England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Crisis intervention is an immediate and short-term psychological care aimed at assisting individuals in a crisis situation in order to restore equilibrium to their bio-psycho-social functioning and to minimize the potential of long-term psychological trauma. Crisis situations can be in the form of natural disasters, severe physical injury, sudden death of a loved one, specific emotional crises as a result of drastic transitions such as divorce, children leaving home, pregnancy and school violence; the priority of crisis intervention and counseling is to hasten the process of and achieve stabilization. Crisis interventions must be applied at the spur of the moment and in a variety of settings, as trauma can arise instantaneously. Crisis can occur on a societal level. Personal trauma is defined as an individual's experience of a situation or event in which he/she perceives to have exhausted his/her coping skill, self-esteem, social support, power; these can be situations where a person is making suicidal threats, experiencing threat, witnessing homicide or suicide, or experiencing personal loss.
While a person is experiencing a crisis on the individual level it is important for counselors to assess safety. Counselors are encouraged to ask questions pertaining to social supports and networks, as well as give referrals for long term care. Societal or mass trauma can occur in a number of settings and affects a large group or society such as school shoot-outs, terrorist attacks, natural disasters. A counselor's primary concern when called to these types of crises is to assess people's awareness of resources. Individuals experiencing trauma in a large scale need to be aware of shelters that offer food and water and places that meet their basic necessities for survival. Counselors are encouraged to be aware of the typical responses of those who have experienced a crisis or are struggling with a trauma. On the cognitive level, they may blame others for the trauma; the person appears disoriented, becomes hypersensitive or confused, has poor concentration and poor troubleshooting capabilities.
Physical responses to trauma include increased heart rate, dizziness, chills, vomiting, fainting and fatigue. Among the common emotional responses of people who experience crisis in their lives include apathy, irritability, panic, hopelessness, fear and denial; when assessing behavior, some typical responses to crisis are difficulty eating and/or sleeping, conflicts with others and lack of interest in social activities. There are five basic principles outlined for intervention for individuals dealing with personal and societal crisis: Prompt intervention – Since victims are at high risk for maladaptive coping or immobilization. Providing intervention as as possible is imperative. Resource mobilization should be enacted in order to provide victims with the tools they need to return to some sort of order and normalcy, in addition to enable independent functioning. Facilitate comprehension – processing the situation or trauma is necessary in order for the sufferer to understand what the traumatic event was all about.
This is done in order to help the victim gain a better understanding of what has occurred and allowing him or her to express feelings about the experience. Problem-solving – The counselor should assist the victim in resolving the issue within the context of their situation and feelings; this is necessary for developing self-reliance. Return to normalcy – counselor must help the victim get back to being able to function independently by facilitating problem solving, assisting him/her in developing appropriate strategies for addressing those concerns, in helping putting those strategies into action; this is done in hopes of enabling the victim to become self-reliant. A general approach of crisis intervention integrates numerous assessment tools and triage procedures. Roberts' 7-Stage Crisis Intervention Model, SAFER-R Model and Lerner and Shelton's 10-step acute stress & trauma management protocol creates one comprehensive model for responding to crisis that can be utilized in crisis situations.
The ACT model of crisis intervention developed by Roberts as a response to the September 11, 2001 tragedy outlines a three-stage framework. This tool is a guide and not to be followed rigidly; the first step is the assessment stage. These are the three types of assessments that need to be conducted: Triage assessment - an immediate assessment to determine lethality and determine appropriate referral to one of the following: emergency inpatient hospitalization, outpatient treatment facility or private therapist, or if no referral is needed; this step helps facilitate development of an appropriate treatment plan. Biosocial and cultural assessment - systematic assessment tools are used to ascertain the client's current levels of stress, present problem, severe crisis episode; the goal of the crisis intervention stage of Roberts' ACT model is to resolve the client's present problems, psychological trauma, emotional conflicts. This is to be done with a minimum number of contacts, as crisis intervention is intended to be time-limited and goal-directed.
1. Intake and Assessing
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
The intention of the la
Colwyn Bay is a town and seaside resort in Conwy County Borough on the north coast of Wales overlooking the Irish Sea. Eight neighbouring communities are incorporated within its postal district. Established as its own separate parish in 1844 with just a small grouping of homes and farms where the community of Old Colwyn stands today, Colwyn Bay has expanded to become the second-largest community and business centre in the north of Wales as well as the 15th largest in the whole of Wales with the urban statistical area—including Old Colwyn, Rhos-on-Sea, Mochdre having a population of 29,405 at the 2011 census The western side of Colwyn Bay, Rhos-on-Sea, includes a number of historic sites associated with St Trillo and Ednyfed Fychan, the 13th century general and councillor to Llywelyn the Great; the name'Colwyn' may be named after'Collwyn ap Tangno', Lord of Eifionnydd and part of the Llŷn peninsula, or the River Colwyn in Old Colwyn. Bay of Colwyn Town Council is a statutory body; the mayor for 2018 - 2019 is Councillor Stephen Williams.
The town is situated about halfway along the north coast of Wales, between the sea and the Pwllycrochan Woods on the towering hillside. Groes yn Eirias was once a separate hamlet centred on the Glyn farmhouse but the area is now occupied by the Glyn estate and Eirias Park; as with the rest of the British Isles, Colwyn Bay experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters, high winds. The local climate is well known for the prevalence of Foehn winds - where winds from the South pass over the nearby mountains and warm and dry on their descent, leading to far higher temperatures than otherwise might be expected. Prior to local government reorganisation on 1 April 1974 Colwyn Bay was a municipal borough with a population of around 25,000, but in 1974 this designation disappeared leaving five separate parishes, known as communities in Wales, of which the one bearing the name Colwyn Bay encompassed just the central part of the overall town and in the 2001 Census contained just 9,742 people, with the others as follows: Mochdre, Rhos-on-Sea, Glan Conwy, Old Colwyn and Llysfaen.
This gives a total figure for the six communities of 31,382 referred to as the population of Colwyn Bay, making it the 16th largest urban area in Wales and the second largest settlement in North Wales. Bringing 2011 figures into account that figure is now 33,549; the area is sometimes referred to by the name Bay of Colwyn. According to the 2011 Census, 17.9% of the population aged three and above noted that they could speak Welsh. The Census noted that 29.9% of the population who were born in Wales could speak Welsh. The town is dominated by the tourist trade, because of its famous beaches. Colwyn Bay is a Fairtrade Town as certified by the Fairtrade Foundation as part of the Fairtrade Towns scheme. Colwyn Bay hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1910 and 1947; the Victoria Pier hosted many dances and shows during the 20th century and became popular with touring bands and artistes through the 1960s up until the final gig there in August 2008. The town has a number of natural amenities such as Eirias Park.
Colwyn Bay has received a gold award 8 times in the Wales in Bloom competition. In 2009 and 2010 the town has been invited to enter Britain in Bloom and has been awarded silver gilt in both years; the Welsh Mountain Zoo is nearby. The Porth Eirias Watersports Centre offers tuition in sailing and power boating as well as kayak and canoe hire. In 2013 it was nominated for Building Design's Carbuncle Cup; the Victoria Pier was closed to the public in 2009, when a dispute between Conwy County Borough Council and the pier's owner led to him being declared bankrupt. The fate of the pier was uncertain. In January 2017, the lower end of the pier collapsed into the sea and Conwy Council subsequently announced plans to dismantle and store the pier, with a view of restoring it at a date; the pier was demolished in May 2018. Llety'r Dryw is a Grade II listed house in Abergele Road, built for the uncle of Anthony Eden and now used as the training centre for North Wales Police. Llys Euryn is a medieval manor house on Bryn Euryn, now in ruins.
Colwyn Bay Community Hospital was completed in 1925. The town is served by Colwyn Bay railway station located in the town centre on the North Wales Coast Line with trains run by Transport for Wales and Virgin Trains; the A55 road passes through the town. The Llandudno and Colwyn Bay Electric Railway operated an electric tramway service between Llandudno and Rhos-on-Sea from 1907 and extended to Colwyn Bay in 1908; the service closed in 1956. Colwyn Bay has two state. Eirias High School is in Eirias Park and Ysgol Bryn Elian is in Old Colwyn. Ysgol Bryn Elian serves Old Colwyn and Eirias High School serves Colwyn Bay, Rhos on Sea and Penrhyn Bay. Rydal Penrhos School is a Methodist public school, on multiple sites in the town; the town's primary schools are Ysgol Nant y Groes, Ysgol Pen-y-Bryn, Ysgol T Gwynn Jones, Ysgol Hen Golwyn, Saint Joseph's R. C. Primary and the Welsh-language Ysgol Bod Alaw. Churches in and around the town include the parish church St Paul's Church, St David's Welsh Church, St John the Baptist's Church, St Joseph's Roman Catholic Church and Christ Church, Bryn-y-Maen to the south of the to
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Performance measurement is the process of collecting, analyzing and/or reporting information regarding the performance of an individual, organization, system or component. Performance measurement is not a new concept, some of the earliest records of human activity relate to the counting or recording of activities. Definitions of performance measurement tend to be predicated upon an assumption about why the performance is being measured. Moullin defines the term with a forward looking organisational focus - "the process of evaluating how well organisations are managed and the value they deliver for customers and other stakeholders”. Neely et al. use a more operational retrospective focus "the process of quantifying the efficiency and effectiveness of past actions". In 2007 the Office of the Chief Information Officer in the USA defined it using a more evaluative focus - "Performance measurement estimates the parameters under which programs and acquisitions are reaching the targeted results". Beyond a simple agreement about it being linked to some kind of measurement of performance there is little consensus about how to define or use performance measures.
In the light of this what has happened is the emergence of organising frameworks that incorporate performance measures and also proscribe methods for choosing and using the appropriate measures for that application. The most common such frameworks include: Balanced Scorecard - used by organisations to manage the implementation of corporate strategies. Key performance indicator - a method for choosing important / critical performance measures in an organisational contextOperational standards include pre-defined lists of standard performance measures. For example EN 15341 identifies 71 performance indicators, whereof 21 are technical indicators, or those in a US Federal Government directive from 1999 - National Partnership for Reinventing Government, USA. Defining performance measures or methods by which they can be chosen is a popular activity for academics - for example a list of railway infrastructure indicators is offered by Stenström et al, a novel method for measure selection is proposed by Mendibil et al.
Academic articles that provide critical reviews of performance measurement in specific domains are common - e.g. Ittner's observations on non-financial reporting by commercial organisations, or Boris et al's observations about use of performance measurement in non-profit organisations