Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese and Korean. Registered users can post and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service or its mobile-device application software. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world. Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and launched in July of that year; the service gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet"; as of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.
Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. that day. It was a source of information on Brett Kavanaugh's Supreme Court nomination and the 2018 United States midterm elections. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group; the original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was in use, it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.
The developers considered "10958" as a short code, but changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time: "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word'twitter', it was just perfect. The definition was'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and'chirps from birds', and that's what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets — including Odeo.com and Twitter.com — from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.
Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview: With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility, it is that, in part, but the insight we came to was Twitter was more of an information network than it is a social network. The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.
Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, the bloggers in attendance touted it." Reaction at the conference was positive. Blogger Scott Beale said. Social software researcher danah boyd said. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less, and we just did!"The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. The company experienced rapid initial growth, it had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007.
This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications; as of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, about 140 million tweets posted daily; as noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site
Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club
The Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club is an ornithological journal published by the British Ornithologists' Club. It is cited as Bull. B. O. C. Many descriptions of birds new to science have been published in the bulletin; the journal was first published in 1892. It is published in four quarterly issues. From March 2017, it became an online-only, open access, giving as the reasons for the change: the realities of current trends in academic journal publication, the slow decline in the readership of the hard copy Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl. and our public benefit charitable responsibilities. Since 2004, the journal's honorary editor has been Guy Kirwan. List of Bulletin Editors with dates of tenure Richard Bowdler Sharpe 1892–1904 W. R. Ogilvie-Grant 1904–1914 David Armitage Bannerman 1914–1915 D. Seth-Smith 1915–1920 Percy R. Lowe 1920–1925 Norman B. Kinnear 1925–1930 G. Carmichael Low 1930–1935 and 1940–1945 C. H. B. Grant 1935–1940 and 1947–1952 W. P. C. Tenison 1945–1947 J. G. Harrison 1952–1961 J.
J. Yealland 1962–1969 C. W. Benson 1969–1974 Hugh Elliott 1974–1975 J. F. Monk 1976–1990 D. W. Snow 1991–1997 C. J. Feare 1997–2003 G. M. Kirwan 2004– List of ornithology journals
Alula was an ornithological magazine published in Finland. The magazine was published on a quarterly basis, it was published in both Finnish and English, but the final volumes were published in English only. It was aimed at birders with an interest in the birds of the Western Palearctic; the final issue of Alula was issued in 2008 after which printing ceased in 2009 due to financial problems. List of ornithology journals Official website Index of Alula articles
A blog is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete informal diary-style text entries. Posts are displayed in reverse chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first, at the top of the web page; until 2009, blogs were the work of a single individual of a small group, covered a single subject or topic. In the 2010s, "multi-author blogs" emerged, featuring the writing of multiple authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, think tanks, advocacy groups, similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic; the rise of Twitter and other "microblogging" systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the news media. Blog can be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog; the emergence and growth of blogs in the late 1990s coincided with the advent of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users who did not have much experience with HTML or computer programming.
A knowledge of such technologies as HTML and File Transfer Protocol had been required to publish content on the Web, early Web users therefore tended to be hackers and computer enthusiasts. In the 2010s, the majority are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to leave online comments, it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. In that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do not only produce content to post on their blogs, but often build social relations with their readers and other bloggers. However, there are high-readership blogs. Many blogs provide commentary on topic, ranging from politics to sports. Others function as more personal online diaries, others function more as online brand advertising of a particular individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, links to other blogs, web pages, other media related to its topic; the ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs.
However, blog owners or authors moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are textual, although some focus on art, videos and audio. In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources; these blogs are referred to as edublogs. Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring short posts. On 16 February 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. On 20 February 2014, there were around 172 million Tumblr and 75.8 million WordPress blogs in existence worldwide. According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today. However, Blogger does not offer public statistics. Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22, 2014. The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger on 17 December 1997; the short form, "blog", was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in April or May 1999. Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used "blog" as both a noun and verb and devised the term "blogger" in connection with Pyra Labs' Blogger product, leading to the popularization of the terms.
Before blogging became popular, digital communities took many forms including Usenet, commercial online services such as GEnie, Byte Information Exchange and the early CompuServe, e-mail lists, Bulletin Board Systems. In the 1990s, Internet forum software created running conversations with "threads". Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual "corkboard". From 14 June 1993, Mosaic Communications Corporation maintained their "What’s New" list of new websites, updated daily and archived monthly; the page was accessible by a special ``. The earliest instance of a commercial blog was on the first business to consumer Web site created in 1995 by Ty, Inc. which featured a blog in a section called "Online Diary". The entries were maintained by featured Beanie Babies that were voted for monthly by Web site visitors; the modern blog evolved from the online diary where people would keep a running account of the events in their personal lives. Most such writers journalers. Justin Hall, who began personal blogging in 1994 while a student at Swarthmore College, is recognized as one of the earlier bloggers, as is Jerry Pournelle.
Dave Winer's Scripting News is credited with being one of the older and longer running weblogs. The Australian Netguide magazine maintained the Daily Net News on their web site from 1996. Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of new websites in Australia. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text, digital video, digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994; this practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance, such journals were used as evidence in legal matters. Some early bloggers, such as The Misanthropic Bitch, who began in 1997 referred to their online presence as a zine, before the term blog entered common usage. Early blogs were manually updated components of common Websites. In 1995, the "Online Diary" on
Bird Watching (magazine)
Bird Watching is a British four-weekly magazine for birdwatchers, established in March 1986. Distributed by subscription and through newsagents, it has, as of May 2011, a cover price of £4.10. Bird Watching was established in 1986. Key content areas include bird identification, location guides, skills development, recent sightings, news and reviews, its contributors include notable birders such as Dominic Couzens and David Lindo. Published by EMAP, the magazine is published monthly by Bauer Consumer Media of Peterborough, its ABC-certified total average net circulation/distribution per issue for 2010 was 17,511, of which just over 7,400 were newsagent sales and over 9,800 went to subscribers. Bird Watching has had five editors: Chris Dawn David Cromack Kevin Wilmot Sheena Harvey Matt Merritt List of ornithology journals Official website Official blog
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
British Birds Rarities Committee
The British Birds Rarities Committee, established in 1959, is the national bird rarities committee for Britain. It assesses claimed sightings of bird species that are seen in Britain, based on descriptions and video recordings submitted by observers, its findings are published in an annual report in the journal British Birds. The BBRC covers around 280 species whose annually recorded sightings in Britain fall below a threshold deemed to signify rarity. Since the establishment of the committee, some included species have become more common—or at least better recorded; the committee has a chairman, a secretary, ten voting members, is supported by others who serve in an advisory capacity. Since its inception, a total of 69 people have served on the committee as assessors. In addition to assessing annual records of rare birds, the committee conducts regular reviews of batches of accepted records on a species-by-species basis, to ensure that only those consistent with advances in knowledge of bird identification are retained, to determine the subspecies of accepted records.
Several species have been problematic for assessment, extreme examples have taken more than 20 years from initial observation to acceptance. The committee has been criticised for its approach to assessing records where only one observer was present, for not publishing reasons for rejecting the validity of records, for placing undue weight on descriptive detail when assessing record submissions. Seabird identification has proved difficult, leading some observers to suggest that the committee sets too high a standard; the "Rarity Records Committee" was established in 1959 by the editors of the journal British Birds. Its original purpose was to provide a means whereby uniform assessment standards could be applied to all rare bird records across Britain. Prior to the establishment of the committee, records were assessed by local bird recording organisations using varying standards; the most recent statement of the British Birds Rarities Committee's role is given in Bradshaw and Steele: BBRC aims to maintain an accurate database of the occurrence of rare taxa in Britain, in order to enable individuals or organisations to assess the current status of, any changes in, the patterns of occurrence and distribution of these taxa in Britain.
Contradictory information has been published on the exact nature of the committee's status. On its website, BBRC describes itself as the "official adjudicator of rare bird records in Britain". In Birders: Tales of a Tribe, author Mark Cocker erroneously describes the committee as a "statutory vetting body". BBRC's constitution states that it "has no automatic or legal expectation that birders submit records"; the committee does not assess records of birds from Ireland. Records of IRBC-assessed rarities were included in BBRC annual reports for many years, although this ceased in 2002 at the request of IRBC. Although the British Ornithologists' Union Records Committee does not regard records from the Isle of Man as contributing towards their British list, BBRC does include records from there in its totals. BBRC has had an ongoing sponsor in the German optical equipment manufacturer Carl Zeiss since 1983. Over 580 bird species have been recorded in Britain; the BBRC assesses the remaining species.
A list of the species the committee assesses is on its website, although the list has not been updated to account for the most recent changes. The committee considers only the records of species rare enough to meet its criteria for inclusion on the BBRC rarities list, based on a numerical threshold. In addition to considering full species, records of some rare subspecies are considered and, in a few cases, the committee considers indeterminate records; the committee keeps the list of species it considers under review and, from time to time, makes changes. These are because species have increased in frequency and no longer meet the numerical criteria for inclusion. A species is removed if it has more than 150 records in the preceding ten years, with ten or more in at least eight of those years. Different criteria were used in a review in 2006. There have been three major "purges" of species since the committee's formation; the first was soon after the committee's formation, in 1963, when 16 species were removed: red-crested pochard, snow goose, pectoral sandpiper, Mediterranean gull, Sabine's gull, melodious warbler, icterine warbler, yellow-browed warbler, northern goshawk, golden eagle, red kite, Kentish plover, crested tit, bearded tit, marsh warbler and Dartford warbler.
Records of the last eight species had been considered only outside their "normal" British range. The second was in 1982, when ten further species were removed: Cory's shearwater, purple heron, white stork, buff-breasted sandpiper, Richard's pipit, tawny pipit, Savi's warbler, aquatic warbler and common rosefinch. Savi's warbler was re-admitted to the committee's list in 1998, due to declining numbers of occurrences. Thirdly, in 2006, a further 17 species were dropped from the l