Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most legislators or members of regulatory agencies. Lobbying is done by many types of people and organized groups, including individuals in the private sector, fellow legislators or government officials, or advocacy groups. Lobbyists may be among a legislator's constituencies, meaning a voter or bloc of voters within their electoral district. Professional lobbyists are people whose business is trying to influence legislation, regulation, or other government decisions, actions, or policies on behalf of a group or individual who hires them. Individuals and nonprofit organizations can lobby as an act of volunteering or as a small part of their normal job. Governments define and regulate organized group lobbying that has become influential; the ethics and morals involved with lobbying are complicated. Lobbying can, at times, be spoken of with contempt, when the implication is that people with inordinate socioeconomic power are corrupting the law in order to serve their own interests.
When people who have a duty to act on behalf of others, such as elected officials with a duty to serve their constituents' interests or more broadly the public good, can benefit by shaping the law to serve the interests of some private parties, a conflict of interest exists. Many critiques of lobbying point to the potential for conflicts of interest to lead to agent misdirection or the intentional failure of an agent with a duty to serve an employer, client, or constituent to perform those duties; the failure of government officials to serve the public interest as a consequence of lobbying by special interests who provide benefits to the official is an example of agent misdirection. In a report carried by the BBC, an OED lexicographer has shown that "lobbying" finds its roots in the gathering of Members of Parliament and peers in the hallways of the UK Houses of Parliament before and after parliamentary debates where members of the public can meet their representatives. One story held that the term originated at the Willard Hotel in Washington, DC, where it was used by President Ulysses S. Grant to describe the political advocates who frequented the hotel's lobby to access Grant—who was there in the evenings to enjoy a cigar and brandy—and would try to buy the president drinks in an attempt to influence his political decisions.
Although the term may have gained more widespread currency in Washington, D. C. by virtue of this practice during the Grant Administration, the OED cites numerous documented uses of the word well before Grant's presidency, including use in Pennsylvania as early as 1808. The term "lobbying" appeared in print as early as 1820: Other letters from Washington affirm, that members of the Senate, when the compromise question was to be taken in the House, were not only "lobbying about the Representatives' Chamber" but active in endeavoring to intimidate certain weak representatives by insulting threats to dissolve the Union. Dictionary definitions:'Lobbying' is a form of advocacy with the intention of influencing decisions made by the government by individuals or more by lobby groups. A'lobbyist' is a person who tries to influence legislation on behalf of a special interest or a member of a lobby. Governments define and regulate organized group lobbying as part of laws to prevent political corruption and by establishing transparency about possible influences by public lobby registers.
Lobby groups may concentrate their efforts on the legislatures, where laws are created, but may use the judicial branch to advance their causes. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, for example, filed suits in state and federal courts in the 1950s to challenge segregation laws, their efforts resulted in the Supreme Court declaring such laws unconstitutional. Lobbyists may use a legal device known as amicus curiae briefs to try to influence court cases. Briefs are written documents filed with a court by parties to a lawsuit. Amici curiae briefs are briefs filed by groups who are not parties to a suit; these briefs are entered into the court records, give additional background on the matter being decided upon. Advocacy groups use these briefs both to promote their positions; the lobbying industry is affected by the revolving door concept, a movement of personnel between roles as legislators and regulators and roles in the industries affected by legislation and regulation, as the main asset for a lobbyist is contacts with and influence on government officials.
This climate is attractive for ex-government officials. It can mean substantial monetary rewards for lobbying firms, government projects and contracts worth in the hundreds of millions for those they represent; the international standards for the regulation of lobbying were introduced at four international organizations and supranational associations: 1) the European Union. In pre-modern political systems, royal courts provided incidental opportunities for gaining the ear of monarchs and their councillors. Nowadays, lobying has taken a more drastic position as big corporations pressure politicians to help them gain more benefit. Lobying has become a big part of the world economy as big companies corrupt regulations. Kellogg School of Manag
Angela Ann Knight CBE was the chair of the Office of Tax Simplification. She was replaced on March 18 2019, she was the Chief Executive of Energy UK, the trade association for the energy industry. Earlier, she was the Chief Executive of the British Bankers' Association and, before that, a Conservative Party Member of Parliament representing the constituency of Erewash from 1992 to 1997, she served as Economic Secretary to the Treasury from 1995 to 1997. Born in Sheffield, Knight went to the Penrhos College boarding school in Colwyn Bay, Sheffield High School, she went to the University of Bristol, gaining a BSc in Chemistry, became an engineer working for Air Products, where she became a Product Development Manager for nitrogen. She went on to set up and serve as Chief Executive of Cook & Knight Metallurgical Processors Ltd, a specialist contract heat treatment company treating precision engineering components, she served as a Conservative councillor on Sheffield City Council from 1987 to 1992.
In April 1992 she was elected Member of Parliament for Erewash. She was Economic Secretary to the Treasury from 1995 to 1997, she lost her seat in Parliament to Liz Blackman of the Labour Party in 1997. Knight became Chief Executive of APCIMS in September 1997, she stayed in this role until 2006. Knight was appointed as a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire for services to the financial services industry in the 2007 New Year's honours list. In April 2007 she became the Chief Executive of the British Bankers' Association. Bloomberg reports that, in a December 2008 statement, she declared that Libor could be trusted as "a reliable benchmark". After a verdict against the BBA at the High Court in April 2011, some BBA members criticized Knight's handling of the case and called for her to step down as Chief Executive. On 1 April 2012 Knight resigned as chief executive of the BBA but said she would remain until a replacement was found, she was appointed as a non-executive director of Tullett Prebon in September 2011.
In May 2012 it was announced that Knight had been appointed chief executive of trade body Energy UK, effective the end of July. She is a non-executive director of Brewin Dolphin and the Financial Skills Partnership, she has been a non-executive director of Scottish Widows, the Port of London Authority, Lloyds TSB and South East Water. Energy UK British Bankers' Association Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Angela Knight
United Kingdom company law
The United Kingdom company law regulates corporations formed under the Companies Act 2006. Governed by the Insolvency Act 1986, the UK Corporate Governance Code, European Union Directives and court cases, the company is the primary legal vehicle to organise and run business. Tracing their modern history to the late Industrial Revolution, public companies now employ more people and generate more of wealth in the United Kingdom economy than any other form of organisation; the United Kingdom was the first country to draft modern corporation statutes, where through a simple registration procedure any investors could incorporate, limit liability to their commercial creditors in the event of business insolvency, where management was delegated to a centralised board of directors. An influential model within Europe, the Commonwealth and as an international standard setter, UK law has always given people broad freedom to design the internal company rules, so long as the mandatory minimum rights of investors under its legislation are complied with.
Company law, or corporate law, can be broken down into two main fields. Corporate governance in the UK mediates the rights and duties among shareholders, employees and directors. Since the board of directors habitually possesses the power to manage the business under a company constitution, a central theme is what mechanisms exist to ensure directors' accountability. UK law is "shareholder friendly" in that shareholders, to the exclusion of employees exercise sole voting rights in the general meeting; the general meeting holds a series of minimum rights to change the company constitution, issue resolutions and remove members of the board. In turn, directors owe a set of duties to their companies. Directors must carry out their responsibilities with competence, in good faith and undivided loyalty to the enterprise. If the mechanisms of voting do not prove enough for minority shareholders, directors' duties and other member rights may be vindicated in court. Of central importance in public and listed companies is the securities market, typified by the London Stock Exchange.
Through the Takeover Code the UK protects the right of shareholders to be treated and trade their shares. Corporate finance concerns the two money raising options for limited companies. Equity finance involves the traditional method of issuing shares to build up a company's capital. Shares can contain any rights the company and purchaser wish to contract for, but grant the right to participate in dividends after a company earns profits and the right to vote in company affairs. A purchaser of shares is helped to make an informed decision directly by prospectus requirements of full disclosure, indirectly through restrictions on financial assistance by companies for purchase of their own shares. Debt finance means getting loans for the price of a fixed annual interest repayment. Sophisticated lenders, such as banks contract for a security interest over the assets of a company, so that in the event of default on loan repayments they may seize the company's property directly to satisfy debts. Creditors are to some extent, protected by courts' power to set aside unfair transactions before a company goes under, or recoup money from negligent directors engaged in wrongful trading.
If a company is unable to pay its debts as they fall due, UK insolvency law requires an administrator to attempt a rescue of the company. If rescue proves impossible, a company's life ends when its assets are liquidated, distributed to creditors and the company is struck off the register. If a company becomes insolvent with no assets it can be wound up by a creditor, for a fee, or more by the tax creditor. Company law in its modern shape dates from the mid-19th century, however an array of business associations developed long before. In medieval times traders would do business through common law constructs, such as partnerships. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed. Early guilds and livery companies were often involved in the regulation of competition between traders; as England sought to build a mercantile Empire, the government created corporations under a Royal Charter or an Act of Parliament with the grant of a monopoly over a specified territory. The best known example, established in 1600, was the British East India Company.
Queen Elizabeth I granted it the exclusive right to trade with all countries to the east of the Cape of Good Hope. Corporations at this time would act on the government's behalf, bringing in revenue from its exploits abroad. Subsequently, the Company became integrated with British military and colonial policy, just as most UK corporations were dependent on the British navy's ability to control trade routes on the high seas. A similar chartered company, the South Sea Company, was established in 1711 to trade in the Spanish South American colonies, but met with less success; the South Sea Company's monopoly rights were backed by the Treaty of Utrecht, signed in 1713 as a settlement following the War of Spanish Succession, which gave the United Kingdom an assiento to trade, to sell slaves in the region for thirty years. In fact the Spanish let only one ship a year enter. Unaware of the problems, investors in the UK, enticed by company promoters' extravagant promises of profit, bought thousands of shares.
By 1717, the South Sea Company was so wealthy. This accelerated the inflation of the share price further, as did the Royal Exchange and London Assurance Corporation Act 1719, whi
The pound sterling known as the pound and less referred to as sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have currencies called the pound. Sterling is the third most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those two currencies and the Chinese yuan, it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights. Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves; the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man produce their own local issues of sterling which are considered equivalent to UK sterling in their respective regions. The pound sterling is used in Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Banknotes issued by other jurisdictions are not regulated by the Bank of England. The full official name pound sterling, is used in formal contexts and when it is necessary to distinguish the United Kingdom currency from other currencies with the same name. Otherwise the term pound is used; the currency name is sometimes abbreviated to just sterling in the wholesale financial markets, but not when referring to specific amounts. The abbreviations "ster." and "stg." are sometimes used. The term "British pound" is sometimes incorrectly used in less formal contexts, it is not an official name of the currency; the exchange rate of the pound sterling against the US dollar is referred to as "cable" in the wholesale foreign exchange markets. The origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the GBP/USD exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex traders of GBP/USD are sometimes referred to as "cable dealers". GBP/USD is now the only currency pair with its own name in the foreign exchange markets, after IEP/USD, known as "wire" in the forward FX markets, no longer exists after the Irish Pound was replaced by the euro in 1999.
There is apparent convergence of opinion regarding the origin of the term "pound sterling", toward its derivation from the name of a small Norman silver coin, away from its association with Easterlings or other etymologies. Hence, the Oxford English Dictionary state that the "most plausible" etymology is derivation from the Old English steorra for "star" with the added diminutive suffix "-ling", to mean "little star" and to refer to a silver penny of the English Normans; as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived: However, the perceived narrow window of the issuance of this coin, the fact that coin designs changed in the period in question, led Philip Grierson to reject this in favour of a more complex theory. Another argument that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ost See", or "East Sea", from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings".
In 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called "Easterlings Hall", or Esterlingeshalle. Because the League's money was not debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the "Easterlings", contracted to "'sterling". For further discussion of the etymology of "sterling", see sterling silver; the currency sign for the pound is £, written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. This symbol derives from medieval Latin documents; the ISO 4217 currency code is GBP, formed from "GB", the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the United Kingdom, the first letter of "pound". It does not stand for "Great Britain Pound" or "Great British Pound"; the abbreviation "UKP" is used but this is non-standard because the ISO 3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes: GGP, JEP and IMP. Stocks are traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices.
A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, singular and plural, except in the common phrase "quids in!". The term may have come via Italian immigrants from "scudo", the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.
Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
The Department for Business and Industrial Strategy is a department of the government of the United Kingdom, created by Theresa May on 14 July 2016 following her appointment as Prime Minister, through a merger between the Department for Business and Skills and Department of Energy and Climate Change. BEIS brought together responsibility for business, industrial strategy, science and innovation with energy and climate change policy, merging the functions of the former BIS and DECC; the Ministers in the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy are as follows: In October 2016, Archie Norman was appointed as Lead Non Executive Board Member for the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy. The department is responsible for government policy in the following areas: Some policies apply to England alone due to devolution, while others are not devolved and therefore apply to other nations of the United Kingdom; some economic policies are devolved but many aspects of several important policy areas are reserved to Westminster.
Reserved and excepted matters are outlined below. Scotland Reserved matters: The Economy Directorate of the Scottish Government handles devolved economic policy. Northern Ireland Reserved matters: Business regulation and support Climate change policy Company law Competition Consumer protection Corporate governance Import and export control Employment relations Energy Export licensing Insolvency Intellectual property Nuclear energy Outer space Postal services Product standards and liability Research councils Science and research Telecommunications Time Trade associations Units of measurementExcepted matter: Outer space Nuclear powerThe department's main counterpart is: Department for the Economy
Competition and Markets Authority
The Competition and Markets Authority is a non-ministerial government department in the United Kingdom, responsible for strengthening business competition and preventing and reducing anti-competitive activities. The CMA launched in shadow form on 1 October 2013 and began operating on 1 April 2014, when it assumed many of the functions of the existing Competition Commission and Office of Fair Trading, which were abolished. On 15 March 2012 the UK Government's Department for Business and Skills announced proposals for strengthening competition in the UK by merging the Office of Fair Trading and the Competition Commission to create a new single Competition and Markets Authority; the formation of the CMA was enacted in Part 3 of the Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013, which received royal assent on 25 April 2013. In July 2012, Lord Currie was appointed Chairman designate of the CMA and in January 2013 Alex Chisholm was appointed Chief Executive designate; the term'designate' was dropped when the CMA was launched on 1 October 2013.
On 15 July 2013 BIS announced the first stage of an open public consultation period and published a summary, setting out the background to the consultation and inviting views on the draft guidance for the CMA. The first stage of the consultation ended on 6 September 2013. On 17 September, BIS announced the second stage of the consultation, which closed on 7 November 2013. During 2013 and 2014, the CMA announced several waves of appointments at director level, reporting to members of the senior executive team. On 28 March 2014 the CMA published the Rules of Procedure for CMA merger and special reference groups following a consultation which ran from 21 February to 18 March. On 26 July 2017, Andrea Coscelli was appointed Chief Executive Officer of the Competition and Markets Authority. On 20 June 2018, Andrew Tyrie took up his role as the new Chair of the CMA, taking over from Lord Currie. In situations where competition could be unfair or consumer choice may be affected, the CMA is responsible for: investigating mergers conducting market studies investigating possible breaches of prohibitions against anti-competitive agreements under the Competition Act 1998 bringing criminal proceedings against individuals who commit cartels offences enforcing consumer protection legislation the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contract Directive and Regulations encouraging regulators to use their competition powers considering regulatory references and appeals The CMA lists 5 strategic goals: delivering effective enforcement – to deter wrongdoing, protect consumers and educate businesses extending competition frontiers – by using the markets regime to improve the way competition works, in particular within the regulated sectors refocusing consumer protection – working with its partners to promote compliance and understanding of the law, empowering consumers to make informed choices achieving professional excellence – by managing every case efficiently and and ensuring all legal and financial analysis is conducted to the highest international standards developing integrated performance – through ensuring that all staff are brought together from different professional backgrounds to form effective multi-disciplinary teams and provide a trusted competition adviser across government The Rt Hon Lord Andrew Tyrie, Chair Dr Andrea Coscelli, Chief Executive Dr Michael Grenfell, Executive Director, Enforcement Andrea Gomes da Silva, Executive Director and Mergers Erik Wilson, Executive Director, Corporate Services William Kovacic, Non-Executive Director Alan Giles, Non-Executive Director Amelia Fletcher OBE, Non-Executive Director Jonathon Scott, Non-Executive Director Martin Coleman, Non-Executive Director Cynthia Dubin, Non-Executive Director Kirstin Baker, Panel Member Non-Executive Director Dr. Mike Walker, Chief Economic Adviser Sarah Cardell, General Counsel The UK Competition Commission ruled several times against MyFerryLink, so it could no longer operate from Dover despite the French competition authority authorising cross-channel activity.
The French government blamed the decision to ban one out of three ferry operators on fair-trade concerns. The appeals court overturned these rulings because MyFerryLink was not a merger of the bankrupt SeaFrance and Eurotunnel. MyFerryLink called attention to a potential conflict of interest, pointing out that the former accountant of DFDS was now a member of the UK Competition Commission. Following these delays, Eurotunnel sold two new boats to the DFDS competitor; because of this the port of Calais was blocked by workers, boats were occupied and the Channel Tunnel attacked, resulting in cross-channel disruption and traffic jams in the UK and France. During an inquiry into the private healthcare market the authority made the Private Healthcare Market Investigation Order 2014; this requires healthcare providers, including NHS trusts to submit information to the Private Healthcare Information Network. This will include information about infection rates, rates of adverse incidents, the relative health improvement brought about by treatments.
This in 2019 will extend to charges. English contract law EU competition law Official website "Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013". UK Government. "CMA structure". UK Government. "CMA cases". UK Government
British Chambers of Commerce
The British Chambers of Commerce is the national representative body of 52 Accredited Chambers of Commerce across the UK. The Chambers represent 75,000 businesses in all sectors, ranging from small start-ups to multinational companies, its office is in central London near the Ministry of Justice. Dr Adam Marshall has been Director General of the BCC since October 2016, he appears in the British media to provide the views of business and he is called to provide evidence to Parliamentary Committees when issues relating to the economy are being discussed. He served as the head of policy and took over as acting DG when his predecessor, John Longowrth, was suspended from the role for misrepresenting the views of members during the 2016 EU referendum. Other former Director Generals include David Frost; the Chamber Awards were launched by the British Chambers of Commerce in 2004 to recognise and celebrate business excellence through the successes and achievements of its accredited Chambers of Commerce and their members.
As part of recognising the significant contribution a person under 30 can make to the success of a business, the Chamber created a new category and announced the first'Young person in Business' award winner in November 2014, Oliver Bryssau of Origin Broadband. The BCC Annual Conference is a yearly one-day event, held in the heart of Westminster, it is regarded as one of the most high profile non-party political conferences and attracts a large number of senior politicians and business leaders. Previous speakers have included the Prime Minister, the Foreign Secretary, the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Leader of the Opposition, it attracts speakers from overseas, including the German Finance Minister, Wolfgang Schäuble, in 2016. The organisation runs a quarterly economic survey, the largest and most representative independent business survey of its kind in the UK; the survey has been in existence since 1989 and the results are reported in the national media. The BCC runs campaigns to highlight issues of concern for businesses.
A recent example is a campaign called ‘Bridging the Gap’, a call to action to help businesses find the talent they need, boost the career prospects of young people. The campaign aimed to increase collaboration between education providers and businesses, support young people to gain exposure to business and influence government education and skills policy to ensure young people develop the skills and attitude to make a successful transition into work; this campaign was carried out through the Young Chambers, who provided a range of effective ways to connect businesses and schools, tapping into the knowledge and experience of local firms North East England Chamber of Commerce Thames Valley Chamber of Commerce London Chamber of Commerce and Industry Hampshire Chamber of Commerce Sussex Chamber of Commerce Surrey Chambers of Commerce Kent Invicta Chamber of Commerce Milton Keynes Chamber of Commerce Isle of Wight Chamber of Commerce Channel Chamber of Commerce Business West Chambers of Commerce Somerset Chamber of Commerce & Industry Ltd Dorset Chamber of Commerce & Industry Cornwall Chamber of Commerce St Helens Chamber North & Western Lancashire Chamber of Commerce Liverpool Chamber of Commerce & Industry Greater Manchester Chamber of Commerce Cumbria Chamber of Commerce & Industry East Lancashire Chamber of Commerce & Industry Wirral Chamber of Commerce West Cheshire & North Wales Chamber of Commerce South Cheshire Chamber of Commerce Greater Birmingham Chambers of Commerce Shropshire Chamber of Commerce North Staffordshire Chamber of Commerce & Industry Herefordshire & Worcestershire Chamber of Commerce Coventry & Warwickshire Chamber of Commerce Black Country Chamber of Commerce East Midlands Chamber Lincolnshire Chamber of Commerce Northamptonshire Chamber of Commerce Bedfordshire Chamber of Commerce Suffolk Chamber of Commerce Norfolk Chamber of Commerce Essex Chamber of Commerce Hertfordshire Chamber of Commerce & Industry Cambridgeshire Chamber of Commerce & Industry Barnsley & Rotherham Chamber of Commerce Mid Yorkshire Chamber of Commerce Hull & Humber Chamber of Commerce Doncaster Chamber of Commerce & Enterprise West & North Yorkshire Chamber of Commerce South Wales Chamber of Commerce West Cheshire & North Wales Chamber of Commerce Northern Ireland Chamber of CommerceScotland Renfrewshire Chamber of Commerce Fife Chamber of Commerce & Enterprise Glasgow Chamber of Commerce Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce Aberdeen & Grampian Chamber of Commerce Ayrshire Chamber of Commerce Inverness Chamber of Commerce Perthshire Chamber of Commerce Confederation of British Industry Federation of Small Businesses Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce & Industry British Chambers of Commerce Quarterly Economic Survey Scottish Chambers of Commerce Chamber Awards Twitter Business and Education Global Business Network Live YouTube Channel Export Britain CEE Business portal Documents and clippings about British Chambers of Commerce in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics Interview with David Frost