addition to the standard rate, must be used for local branch purposes. Membership fees vary depending on how members are paid and the level of their current salary. Subscriptions are paid by what is known as "check-off" or DOCAS.
This is where the employer deducts the contribution from the employee's salary on behalf of the union. Payment is taken by Direct Debit if the member joins online, if the member requests it, or if there is no DOCAS arrangement with the employer. Student members in full-time education have a fixed rate subscription of £10 per year. Members who have had continuous membership for at least two years may opt to pay a one-off fee of £15 upon retirement from paid employment; this allows them to retain the benefits of being a union member for life. They are classed as'Retired Members'. Members who are dismissed or made redundant from employment may retain their membership for £4 per year for a period of up to two years whilst they remain unemployed. Various local campaigns are run by the union. Much of the recruitment within organisations takes place at a local level, with stewards and branches directly engaging with the staff within their remit; the national organisation engages in publicity such as the "Ants and Bear", used at the formation of the new amalgamated union.
This advertising campaign showed an ant trying to get past a large bear by shouting "Excuse Me", however the bear did not pay attention. The next scene showed the ant being joined by many thousands more, them all saying "Get out of the way!" together, which does get the bear's attention and makes him move out of the way. The General Political Fund funded a TV recruitment advert "You're one in a million" launched in October 2004. UNISON has a political fund which uses money from members for social campaigning. Members have the choice of paying into either a fund which supports the Labour Party, a non-affiliated General Political Fund or to opt out of contributing to a political fund at all. UNISON carries out research and campaigns on public service issues, such as the Private Finance Initiative, it has voted to oppose the Government's proposals for a British national identity card. The union's links to Labour and its moderate policies has caused some conflict and criticism of action taken against left-wing activists.
In April 2009 a UNISON conference voted unanimously to request that the British Department of Health ban members of the British National Party from working as nurses in the National Health Service, describing the party as racist. UNISON runs a range of national campaigns, such as'Positively Public', the campaign to keep public services public and
Ipswich Town F.C.
Ipswich Town Football Club is a professional association football club based in Ipswich, England. They play in the Championship, the second tier of the English football league system, having last appeared in the Premier League in the 2001–02 season; the club was founded in 1878 but did not turn professional until 1936, was subsequently elected to join the Football League in 1938. They play their home games at Portman Road in Ipswich; the only professional football club in Suffolk, they have a long-standing and fierce rivalry with Norwich City in Norfolk, with whom they have contested the East Anglian derby 148 times since 1902. The club's traditional home colours are white shorts. Ipswich have won the English league title once, in their first season in the top flight in 1961–62, have twice finished runners-up, in 1980–81 and 1981–82, they won the FA Cup in 1977–78, the UEFA Cup in 1980–81. They have competed in all three European club competitions, have never lost at home in European competition, defeating Real Madrid, A.
C. Milan, Inter Milan and Barcelona, among others; the club was founded as an amateur side in 1878 and were known as Ipswich A. F. C. until 1888 when they merged with Ipswich Rugby Club to form Ipswich Town Football Club. The team won a number of local cup competitions, including the Suffolk Challenge Cup and the Suffolk Senior Cup. After playing in the Norfolk & Suffolk League from 1899 and the South East Anglian League between 1903 and 1906, they joined the Southern Amateur League in 1907 and, with results improving became champions in the 1921–22 season; the club won the league a further three times, in 1929–30, 1932–33 and 1933–34, before becoming founder members of the Eastern Counties Football League at the end of the 1934–35 season. A year the club turned professional and joined the Southern League, which they won in its first season and finished third in the next. Ipswich were elected to The Football League on 30 May 1938, played in Division Three until the end of the 1953–54 season, when they won the title and promotion to Division Two.
The club were relegated back to Division Three the following year at the end of a poor season, but made better progress after Scott Duncan was replaced as team manager by Alf Ramsey in August 1955. The club won the Division Three title again in 1956–57, returned to the higher division; this time, Ipswich established themselves in Division Two, as the division champions, won promotion to the top level of English football, Division One, in 1960–61. In the top flight for the first time, Ipswich became Champions of the Football League at the first attempt in 1961–62; as English league champions, they qualified for the 1962–63 European Cup, defeating Maltese side Floriana 14–1 on aggregate before losing to A. C. Milan. Ramsey left the club in April 1963 to take charge of the England national team. Ramsey was replaced by Jackie Milburn. Two years after winning the league title, Ipswich slipped down to the Second Division in 1964, conceding 121 league goals in 42 games – one of the worst-ever defensive records in English senior football.
Milburn quit after just one full season and was replaced by Bill McGarry in 1964. The club remained in the Second Division for four years until McGarry guided Ipswich to promotion along with his assistant Sammy Chung in the 1967–68 season, winning the division by a single point ahead of Queens Park Rangers. McGarry left to manage Wolves and was replaced by Bobby Robson in January 1969. Robson led Ipswich to several seasons in top flight European football; the successful period began in 1973 when the club won the Texaco Cup and finished fourth in the league, qualifying for the UEFA Cup for the first time. In the 1974–75 season they reached the semi-finals of the FA Cup for the first time, losing to West Ham United after a replay, finished 3rd in the league. By the late 1970s, Robson had built a strong side with talent in every department, introducing the Dutch pair Arnold Mühren and Frans Thijssen to add flair to a team that featured British internationals including John Wark, Terry Butcher and Paul Mariner, although the Ipswich squad lacked the depth of established big clubs like Liverpool and Manchester United.
Ipswich featured in the top five of the league and in the UEFA Cup. At their peak in the 1979–80 season, they beat Manchester United 6–0 in a league game at Portman Road, a game where United goalkeeper Gary Bailey saved three penalties; the defeat cost United two points – the margin which separated them and champions Liverpool. Major success came in 1978 when Ipswich beat Arsenal at Wembley Stadium to win their only FA Cup trophy; the triumph was followed by a UEFA Cup victory in 1981 with a 5–4 victory over AZ Alkmaar in the two-legged final. The run to the final included a 4–1 win at St Etienne, captained at the time by Michel Platini.. The club finished as league runners-up in 1981 and 1982. Robson's success with Ipswich had attracted the attention of many bigger clubs, he had been linked with the Manchester United job when Dave Sexton was sacked in May 1981, but the job went to Ron Atkinson instead, it was the Football Association who lured Robson away from Portman Road a year when he accepted their offer to manage the England national team in July 1982.
His successor at Ipswich was his assistant manager Bobby Ferguson. Under Ferguson, Town finished mid-table twice, but worsening performances meant that they began to struggle in the top division; the recent construction of an expensive