The River-class destroyer was a class of torpedo boat destroyer built for the Royal Navy at the turn of the 20th century, which saw extensive service in World War I. The class introduced new features to destroyer design, placing a greater emphasis on seakeeping and endurance and less on a high maximum speed in good weather. All the ships were named after British and Irish rivers, as such were the first Royal Navy destroyer class to be named systematically; the concept for the River class began in December 1900, with a request from John de Robeck the senior destroyer officer in the Mediterranean Fleet, for a new class of destroyer with a longer range than the existing "30-knotter" and "27-knotter" types. Robeck's specification called for a range of 1,650 nmi at a sustained speed of 18 knots. Robeck called for various modifications to destroyer design to help make ships more seaworthy, in particular keeping up their speed in adverse weather conditions; the most noticeable change would be to introduce a raised forecastle rather than an arched turtleback for the hull forward of the bridge, that the bridge should be placed further aft to keep it clear of spray from waves breaking over the bow.
Furthermore, he felt that destroyers should run their speed trials with a more realistic load of fuel and supplies. The "30-knotter" type might have a nominal speed of 30 knots, but in good weather this was never achieved in service. Other officers serving on Royal Navy destroyers made similar observations about their ships. Robeck's commanding officer, Admiral "Jackie" Fisher, drew a comparison with the German S90-class torpedo boat, which had impressed Royal Navy officers who had seen it. In July 1901 the Director of Naval Construction worked on sketch designs for future destroyers, which included many of the features Robeck and his colleagues advocated, as well as a heavier and more reliable kind of engine; the trials speed was be 27 knots, though further requirements for increased strength reduced the speed to 25.5 knots. While this speed seemed like a significant reduction, it would be measured with a realistic 95 tons of coal loaded on board, the better seakeeping properties meant that the new ships would perform better than a "30-knotter" in any seas except for a flat calm.
As with other early British destroyer classes, the Admiralty invited specialist private firms to submit their own designs for destroyers which would meet the specification. The idea was to use the builders' knowledge of building small, ships to help cram powerful machinery into a small hull. For this reason, details of the hull and internal arrangements differed between ships in the class; the River class can be distinguished from previous destroyers because of its raised forecastle. Previous British designs that had a low "turtle-back" forecastle, although intended to clear the bows, caused them to dig in to the sea, resulting in a wet conning position; the bridge was further back than in previous destroyer models. All ships were coal fired and all but three had triple expansion steam engines. Eden was given turbines to test their viability for future destroyer classes, with two propellers on each of her three shafts, to transmit the power at the high revolutions of the direct drive turbines, a feature of the earlier Turbinia.
By 1906 the Russo-Japanese War had shown that the 6-pounder gun was insufficiently effective, so the five 6-pounders in this class were replaced by three additional 12-pounders, creating an "all big gun" armament. With a general increase in size and more solid construction, the Rivers became the first oceangoing and useful torpedo boat destroyers in Royal Navy service. Despite making only 25 knots, the increased seaworthiness meant that they could maintain this speed into a sea and that they remained workable and fightable at the same time. Notwithstanding a variety of design differences, all ships had either two broad funnels or two pairs of narrow funnels. All ships surviving the war were sold out of service by late 1920. Thirty-four ships were ordered - ten ships under the 1901-02 Programme, eight ships under the 1902-03 Programme, fifteen ships under the 1903-04 Programme. Hawthorn Leslie type, they featured two short funnels. Derwent – launched 14 February 1903, mined and sunk off Le Havre 2 May 1917.
Eden – launched 13 March 1903, rammed and sunk by SS France in English Channel 18 June 1916. Waveney – launched 15 March 1903, sold for breaking up 10 February 1920. Boyne – launched 12 September 1904, sold for breaking up 30 August 1919. Doon – launched 8 November 1904, sold for breaking up 27 June 1919. Kale – launched 8 November 1904, mined and sunk in North Sea 27 March 1918. Palmer type, they featured four funnels paired. Erne – launched 14 January 1903, wrecked off Rattray Head 6 February 1915. Ettrick – launched 28 February 1903, sold for breaking up 27 May 1919. Exe – launched 27 April 1903, sold for breaking up 10 February 1920. Cherwell – launched 23 July 1903, sold for breaking up 23 June 1919. Dee – launched 10 September 1903, sold for breaking up 23 July 1919. Rother – launched 5 January 1904, sold for breaking up 23 June 1919. Swale – launched 20 April 1905, sold for breaking
The Whitehead torpedo was the first self-propelled or "locomotive" torpedo developed. It was perfected in 1866 by Robert Whitehead from a design conceived by Giovanni Luppis of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, it was driven by a three-cylinder compressed air engine invented and made by Peter Brotherhood. Many naval services procured the Whitehead torpedo including the US Navy; this early torpedo proved itself in combat during the Russo-Turkish War when, on January 16, 1878, the Turkish ship Intibah was sunk by Russian torpedo boats carrying Whiteheads, though this story has been disputed in one book. The term "torpedo" comes from the Torpedo fish, a type of ray that delivers an electric shock to stun its prey. During the 19th century, an anonymous officer of the Austrian Marine Artillery conceived the idea of using a small boat laden with explosives, propelled by a steam or an air engine and steered by cables to be used against enemy ships. Luppis had a model of the device built. Dissatisfied with the device, which he called the "coast-saver", Luppis turned to Robert Whitehead, who worked for Stabilimento Tecnico Fiumano, a factory in Fiume, present-day Croatia.
In about 1850 the Austrian Navy asked Whitehead to develop this design into a self-propelled underwater torpedo. Whitehead developed what he called the Minenschiff: an 11-foot long, 14-inch diameter torpedo propelled by compressed air and carrying an explosive warhead, with a speed of 7 knots and the ability to hit a target up to 700 yards away. In 1868, Whitehead introduced a solution to the stability problem for his torpedo: Pendulum-and-hydrostat control, contained in its Immersion Chamber; the Austrian Navy bought the manufacturing rights to the Whitehead torpedo in 1869. By 1870 Whitehead's torpedoes were running at 17 knots. Still, there remained the problem of course correction: returning the torpedo to its correct course after it had deviated due to wind or wave action; the solution was in the form of the gyroscope gear, patented by Ludwig Obry, the rights to, bought by Whitehead in 1896. In 1868, Whitehead offered two types of torpedoes to the world's navies: one was 11 feet, seven inches in length with a diameter of 14 inches.
It weighed 346 pounds and carried a 40-pound warhead. The other was 14 feet long with a 16-inch diameter, it carried a 60-pound warhead. Both models could do 8-10 knots with a range of 200 yards; the United States Navy started using the Whitehead torpedo in 1892 after an American company, E. W. Bliss, secured manufacturing rights; as manufactured for the US Navy, the Whitehead torpedo was divided into four sections: the head, the air flask, the after-body and the tail. The head contained the explosive charge of guncotton; the air flask was constructed from heavy forged steel. The other parts of the shell of the torpedo were made of thin sheet steel; the interior parts were constructed out of bronze. The torpedo was launched below the waterline from a tube, using air or gunpowder discharge. In 1871, the Royal Navy bought manufacturing rights, started producing the torpedo at the Royal Laboratories at Woolwich, England; the Royal Navy fitted the Whitehead torpedo from HMS Holland 1 onwards. The French, Italian, Russian navies soon followed suit and began acquiring the Whitehead torpedo.
By 1877, the Whitehead torpedo was attaining speeds of 18 mph for ranges of 830 yards. By the 1880s, more of the world's navies acquired the Whitehead and began deploying torpedo boats to carry them into battle and engineers began to envision submarines armed with Whitehead torpedoes. In 1904, British Admiral Henry John May commented, "but for Whitehead, the submarine would remain an interesting toy and little more"; the last known operational use of a Whitehead torpedo was during the Battle of Drøbak Sound in the early stages of World War II. Royal Navy Imperial German Navy French Navy Austro-Hungarian Navy Regia Marina Imperial Russian Navy Argentine Navy Belgian Navy Royal Danish Navy Hellenic Navy Portuguese Navy Chilean Navy Royal Norwegian Navy Swedish Navy United States Navy American 18 inch torpedo Schwartzkopff torpedo Bliss-Leavitt torpedo Howell torpedo Explanatory notes Citations
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
Mark 46 torpedo
The Mark 46 torpedo is the backbone of the United States Navy's lightweight anti-submarine warfare torpedo inventory and is the NATO standard. These aerial torpedoes are designed to attack high-performance submarines. In 1989, an improvement program for the Mod 5 to the Mod 5A and Mod 5A increased its shallow-water performance; the Mark 46 was developed as REsearch TORpedo Concept I, one of several weapons recommended for implementation by Project Nobska, a 1956 summer study on submarine warfare. Mark 46, Mod 5Primary Function: Air and ship-launched lightweight torpedo Contractor: Alliant Techsystems Power Plant: Two-speed, reciprocating external combustion; the Chinese Navy use the Yu-7 ASW torpedo, deployed on ships and ASW helicopters. CAPTOR mine MU90 Impact torpedo Mark 50 torpedo Mark 54 MAKO Lightweight Torpedo Stingray torpedo Citations DiGiulian, Navweaps.com: USA Torpedoes Unofficial U. S. Navy Site: MK-46 Torpedo FAS: MK-46 Torpedo
RAF Coastal Command
RAF Coastal Command was a formation within the Royal Air Force. It was founded in 1936, when the RAF was restructured into Fighter and Coastal Commands and played an important role during the Second World War. Maritime Aviation had been neglected in the inter-war period, due to disagreements between the Royal Navy and RAF over the ownership and investment in maritime air power; the Admiralty's main concern until 1937 was the return of the Fleet Air Arm to the Royal Navy while the RAF prioritised the development of a bombing force to provide a deterrent. Coastal Command was referred to as the "Cinderella Service" by A V Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty in November 1940. During the Second World War, Coastal Commands's most important contribution was the protection of Allied convoys from attacks by the German Kriegsmarine's U-boats, it protected Allied shipping from aerial attacks by the Luftwaffe. The main operations of Coastal Command were defensive, defending supply lines in the Battle of the Atlantic, as well as the Mediterranean, Middle East, African theatres.
It operated from bases in the United Kingdom, Gibraltar, the Soviet Union, West Africa and North Africa. It had an offensive capacity. In the North Sea, Arctic and Baltic, strike wings attacked German shipping carrying war materials from Italy to North Africa and from Scandinavia to Germany. By 1943 Coastal Command received sufficient Very Long Range aircraft it needed and its operations proved decisive in the victory over the U-boats; these aircraft were Consolidated B-24 Liberators and, from early 1943, other Coastal Command aircraft, were fitted with Mark III ASV centimetric radar, the latest depth charges, including homing torpedoes classed as Mark 24 mines and rockets. The Command saw action from the first day of hostilities until the last day of the Second World War, it completed one million flying 240,000 operations and destroyed 212 U-boats. Coastal Command's casualties amounted to 2,060 aircraft to all causes. From 1940 to 1945 Coastal Command sank 366 German transport vessels and damaged 134.
The total tonnage sunk was 512,330 tons and another 513,454 tons damaged. 10,663 persons were rescued by the Command, comprising 5,721 Allied crew members, 277 enemy personnel, 4,665 non-aircrews. 5,866 Coastal Command personnel were killed in action. During the Cold War, Coastal Command concentrated on anti-submarine duties; the perceived main threat was other fleets of the Warsaw Pact. In 1969, Coastal Command was subsumed into the newly formed Strike Command, which had absorbed the former Bomber and Signals Commands and also absorbed Air Support Command, the former Transport Command. In 1936 18 years after the end of the First World War, there was a major change in the command structure of the RAF. Several Expansion Schemes were heading at such pace to re-arm the British military in face of the Nazi threat that "Area" formations were now to be called "Commands". Fighter and Bomber Areas became Fighter and Bomber Commands and Coastal Area was renamed Coastal Command, its Headquarters was located at Lee-on-Solent.
Air Marshal Sir Arthur Longmore, AOC RAF Coastal Area oversaw the renaming and handed over command to Air Marshal Philip Joubert de la Ferté on 24 August 1936. In March 1935 the threat from Nazi Germany prompted a series of expansion schemes which pushed the number of squadrons up to 163 and the number of aircraft to 2,549, but it was never implemented, Scheme F, 124 Squadrons and 1,736 aircraft, was the only scheme that ran its full course. It did produce modern aircraft and it made adequate provision for reserves, but again, the bomber forces received no less than 50 percent which averaged 57 percent over all schemes. Maritime air units never made up more than 12 per cent of British air strength. From a pre-expansion strength of just five squadrons, four of which were flying boats, the figure of maritime squadrons rose to 18 by September 1939, with a strength of just 176 aircraft; some 16 of these were allocated to trade defence, but given Trenchard's policy of developing bombers for the maritime arm which could bolster the air offensive, most were not specialised ASW aircraft, the Air Ministry was uninterested in any aircraft which fell outside the bomber function.
De la Ferté was critical of the Air Ministry's attitude to his service. In 1937 several exercises were carried out by Coastal Command in co-operation with submarines against the Home Fleet to judge the surface fleet's defence against submarine and air attack. However, despite the experiences of the First World War, no attention was paid to the problem of attacking submarines from the air as part of trade protection measures. Owing to misplaced faith in the imperfect ASDIC invention, never intended to detect surface-running submarines, it appeared the Royal Navy no longer considered U-boats a threat to Britain's sea lanes; the Air Ministry, keen to concentrate on strategic air forces, did not dispute the Admiralty's conclusions and Coastal Command did not receive any guidance from the Air Ministry. The saving grace for both services was the construction of the Combined Headquarters which enabled rapid collaboration in maritime operations; this was one of the few successes in preparation made before the outbreak of war.
When the review of the role Coastal Command was to play in war was assessed in 1937, the AOC Sir Frederick Bowhill was informed by his Senior Air Staff Officer Air Commodore Geoffrey Bromet that the oth
Bliss–Leavitt Mark 8 torpedo
The Bliss–Leavitt Mark 8 torpedo was the United States Navy's first 21-inch by 21-foot torpedo. Although introduced prior to World War I, most of its combat use was by PT boats in World War II; the torpedo was designed in 1911 by Frank McDowell Leavitt of the E. W. Bliss Company and entered full mass production in 1913 at the Naval Torpedo Station in Newport, Rhode Island, it was deployed on battleships during World War I and cruisers built in the 1920s. All US battleships and most cruisers had their torpedo tubes removed by 1941; the Mark 8 remained in service through World War II on older destroyers the Wickes and Clemson classes. It equipped PT boats early in World War II, but was replaced by the Mark 13 torpedo on most of these in mid-1943. Under the Lend-Lease Act, about 600 Mark 8 torpedoes were issued to the United Kingdom for use with 50 pre-1930 destroyers it received under the Destroyers for Bases Agreement; the design was intended to be used on destroyers in an anti-surface ship role.
When it was first released, it was a advanced torpedo, but when it was deployed into service during World War II it was showing its age and unable to compete with modern torpedo technology. The low speed of the torpedo was one of the complaints; the Mark 8 had many technical difficulties with its design that would be a bane to the torpedomen who would use them. The first issue came with the process of launching the torpedo, fraught with its own set of difficulties; the gyro in the torpedo was sensitive when it was first launched and it would need to be launched from an keel, otherwise the torpedo would lose stability when it hit the water. The other issue concerned the launching mechanism; the initial system was set with a black powder charge to push the torpedo out of the tube. This was a problem in the South Pacific, where the humid climate would cause these charges to misfire, sometimes not putting enough force behind the torpedo to eject it from the tube. One other risk of these misfires was what is called "hot running", where the torpedo would run in its tube.
Though the warhead could not detonate, the motor would overheat and explode without water to cool it, sending splinters across the deck. Another issue was that the tubes were lubricated with oil and grease to ensure that the torpedo was launched from the tube correctly; the problem became that sometimes during the launching, the charge would ignite the grease and oil in the tube causing a fire that would emit a dark black smoke that would give up the location of the torpedo boat, reveal the point where the torpedo was coming from and allow the enemy to take action to avoid it. The torpedo lacked the explosive power of newer models, it carried less than 500 pounds of TNT-based explosives, far from a guaranteed ship kill on strike. This would frustrate many captains who, when lucky enough to hit an enemy dead on, would have the warhead go off but not do enough damage to sink the target, allowed many of them to escape. American 21 inch torpedo PT Boat Armament PT103.com History of Mark VIII PT-king.gdinc.com The User manual for the Torpedo Angle Solver Mark VIII Indexed data Naval History Excerpt from MOTOR TORPEDO BOATS TACTICAL ORDERS AND DOCTRINE, July 1942
The Brennan torpedo was a torpedo patented by Irish-born Australian inventor Louis Brennan in 1877. It was propelled by two contra-rotating propellors that were spun by pulling out wires from drums wound inside the torpedo. Differential speed on the wires connected to the shore station allowed the torpedo to be guided to its target, up to 2,000 yards away, at speeds of up to 27 knots; the Brennan torpedo is claimed as the world's first guided missile, but guided torpedoes invented by John Ericsson, John Louis Lay, Victor von Scheliha all predate it. The Brennan torpedo was similar in appearance to more modern ones, apart from having a flattened oval cross-section instead of a circular one, it was designed to run at a consistent depth of 12 feet, was fitted with an indicator mast that just broke the surface of the water. Two steel drums were mounted one behind the other inside the torpedo, each carrying several thousands yards of high-tensile steel wire; the drums were connected via a differential gear to twin contra-rotating propellers.
If one drum was rotated faster than the other the rudder was activated. The other ends of the wires were connected to steam-powered winding engines, which were arranged so that speeds could be varied within fine limits, giving sensitive steering control for the torpedo; the torpedo attained a speed of 20 knots using a wire.04 inches in diameter but this was changed to.07 inches to increase the speed to 27 knots. The torpedo was fitted with elevators controlled by a depth-keeping mechanism, the fore and aft rudders operated by the differential between the drums. In operation, the torpedo's operator would be positioned on a 40 feet high telescopic steel tower, which could be extended hydraulically, he was provided with a special pair of binoculars on which were mounted controls which could be used to electrically control the relative speeds of the twin winding engines. In this way he was able to follow the track of the torpedo and steer it with a great degree of accuracy. In tests carried out by the Admiralty the operator was able to hit a floating object at 2,000 yards and was able to turn the torpedo through 180 degrees to hit a target from the off side.
Tomlinson states that in 1874 while watching a planing machine worked by a driving belt, Brennan stumbled on the paradox that it was possible to make a machine travel forward by pulling it backward. Beanse expands Brennan’s observation of the driving belt powering the planing machine was taut and the non-driving side was slack. Brennan reasoned that if one dispensed with the non-driving side it would be possible to transfer energy to a vehicle and power it from a static power source; the concept was to place a drum of fine wire in the vehicle in place of the belt. The wire was attached to an engine to wind it in, rotating the drum that propelled the vehicle away from its start point, he demonstrated this with a pencil thrust through the hole in the centre. By resting the ends of this pencil on two books and unwinding the cotton by pulling it from underneath he caused the reel to roll forward, the harder he pulled the faster the cotton unwound and the quicker the reel travelled in the opposite direction.
Brennan began making rough sketches of such a torpedo, as the concept developed he sought the mathematical assistance of William Charles Kernot, a lecturer at Melbourne University. After earlier experiments with a single propeller, by 1878 Brennan had produced a working version about 15 feet long, made from iron boiler plate, with twin contra-rotating propellers. Tests carried out in the Graving Dock at Williamstown, Victoria were successful, with steering proving to be reasonably controllable, although depth-keeping was not; the British Admiralty had meanwhile instructed Rear Admiral J. Wilson, the Commodore of the Royal Navy's Australian Squadron, to investigate the weapon and report back. Alexander Kennedy Smith was working to obtain the Victoria government's backing for the project and raised the subject in the state's legislature on 2 October 1877. A grant was awarded for the development of the torpedo, in March 1879 it was tested in Hobsons Bay, Melbourne. Brennan had by now established the Brennan Torpedo Company, had assigned half of the rights on his patent to civil engineer John Ridley Temperley, in exchange for much-needed funds.
Brennan and Temperley soon afterwards travelled to Britain, where the Admiralty examined the torpedo and found it unsuitable for shipboard use. However, the War Office proved more amenable, in early August 1881 a special Royal Engineer committee was instructed to inspect the torpedo at Chatham and report back directly to the Secretary of State for War, Hugh Childers; the report recommended that an improved model be built at government expense. At the time the Royal Engineers - part of the Army - were responsible for Britain's shore defenses, while the Royal Navy were responsible for its seaward protection. In 1883 an agreement was reached between the government; the newly appointed Inspector-General of Fortifications in England, Sir Andrew Clarke, appreciated the value of the torpedo and in spring 1883 an experimental station was established at Garrison Point Fort, Sheerness on the River Medway and a workshop for Brennan was set up at the Chatham Barracks, the home of the Royal Engineers. Between 1883 and 1885 the Royal Engineers held trials and i