Battle of Fort Necessity
The Battle of Fort Necessity took place on July 3, 1754, in what is now Farmington in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. The engagement, along with the May 28 skirmish known as the Battle of Jumonville Glen, was George Washington's first military experience and the only surrender of his military career; the Battle of Fort Necessity began the French and Indian War, which spiraled into the global conflict known as the Seven Years' War. Washington built Fort Necessity on an alpine meadow west of the summit of a pass through the Laurel Highlands of the Allegheny Mountains. Another pass nearby leads to Pennsylvania; the French Empire, despite the fact that they began colonizing North America in the 16th century, only had between 75,000 and 90,000 colonists living in New France in the mid-1700s. However, France was able to control the large colonies of New France and the Louisiana Territory with few people by controlling waterways and cultivating strong political and economic relationships with powerful Native American nations.
The Ohio Country, an area located between Lake Erie and the Ohio River, became important to the French throughout the 18th century. As more settlers moved from Montreal and other established French settlements along the St. Lawrence to the newer Louisiana colony, the Ohio Country became and important connection between the New France and Louisiana. British settlers were expanding into the Ohio Country at this time; the British colonies were far more populated than the French, settlers were eager to move over the Appalachian Mountains and into the Ohio Country and other western lands. Most British traders declared that, despite the facts that the French had been trading in the Ohio Country for years and that more and more displaced Native Americans were moving west from the Atlantic coast every year, the Ohio Country was unsettled and therefore unclaimed land that should be open to all traders; the French had no interest in trying to compete with the British for trade in the Ohio Country. Due to their high population and large colonial cities, British traders could offer Native Americans cheaper, higher quality goods than could their French counterparts.
The French therefore set about keeping the British as far away from the Ohio company as possible. Authorities in New France became more aggressive in their efforts to expel British traders and colonists from this area, in 1753 began construction of a series of fortifications in the area. In previous wars, the Québecois had more than held their own against the English colonials; the French action drew the attention of not just the British, but the Indian tribes of the area. Despite good Franco-Indian relations, British traders became successful in convincing the Indians to trade with them in preference to the Canadiens, the planned large-scale advance was not well received by all; the reason for this was that they had to provide them with the goods that the Anglo-American traders had supplied, at similar prices. This proved to be singularly difficult. With the exception of one or two Montreal merchant traders, the Canadians showed a great reluctance to venture into the Ohio country. In particular, Tanacharison, a Mingo chief known as the "Half King", became anti-French as a consequence.
In a meeting with Paul Marin de la Malgue, commander of the Canadian construction force, the latter lost his temper, shouted at the Indian chief, "I tell you, down the river I will go. If the river is blocked up, I have the forces to burst it open and tread under my feet all that oppose me. I despise all the stupid things you have said." He threw down some wampum that Tanacharison had offered as a good will gesture. Marin died not long after, command of the operations was turned over to Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre. Virginians felt that their colonial charter, the oldest in the British colonies, gave them claim to the Ohio Country despite competing claims from Native Americans, the French, other British colonies. In 1748, wealthy Virginians formed the Ohio Company with the aim of solidifying Virginia's claim and profiting off the speculation of western lands. Governor Robert Dinwiddie, the royal governor of Virginia and founding investor in the Ohio Company, sent a twenty-one year old Virginia colonial Lieutenant Colonel George Washington to travel from Williamsburg to Fort LeBeouf in the Ohio Territory as an emissary in December 1753, to deliver a letter.
George Washington's older brothers Lawrence and Augustine had been instrumental in organizing the Ohio Company, George had become familiar with the Ohio Company by surveying for his brothers as a young man. After a long trek and several near-death experiences and his party arrived at and met with the regional commander, Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre. Saint-Pierre politely informed Washington that he was there pursuant to orders, Washington's letter should have been addressed to his commanding officer in Canada. Washington returned to Williamsburg and informed Governor Dinwiddie that the French refused to leave. Dinwiddie ordered Washington to begin raisin
The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia; the Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. In the 19th century, James Mooney, an American ethnographer, recorded one oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived. Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers.
The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U. S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated that Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States; the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, some of these are state-recognized. A total of more than 819,000 people are estimated to claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the UKB are descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act; the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina.
A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi, translating as "Principal People". Tsalagi is the Cherokee word for Cherokee. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee", it may have been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country". The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei. Another theory is; the Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ. The word Cherokee means “people of different speech.” Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
Another theory is. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times, they may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds; the Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE. Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.
During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, pigweed and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn, it resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions; the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as
The Thirteen Colonies known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries. They formed the United States of America; the Thirteen Colonies had similar political and legal systems and were dominated by Protestant English-speakers. They were part of Britain's possessions in the New World, which included colonies in Canada, the Caribbean, the Floridas. Between 1625 and 1775, the colonial population grew from 2,000 to over 2.5 million, displacing American Indians. This population included people subject to a system of slavery, legal in all of the colonies prior to the American Revolutionary War. In the 18th century, the British government operated its colonies under a policy of mercantilism, in which the central government administered its possessions for the economic benefit of the mother country; the Thirteen Colonies had a high degree of self-governance and active local elections, they resisted London's demands for more control.
The French and Indian War against France and its Indian allies led to growing tensions between Britain and the Thirteen Colonies. In the 1750s, the colonies began collaborating with one another instead of dealing directly with Britain; these inter-colonial activities cultivated a sense of shared American identity and led to calls for protection of the colonists' "Rights as Englishmen" the principle of "no taxation without representation". Grievances with the British government led to the American Revolution, in which the colonies collaborated in forming the Continental Congress; the colonists fought the American Revolutionary War with the aid of France and, to a smaller degree, the Dutch Republic and Spain. In 1606, King James I of England granted charters to both the Plymouth Company and the London Company for the purpose of establishing permanent settlements in America; the London Company established the Colony and Dominion of Virginia in 1607, the first permanently settled English colony on the continent.
The Plymouth Company founded the Popham Colony on the Kennebec River. The Plymouth Council for New England sponsored several colonization projects, culminating with Plymouth Colony in 1620, settled by English Puritan separatists, known today as the Pilgrims; the Dutch and French established successful American colonies at the same time as the English, but they came under the English crown. The Thirteen Colonies were complete with the establishment of the Province of Georgia in 1732, although the term "Thirteen Colonies" became current only in the context of the American Revolution. In London beginning in 1660, all colonies were governed through a state department known as the Southern Department, a committee of the Privy Council called the Board of Trade and Plantations. In 1768, a specific state department was created for America, but it was disbanded in 1782 when the Home Office took responsibility. Province of New Hampshire, established in the 1620s, chartered as crown colony in 1679 Province of Massachusetts Bay, established in the 1620s, a crown colony 1692 Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, established 1636, chartered as crown colony in 1663 Connecticut Colony, established 1636, chartered as crown colony in 1662 Province of New York, proprietary colony 1664–1685, crown colony from 1686 Province of New Jersey, proprietary colony from 1664, crown colony from 1702 Province of Pennsylvania, a proprietary colony established 1681 Delaware Colony, a proprietary colony established 1664 Province of Maryland, a proprietary colony established 1632 Colony and Dominion of Virginia, proprietary colony established 1607, a crown colony from 1624 Province of Carolina, a proprietary colony established 1663 Divided into the Province of North-Carolina and Province of South Carolina in 1712, each became a crown colony in 1729 Province of Georgia, proprietary colony established 1732, crown colony from 1752.
The first successful English colony was Jamestown, established May 1607 near Chesapeake Bay. The business venture was financed and coordinated by the London Virginia Company, a joint stock company looking for gold, its first years were difficult, with high death rates from disease and starvation, wars with local Indians, little gold. The colony flourished by turning to tobacco as a cash crop. In 1632, King Charles I granted the charter for Province of Maryland to Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore. Calvert's father had been a prominent Catholic official who encouraged Catholic immigration to the English colonies; the charter offered no guidelines on religion. The Province of Carolina was the second attempted English settlement south of Virginia, the first being the failed attempt at Roanoke, it was a private venture, financed by a group of English Lords Proprietors who obtained a Royal Charter to the Carolinas in 1663, hoping that a new colony in the south would become profitable like Jamestown.
Carolina was not settled until 1670, then the first attempt failed because there was no incentive for emigration to that area. However, the Lords combined their remaining capital and financed a settlement mission to the area led by Sir John Colleton; the expedition located fertile and defensible ground at what became Charleston Charles Town for Charles II of England. The Pilgrims were a small group of Puritan separatists who felt that they needed to physically distance themselves from the corrupt Church of England. After moving to the Netherlands, they decided to re-establish themselves in America; the initi
Battle of the Monongahela
The Battle of the Monongahela took place on 9 July 1755, at the beginning of the French and Indian War, at Braddock's Field in what is now Braddock, Pennsylvania, 10 miles east of Pittsburgh. A British force under General Edward Braddock, moving to take Fort Duquesne, was defeated by a force of French and Canadian troops under Captain Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu with its American Indian allies; the defeat marked the end of the Braddock expedition, by which the British had hoped to capture Fort Duquesne and gain control of the strategic Ohio Country. Braddock was mortally wounded in the battle and died during the retreat near present-day Uniontown, Pennsylvania, he asked for George Washington, who accompanied him on the march, to oversee his burial. The remainder of the column retreated south-eastwards and the fort, region, remained in French hands until its capture in 1758. Braddock had been dispatched to North America in the new position of Commander-in-Chief, bringing with him two regiments of troops from Ireland.
He added to this by recruiting local troops in British America, swelling his forces to 2,200 by the time he set out from Fort Cumberland, Maryland on 29 May. He was accompanied by Virginia Colonel George Washington, who had led the previous year's expedition to the area. Braddock's expedition was part of a four-pronged attack on the French in North America. Braddock's orders were to launch an attack into the Ohio Country, disputed by France. Control of the area was dominated by Fort Duquesne on the forks of the Ohio River. Once it was in his possession, he was to proceed on to Fort Niagara, establishing British control over the Ohio territory, he soon encountered a number of difficulties. He was scornful of the need to recruit local Native Americans as scouts, left with only eight Mingo guides, he found that the road he was trying to use was slow, needed constant widening to move artillery and supply wagons along it. Frustrated, he split his force in two, leading a flying column ahead, with a slower force following with the cannon and wagons.
The flying column of 1,300 crossed the Monongahela River on 9 July, within 10 miles of their target, Fort Duquesne. Despite being tired after weeks of crossing hard terrain, many of the British and Americans anticipated a easy victory—or for the French to abandon the fort upon their approach. Fort Duquesne had been lightly defended, but had received significant reinforcements. Claude-Pierre Pecaudy de Contrecœur, the Canadian commander of the fort, had around 1,600 French troupes de la Marine, Canadian militiamen and Native American allies. Concerned by the approach of the British, he dispatched Captain Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu with around 800 troops, to check their advance; the French and Indians arrived too late to set an ambush, as they had been delayed, the British had made speedy progress. They ran into the British advance guard, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gage. Seeing the enemy in the trees, Gage ordered his men to open fire. Despite firing at long range for a smooth-bored musket, their opening volleys succeeded in killing Captain Beaujeu.
Unconcerned by the death of Beaujeu, the Indian warriors took up positions to attack. They were fighting on an Indian hunting ground which favored their tactics, with numerous trees and shrubbery separated by wide open spaces. Although a hundred of the Canadians fled back to the fort, Captain Dumas rallied the rest of the French troops; the Indian tribes allied with the French, the Ottawas and Potawatomis, used psychological warfare against the British forces. After the Indians killed British soldiers, they would nail their scalps to surrounding trees. During the battle, Indians made a terrifying "whoop" sound that caused fear and panic to spread in the British infantry; as they came under heavy fire, Gage's advance guard withdrew. In the narrow confines of the road, they collided with the main body of Braddock's force, which had advanced when the shots were heard. Despite comfortably outnumbering their attackers, the British were on the defensive. Most of the regulars were not accustomed to fighting in forest terrain, were terrified by the deadly musket fire.
Confusion reigned, several British platoons fired at each other. The entire column dissolved in disorder as the Canadian militiamen and Indians enveloped them and continued to snipe at the British flanks from the woods on the sides of the road. At this time, the French regulars began to push the British back. General Braddock rode forward to try to rally his men. Following Braddock's lead, the officers tried to reform units into regular order within the confines of the road; this effort was in vain, provided targets for their concealed enemy. Cannon were used. Braddock had several horses shot under him, yet retained his composure, providing the only sign of order to the frightened British soldiers. Many of the Americans, lacking the training of British regulars to stand their ground and sheltered behind trees, where they were mistaken for enemy fighters by the redcoats, who fired upon them; the rearguard, made up of Virginians, managed to fight from the trees—something they had learned in previous years of fighting Indians.
Despite the unfavorable conditions, the British began to stand blast volleys at the enemy. Braddock believed that the enemy would give way in the face
A hostage is a person, held by one of two belligerent parties to the other or seized as security for the carrying out of an agreement, or as a preventive measure against war. In contemporary usage, it means someone, seized by a criminal abductor in order to compel another party such as a relative, law enforcement, or government to act, or refrain from acting, in a particular way under threat of serious physical harm to the hostage after expiration of an ultimatum. A person who seizes one or more hostages is known as a hostage-taker; the English word "hostage" derives from French ostage, modern otage, from Late Latin obsidaticum, the state of being an obses, "hostage", from Latin obsideō, but an etymological connection was supposed with Latin hostis. This long history of political and military use indicates that political authorities or generals would agree to hand over one or several hostages in the custody of the other side, as guarantee of good faith in the observance of obligations; these obligations would be in the form of signing of a peace treaty, in the hands of the victor, or exchange hostages as mutual assurance in cases such as an armistice.
Major powers, such as Ancient Rome and the British who had colonial vassals, would receive many such political hostages offspring of the elite princes or princesses who were treated according to their rank and put to a subtle long-term use where they would be given an elitist education or even a religious conversion. This would influence them culturally and open the way for an amicable political line if they ascended to power after release; this caused the element gīsl = "hostage" in many old Germanic personal names, thus in placenames derived from personal names, for example Isleworth in west London from Old English Gīslheres wyrð. The practice of taking hostages is ancient, has been used in negotiations with conquered nations, in cases such as surrenders and the like, where the two belligerents depended for its proper carrying out on each other's good faith; the Romans were accustomed to take the sons of tributary princes and educate them at Rome, thus holding a security for the continued loyalty of the conquered nation and instilling a possible future ruler with ideas of Roman civilization.
The practice was commonplace in the Imperial Chinese tributary system between the Han and Tang dynasties. The practice continued through the early Middle Ages; the Irish High King Niall of the Nine Hostages got his epithet Noígiallach because, by taking nine petty kings hostage, he had subjected nine other principalities to his power. This practice was adopted in the early period of the British occupation of India, by France in her relations with the Arab tribes in North Africa; the position of a hostage was that of a prisoner of war, to be retained till the negotiations or treaty obligations were carried out, liable to punishment, to death, in case of treachery or refusal to fulfil the promises made. The practice of taking hostages as security for the carrying out of a treaty between civilized states is now obsolete; the last occasion was at the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, ending the War of the Austrian Succession, when two British peers, Henry Bowes Howard, 11th Earl of Suffolk, Charles, 9th Baron Cathcart, were sent to France as hostages for the restitution of Cape Breton to France.
In France, after the revolution of Prairial, the so-called law of hostages was passed, to meet the royalist insurrection in La Vendée. Relatives of émigrés were taken from disturbed districts and imprisoned, were liable to execution at any attempt to escape. Sequestration of their property and deportation from France followed on the murder of a republican, four to every such murder, with heavy fines on the whole body of hostages; the law only resulted in an increase in the insurrection. Napoleon in 1796 had used similar measures to deal with the insurrection in Lombardy. In times the practice of official war hostages may be said to be confined to either securing the payment of enforced contributions or requisitions in an occupied territory and the obedience to regulations the occupying army may think fit to issue. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, the Germans took as hostages the prominent people or officials from towns or districts when making requisitions and when foraging, it was a general practice for the mayor and adjoint of a town which failed to pay a fine imposed upon it to be seized as hostages and retained till the money was paid.
Another case where hostages have been taken in modern warfare has been the subject of much discussion. In 1870 the Germans found it necessary to take special measures to put a stop to train-wrecking by parties in occupied territory not belonging to the recognized armed forces of the enemy, an illegitimate act of war. Prominent citizens were placed on the engine of the train so that it might be understood that in every accident caused by the hostility of the inhabitants their compatriots will be the first to suffer; the measure seems to have been effective. In 1900 during the Second Boer War, by a proclamation issued at Pretoria, Lord Roberts adopted the plan for a similar reason, but shortly afterwards it was abandoned; the Germans between the su
French and Indian Wars
The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts that occurred in America between 1688 and 1763, some of which indirectly were related to the European dynastic wars. The title French and Indian War in the singular is used in the United States for the warfare of 1754–63; the French and Indian Wars were preceded by the Beaver Wars. In Quebec, the various wars are referred to as the War of the Conquest; some conflicts involved Spanish and Dutch forces, but all pitted the Kingdom of Great Britain, its colonies, their Indian allies on one side against France, its colonies, its Indian allies on the other. A major cause of the wars was the desire of each country to take control of the interior territories of America, as well as the region around Hudson Bay; the North American wars, their associated European wars, in sequence, are: Naming conflicts after the British monarch of the day is a convention in United States history related to its early European settlement as majority-English colonies.
Canadian convention uses the name of the larger European conflict or refers to the wars as the Intercolonial Wars. As the wars proceeded, the military advantage moved toward the British side; this was chiefly the result of the greater population and productive capacity of the British colonies compared with those of France. In addition, the British had the greater ability to resupply their colonies and project military power by sea. In the first three conflicts, the French were able to offset these factors by more effective mobilization of Indian allies, but they were overwhelmed in the fourth and last war; the overwhelming victory of the British played a role in the eventual loss of their thirteen American colonies. Without the threat of French invasion, the American colonies saw little need for British military protection. In addition, the American people resented British efforts to limit their colonization of the new French territories to the west of the Appalachian Mountains, as stated in the Proclamation of 1763, in an effort to relieve encroachment on Indian territory.
These pressures contributed to the American Revolutionary War. The first three of the French and Indian Wars followed the same basic pattern: they all started in Europe and moved to North America. Once the conflict broke out in North America, it was fought by colonial militias; the final conflict broke this pattern by beginning in North America. In addition, the British used more regular troops alongside colonial militia, they returned none of the French territory seized during the war. France was forced to cede its extensive territory in present-day Louisiane; the British victory in the French and Indian Wars reduced France's New World empire to St. Pierre and Miquelon, a few West Indian islands, French Guiana; the belligerents strove in general to control the major transportation and trade routes, not just the sea routes that connected the colonies with the mother country, or the land routes that existed between the different colonies, but the major fur trade routes leading to the interior of North America.
These were along lakes and rivers and stretching from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. Many Native American Nations lived by these routes, became involved in the wars between the great powers of Europe; the belligerents built fortified positions at major transportation hubs and requested the help of the local Native population to defend these, to attack enemy positions. A common view is that European combat methods and military tactics were not adapted to the American forests and to the Native American art of war, it is therefore conjectured that the English colonists designed new combat techniques, inspired by the Indian combat methods. These techniques, which included cover and stressed ambushes, is supposed to have been the reason why the colonists defeated the French, the British army during the American Revolutionary War. In reality, the French and Indian wars were won by Britain through the application of traditional European tactics; the Fortress of Louisbourg surrendered twice after sieges conducted according to the rules of European warfare, the Battle of the Plains of Abraham 1759 was a European battle fought in closed formations in the open.
Although futile, the French fought according to the tactical doctrine contemporaries called la Petite guerre, or today's guerilla warfare. The numerical inferiority of the French forces in North America made it impossible to fight a war according to standard European tactics. Hence the French to a large extent made use of indigenous allies; the small French population. The Battle of the Monongahela was the largest achievement of the petty warfare tactics, but at the end of the French and Indian War British numerical superiority became overwhelming, in spite of the whole male population of Canada being mobilized, standard European tactics won the day and the war. The British military forces consisted of the British Army's regular regiments and independent companies; the British Army had two types of units in North America: regular regiments serving in the colonies for a longer or shorter period of time sent there only after the war had begun, independent companies, permanently based in the colonies as
Siege of Fort Loudoun
The Siege of Fort Loudoun was an engagement during the Anglo-Cherokee War fought from February 1760 to August 1760 between the warriors of the Cherokee led by Ostenaco and the garrison of Fort Loudoun composed of British and colonial soldiers commanded by Captain Paul Demeré. During the French and Indian War the Cherokee were sought after as allies by the British and Provincial Colonial Governments to help contest the frontiers against the French and their Indian allies. An alliance was formed and both sides fulfilled each other's expectations; the Cherokee provided warriors and in return the British and Provincials provided supplies and protection of the warriors homelands. However, the alliance unravelled and soon incidents by both sides provoked the Anglo-Cherokee War in 1758; the British had reports that indicated the French were planning to build forts in Cherokee territory. With the Cherokee now their allies, the British hastened to build forts of their own in the Cherokee lands, completing Fort Prince George near Keowee in South Carolina among the Cherokee Lower Towns.
Once the forts were built, the Cherokee raised 400 warriors to fight in western Virginia Colony under Ostenaco. Oconostota and Attakullakulla led another large group to attack Fort Toulouse. Fort Loudoun was built as an outpost of the British and their colony of South Carolina during the French and Indian War as part of an alliance treaty with the Cherokee in return for a field force of Cherokee warriors to help in the campaign against the French at Fort Duquense; the Virginians in particular were desperate for Cherokee assistance against the French and their Shawnee Indian allies. The fort was to be both a trading post supplying manufactured goods and powder to the Cherokee as well as providing additional defense of the Cherokee Middle Towns as well as a refuge for Cherokee women and children while their warriors were away on campaign. Building of the fort began by 120 troops of Sergeant William Gibbs' South Carolina Provincial Militia accompanied by 80 British regulars and was continued by Captain Postell's Company of construction into 1757.
It was named after General John Campbell, 4th Earl of Loudoun, the British Commander in Chief in North America. It was sited on the south side of the Little Tennessee River on high ground about five miles below the Cherokee capitol town of Chota; the elongated diamond-shaped fort was designed by a German engineer, William Gerald de Brahm, who departed before completion on Christmas Day 1756. The earthen walls topped with wooden palisades 15 feet high and 100 feet long on each side and the 4 corners were 2 large and 2 small bastions each mounting 3 small cannon or swivel guns; the moat was some 50 feet wide and there was a ravelin covering the front gate. When completed and garrisoned by 90 regulars and 120 provincial troops in the summer of 1757 the troops families moved to the fort and a small community was started; the fort remained dependent on white settlements nearly 200 miles east over the Appalachian Mountains for much of their supplies. Fort Loudoun's first commander was Captain Raymond Demeré, friendly with the Cherokee, he was replaced by his brother, Paul Demeré whose overbearing nature exacerbated bad relations with the Cherokee.
In 1759 Captain John Stuart and a reinforcement of 60 or 70 artillerymen of the South Carolina Provincial Regiment, known as the'Buffs' after their facing colors, arrived bringing supplies of meat, salt and clothing. The alliance between the Cherokee and the British began to unravel with the British expedition under General Forbes against Fort Dusquesne in 1758; the Cherokee felt. Conocotocko the leading chief of the Cherokee, ordered his warriors home. A contingent of Cherokee warriors under Moytoy accompanied Virginian troops on a campaign against the Shawnee of the Ohio Country. During the expedition, the enemy proved elusive. After several weeks, the Tuscarora contingent left, while that of the Cherokee dwindled. A group of Cherokee warriors scalped and killed one or more white settlers and deceptively attempted to proclaim to the British the scalps belonged to their enemies in order to receive a reward. Suspicious of the truth, the British soldiers disarmed and detained them, chose to send them home.
Some Cherokees, who had not been involved in the treachery, were bitter over this treatment, raided Virginia's frontier settlements while returning to the Tennessee Valley. Virginia settlers got angry and banded together to pursue the Cherokee, attacking them and killing and mutilating 20 of the Indians collecting the bounty offered for enemy scalps. Although Dinwiddie, the lieutenant governor of Virginia, apologized other Virginians called them horse thieves; some Cherokees retaliated and the situation spun out of control. The new governor of South Carolina, William Henry Lyttelton, declared war on the Cherokee in 1759; the governor embargoed all shipments of gunpowder to the Cherokee and raised an army of 1,100 provincial troops which marched to confront the Lower Towns of the Cherokee. Desperate for ammunition for their fall and winter hunts, the nation sent a peace delegation of moderate chiefs to negotiate; the thirty-two chiefs were taken prisoner, as hostages, escorted by the provincial army, were sent to Fort Prince George and held in a tiny room only big enough for six people.
Three of the chiefs were released conditionally, Lyttlet