Mukah is a coastal town which serves as the administrative center of the Mukah District in Mukah Division, Malaysia. It is located by about 2 hours by road from the city of Sibu. Mukah is accessible by air by MASwings from Kuching and Miri; the duration of both flights is about one hour. There are speed boats connecting the town of Dalat to Sibu; the speed boat trip takes 2 hours. There are several versions of the origin of the name "Mukah"; the word "Mukah" is similar to the Malay word "muka". It was said that the town was name after the face of a mysterious beautiful woman who helped three shipwreck merchants from Brunei. Another version was. However, these does not explain on why the town adopted a Malay name instead of a Melanau name as the majority of the population here are the Melanau people; the Melanau name of a face is "jawai". Mukah town has statues of Ikan Merah and Udang that reflect the importance of the fishery industry to the town; the Melanau people is the earliest indigenous group living in Mukah.
The earliest documentation of Mukah can be found in the annals of the Majapahit empire where a place known as "Melano" was paying tribute to the empire. The place was became part of the Bruneian Empire in the 13th century. Mukah was sold to the Kingdom of Sarawak in 1860. In November 1862, James Brooke rescued several civilians from the Moro Pirates after a pitched naval battle off the coast of Mukah. During the fighting, Brooke's steamer named Rainbow sank four prahus and damaged one other with cannon fire. Over 100 pirates were killed or wounded in the engagement while Brooke, the bishop Francis McDougall and their Sarawakian followers, were unscathed. Mukah and Dalat District Office is the governing body of the Mukah and Dalat districts, including the towns; the district office was established in 1947 as Native Local Authority. The district office expands it power to Dalat, Balingian in 1981. Mukah town is located at the mouth of the Mukah River. Mukah is located on peat land. In 2017, Mukah District had a projected population of 49,900.
Sago processing and fishing are the two main economic activities in Mukah. Since 2008, Mukah is the economic centre of Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy. Press Metal Sdn Bhd built its first aluminium smelting plant in Mukah in 2009. In term of air connectivity, Mukah is served by Mukah Airport. Mukah airport is only able to accommodate an 18-seater Twin-Otter aircraft; the airport operates routes to Miri. An effort has been made to upgrade the Mukah airport. Mukah is linked to Selangau through the Mukah-Selangau road and to Bintulu through Mukah-Kuala Tatau road. UiTM Sarawak Mukah campus was started in December 2002 in order train enough manpower for Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy, its campus is located at 7.5 km away from the town centre. Among the courese offered were: Diploma in Business Studies, Diploma in Banking Studies, Diploma in Plantation Management. Politeknik Mukah was founded in 2004. I offers courses such as civil engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, information and communication technology.
Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Mukah was opened in 2010. It is a boarding school to provide good quality education for selected secondary school students. SMK Three Rivers was established in 1961 to serve the education needs of the people living in the Mukah and Balingian river basins. SMK St. Patrick was established in 1905. SMK Mukah was opened in 1999. Lamin Dana cultural Lounge is located in Kampung Tellian, it is a place where the residents of the village showcase their traditional arts and authentic Melanau food. A Melanau delicacy named, it is a raw fish salad served with sago pellets. Sago is the staple food for the Melanau people, they takes sago together with fish and Ulam. Mukah Kaul festival is held at the third week of April every year, it was a traditional ritual by the Melanau people for thanksgiving and continuation of good fortune by appeasing the spirits of the sea, land and farms. Laman Web Rasmi Majlis Daerah Dalat & Mukah Laman Web Rasmi Pejabat Daerah Mukah Laman Web Rasmi Pejabat Residen Mukah Mukah Polytechnic Website Mukah Kaul Festival on Virtual Malaysia Website Kaul Festival on STB website Mukah Pictures Kaipulehone has written materials on Mukah, as well as audio recordings
Crown Colony of North Borneo
The Crown Colony of North Borneo was a British Crown colony on the island of Borneo established in 1946 shortly after the dissolution of the British Military Administration. The Crown Colony of Labuan joined the new Crown Colony during its formation, it was succeeded as the state of Sabah through the formation of the Federation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963. On 16 October 1947, seven of the British-controlled islands in north-eastern Borneo named Turtle Islands together with Cagayan de Sulu and Mangsee Islands were ceded to the Philippine government under a past treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United States; the islands now formed a part of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. The Governor of the Crown Colony of North Borneo is the position created by the British Government upon the cession of North Borneo from the North Borneo Chartered Company; the appointment was made by King George VI, Queen Elizabeth II until the self-government of North Borneo on 31 August 1963 and the forming of the Federation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963.
After the formation of Malaysia, the title was changed to'Tuan Yang Terutama Yang di-Pertua Negeri Sabah', which means'His Excellency The Governor of Sabah', or'His Excellency The Head of State of Sabah' and the appointment was made by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or King of Malaysia. British North Borneo Becomes Crown Colony History Sabah State Archives – Chief Minister's Department Colonial administration records: North Borneo at The National Archives
The Theatines or the Congregation of Clerics Regular of the Divine Providence are a religious order of the Catholic Church, with the post-nominal initials "C. R." The order was founded by Saint Cajetan, Paolo Consiglieri, Bonifacio da Colle, Giovanni Pietro Carafa. Carafa was Bishop of Chieti; the Theatines combined the pursuit of evangelical perfection traditional among religious orders with apostolic service expected of diocesan clergy. It was Caraffa. Cajetan consecrated his order to the Cross, which he adopted as its emblem, the foundation took place on the feast of the Finding of the Holy Cross, May 3, 1524, it was approved by Pope Clement VII in the Brief Exponi Nobis. On September 14, feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross and his companions made solemn profession before the papal altar of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, in the presence of Mgr. Giovanni Battista Bonziano, Bishop of Caserta, a special papal delegate. Caraffa was chosen the first General; the chief object of the order was to recall the clergy to an edifying life and the laity to the practice of virtue.
They founded oratories and hospitals, devoted themselves to preaching the Gospel, reformed lax morals. They were exclusive and formidably austere, they maintained a modest lifestyle. The prohibition on both owning property and soliciting alms tended to limit applicants to members of the aristocracy, so they remained few in number. In 1546 they were joined with the Somaschi Fathers, but as the object of the respective orders differed, they separated in 1555. In 1527 their house in Rome was sacked by the army of Charles V, the Roman community sought refuge in Venice, they founded many beautiful churches, among them that of Sant'Andrea della Valle in Rome, a gift of Costanza Piccolomini D'Aragona, Duchess of Amalfi. This church contains several paintings by Domenichino; the Theatines still operate the church. In France, through the efforts of Cardinal Mazarin, they built the Church of St. Anne la Royale opposite the Louvre in 1644. In Spain, under Philip II, the Theatine Cardinal Paolo Burali d'Arezzo, filled various embassies at the command of the viceroy of Naples.
In Portugal, John IV, in 1648, gave the Theatines a splendid house and college for the education of noble youth. In England, under Henry VIII, Thomas Goldwell, Bishop of St. Asaph, entered the order of Theatines. In Bavaria, the Theatine Church St. Kajetan was built from 1663 to 1690, founded by Elector Ferdinand Maria; the Theatines were the first to found papal missions in: Golconda, Peru, founded by Andrea Borromeo, the East Indies and Armenia. In 1626 Theatines went to Persia. Theatine manuscripts dating from 1530 until the end of the 18th century show there were missions established in a number of other countries also. By 1700 the Theatines numbered 1400. By the end of the eighteenth century, decline had exacerbated by political upheavals. General suppression of religious orders affected the Theatines more because the order acquired no possessions and so had no institutional infrastructure. Pope Pius X had a hand in attempts at revival, calling upon the services of Cardinal José de Calasanz Félix Santiago Vives y Tutó.
The papal Motu Proprio Auspicato, of December 15, 1909, decreed the union of the Congregation of the Regular Theatine Clergy with the youthful Spanish Congregation of the Holy Family founded at Barcelona by Josep Manyanet y Vives, but the two groups were separated again in 1916. In 1910, the Theatines were amalgamated with the Congregation of Saint Alphonsus Liguori, founded in Mallorca in 1867. According to the Annuario Pontificio, as of 31 December 2014, the Theatines had 34 houses and numbered 170 members, of whom 139 were priests; the Theatines are present in Argentina, Colombia, the Netherlands and the United States of America, where they maintain a flourishing mission at Durango, Colorado. The Order has numbered among its members Saint Cajetan Saint Andrea Avellino Saint Giuseppe Maria Tomasi Blessed Giovanni Marinoni Blessed Paolo Burali d'Arezzo, it has furnished one pope, Paul IV, 250 bishops and papal legates, several cardinals. Among noted nineteenth-century Theatines was the Sicilian Father Gioacchino Ventura dei baroni di Raulica, a philosopher, littérateur, orator.
One of his most celebrated works being his funeral oration on the death of Daniel O'Connell. The astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi, professor of mathematics and astronomy in Palermo, discoverer of the first asteroid, Ceres, in 1801, became a Theatine at the age of 19. Blue Scapular of the Immaculate Conception Bartolommeo Ferro, Istoria delle missioni de chierici regolari teatini 2 vols.. Domenico Sangiacomo, Cenno storico sulla fondazione dell'ordine de' cc. rr. Teatini scritto in occasione di celebrarsi nella chiesa di S. Paolo di Napoli il terzo centenario dalla fondazione medesima. Gaetano Magenis, Vita di s. Gaetano Tiene fondatore de' chierici regolari e patriarca di tutto il regolare chiericato. Giuseppe Maria Ginelli, Memorie istoriche della vita di S. Gaetano Tiene, fo
Kota Kinabalu known as Jesselton, is the state capital of Sabah and the capital of the Kota Kinabalu District. It is the capital of the West Coast Division of Sabah; the city is located on the northwest coast of Borneo facing the South China Sea. The Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park lies to its west and Mount Kinabalu, which gave the city its name, is located to its east. Kota Kinabalu has a population of 452,058 according to the 2010 census. In the 15th century, the area of Kota Kinabalu was under the influence of Bruneian Empire. In the 19th century, the British North Borneo Company first set up a settlement near the Gaya Island. However, it was destroyed by fire in 1897 by a local leader named Mat Salleh. In July 1899, the place located opposite to the Gaya Island was identified as a suitable place for settlements. Development in the area was started soon after that. Jesselton became a major trading port in the area, was connected to the North Borneo Railway. Jesselton was destroyed during World War II.
The Japanese occupation of Jesselton provoked several local uprisings notably the Jesselton Revolt but they were defeated by the Japanese. After the war, BNBC was unable to finance the high cost of reconstructions and the place was ceded to the British Crown Colony; the British Crown declared Jesselton as the new capital of North Borneo in 1946 and started to rebuild the town. After the formation of Malaysia, North Borneo was renamed as Sabah. In 1967, Jesselton was renamed as Kota Kinabalu, Kota being the Malay word for Fort and Kinabalu after the nearby Mount Kinabalu. Kota Kinabalu was granted city status in 2000. Kota Kinabalu is known as KK both in Malaysia and internationally, it is a popular gateway for travellers visiting Sabah and Borneo. Kinabalu Park is located about 90 kilometres from the city and there are many other tourist attractions in and around the city. Kota Kinabalu is one of the major industrial and commercial centres of East Malaysia; these two factors combine to make Kota Kinabalu one of the fastest growing cities in Malaysia.
Kota Kinabalu is named after Mount Kinabalu, situated about 50 kilometres east-northeast of the city. Kinabalu is derived from the name Aki Nabalu meaning the "revered place of the dead." Aki means "ancestors" or "grandfather", Nabalu is a name for the mountain in the Dusun language. There is a source claiming that the term originated from Ki Nabalu, Ki meaning "have" or "exist", Nabalu meaning "spirit of the dead". Kota is a Malay word for a "fort", "town", or a "city", it is used formally in a few other Malaysian towns and cities, for example, Kota Bharu, Kota Tinggi, Kota Kemuning. It can be used informally to refer to any towns or cities. Hence, a direct translation of the name Kota Kinabalu into English would be "City of Kinabalu" or "Kinabalu City". Besides Jesselton, there are other older names for Kota Kinabalu; the most popular is Api-Api, or Api, a Malay word meaning'Fire'. Wendy Law Suart wrote in her book on North Borneo, The Lingering Eye, "there is in the Sabah State Museum a Dutch map of Borneo and the Celebes dated 1657 in which the settlement where Jesselton was to stand is labelled Api Api.
It may have some connection with the seaside tree with breathing roots that bears the same name". There are claims, that Kota Kinabalu was named after a nearby river called Sungai Api-Api. In Chinese, the city is still known as'Api', the Hakka pronunciation for 亚庇. Another suggested historical name is Deasoka, which means "below the coconut tree" in the Bajau language; the Bajau locals purportedly used this name to refer to a village in the southern part of the city, filled with coconut trees. Yet another name was Singgah Mata which means "transit eye", but can be loosely translated as "pleasing to the eye", it is a name said to have been given by fishermen from Gaya Island referring to the strip of land, today's downtown Kota Kinabalu. Today, all these names have been immortalised as names of buildings around the city; some examples are Api-Api Centre and Singgah Mata Street. Since the 15th century, the area of Jesselton was under the influence of the Bruneian Empire. In the late 1800s, the British North Borneo Company began to establish colonies throughout North Borneo.
In 1882, BNBC founded a small settlement in the area known as Gaya Bay, inhabited by Bajau people. The first settlement was on Gaya Island. In 1897, this first settlement was burned and destroyed by the indigenous Bajau-Suluk chief Mat Salleh. After the destruction, BNBC decided to relocate the settlement to the more defended mainland at Gantian Bay in 1898; however that location was found to be unsuitable and in July 1899, Mr. Henry Walker, a Land Commissioner, identified a 30 acres site opposite Gaya Island as a replacement for Gantian; this fishing village named Api-Api was chosen due to its proximity to the North Borneo Railway and its natural port that provided good anchorage, up to 24 feet deep. By the end of 1899, construction had started on a pier and government buildings; this new administrative centre was renamed Jesselton after Sir Charles Jessel, the Vice-Chairman of BNBC. Jesselton became a major trading post
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Colony of Singapore
The colony of Singapore was a British Crown colony that existed from 1946 until 1963, when Singapore became part of Malaysia. When the Empire of Japan surrendered to the Allies at the end of World War II, the island was handed back to the British in 1945. In 1946, the Straits Settlements were dissolved and Singapore together with the Cocos-Keeling and Christmas islands became a separate Crown colony; the colony was governed by the British Empire until it gained partial internal self-governance in 1955. After Japan surrendered to the Allies on 15 August 1945, there was a state of anomie in Singapore, as the British had not arrived to take control, while the Japanese occupiers had a weakened hold over the populace. Incidents of looting and revenge-killing were widespread; when British troops returned to Singapore in September 1945, thousands of Singaporeans lined the streets to cheer them. Singapore was ruled by a British Military Administration between September 1945 and March 1946, during which it served as the headquarters of the British governor general for Southeast Asia.
However much of the infrastructure had been destroyed, including electricity and water supply systems, telephone services, as well as the harbour facilities at the Port of Singapore. There was a shortage of food including rice, this led to malnutrition and rampant crimes and violence. Unemployment, high food prices, workers' discontent culminated into a series of strikes in 1947 causing massive stoppages in public transport and other services. By late 1947, the economy began to recover, facilitated by the growing demand for tin and rubber around the world, but it would take several more years before the economy returned to pre-war levels. On 1 April 1946, the Straits Settlements was dissolved and Singapore became a Crown Colony with a civil administration headed by a Governor and separated from peninsular Malaya. In July 1947, separate Executive and Legislative Councils were established and provisions were made to allow for the election of six members of the Legislative Council the next year.
The failure of the British to defend Singapore had destroyed their credibility as infallible rulers in the eyes of the locals in Singapore. The decades after and during the war saw a political awakening amongst the local populace and the rise of nationalist and anti-colonial sentiments, including a cry for Merdeka translated to "independence" in the Malay language; the British, on their part, were prepared to embark on a program of increasing self-governance for Singapore and Malaya. The Crown colony was dissolved on 16 September 1963 when Singapore became part of Malaysia, which ended the 144 years British rule of the island. On 9 August 1965, Singapore left Malaysia to become the independent Republic of Singapore, due to political and economical disputes; the first Singaporean elections, held in March 1948 to select members of the Legislative Council, were rather limited. The right to vote was restricted to adult British subjects, of which only 23,000 or about 10 percent of those eligible registered to vote.
In addition, only six of the twenty-five seats on the Legislative Council were to be elected. Three of the elected seats were won by a newly formed Singapore Progressive Party, a conservative party whose leaders were businessmen and professionals and were disinclined to press for immediate self-rule; the other three seats were won by independents. Three months after the elections, an armed insurgency by communist groups in Malaya – the Malayan Emergency – broke out, the British imposed harsh measures to control left-wing groups in both Singapore and Malaya. Since the left-wing groups were the strongest critics of the colonial system, progress on self-government stalled for several years; the colonial government tried to prevent contacts between Singaporean Chinese and China, which had just fallen under the rule of the Communist Party of China. Tan Kah Kee, a local businessman and philanthropist, was denied re-entry into Singapore after he made a trip to China. A second Legislative Council election was held in 1951 with the number of elected seats increased to nine.
This election was again dominated by the SPP. This contributed to the formation of a distinct government of Singapore, although colonial administration was still dominant. In 1953, with the communists in Malaya suppressed and the worst of the'Emergency' period over, the government appointed a commission, headed by Sir George Rendel, to study the possibility of self-government for Singapore; the commission proposed a limited form of self-government. The Legislative Assembly with twenty-five out of thirty-two seats chosen by popular election would replace the Legislative Council, from which a Chief Minister as head of government and Council of Ministers as a cabinet would be picked under a parliamentary system; the British would retain control over areas such as internal security and foreign affairs, as well as veto power over legislation. The government agreed with the recommendations, Legislative Assembly elections were scheduled for 2 April 1955; the election was a lively and fought affair, with several newly formed political parties joining the fray.
In contrast to previous elections, voters were automatically registered, expanding the electorate to around 300,000. The SPP was soundly defeated in the election; the newly formed, left-leaning Labour Front was the largest winner with ten seats and was able to form a coalition government with the UMNO-MCA Alliance, wh
Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force was formed after the dissolution of the IJN; the Imperial Japanese Navy was the third largest navy in the world by 1920, behind the Royal Navy and the United States Navy. It was supported by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service for aircraft and airstrike operation from the fleet, it was the primary opponent of the Western Allies in the Pacific War. The origins of the Imperial Japanese Navy go back to early interactions with nations on the Asian continent, beginning in the early medieval period and reaching a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th centuries at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Age of Discovery. After two centuries of stagnation during the country's ensuing seclusion policy under the shōgun of the Edo period, Japan's navy was comparatively backward when the country was forced open to trade by American intervention in 1854.
This led to the Meiji Restoration. Accompanying the re-ascendance of the Emperor came a period of frantic modernization and industrialization; the navy had several successes, sometimes against much more powerful enemies such as in the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, before being destroyed in World War II. Japan has a long history of naval interaction with the Asian continent, involving transportation of troops between Korea and Japan, starting at least with the beginning of the Kofun period in the 3rd century. Following the attempts at Mongol invasions of Japan by Kubilai Khan in 1274 and 1281, Japanese wakō became active in plundering the coast of China. Japan undertook major naval building efforts in the 16th century, during the Warring States period, when feudal rulers vying for supremacy built vast coastal navies of several hundred ships. Around that time Japan may have developed one of the first ironclad warships when Oda Nobunaga, a daimyō, had six iron-covered Oatakebune made in 1576.
In 1588 Toyotomi Hideyoshi issued a ban on Wakō piracy. Japan built her first large ocean-going warships in the beginning of the 17th century, following contacts with the Western nations during the Nanban trade period. In 1613, the daimyō of Sendai, in agreement with the Tokugawa Bakufu, built Date Maru, a 500-ton galleon-type ship that transported the Japanese embassy of Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas, which continued to Europe. From 1604 the Bakufu commissioned about 350 Red seal ships armed and incorporating some Western technologies for Southeast Asian trade. For more than 200 years, beginning in the 1640s, the Japanese policy of seclusion forbade contacts with the outside world and prohibited the construction of ocean-going ships on pain of death. Contacts were maintained, with the Dutch through the port of Nagasaki, the Chinese through Nagasaki and the Ryukyus and Korea through intermediaries with Tsushima; the study of Western sciences, called "rangaku" through the Dutch enclave of Dejima in Nagasaki led to the transfer of knowledge related to the Western technological and scientific revolution which allowed Japan to remain aware of naval sciences, such as cartography and mechanical sciences.
Seclusion, led to loss of any naval and maritime traditions the nation possessed. Apart from Dutch trade ships no other Western vessels were allowed to enter Japanese ports. A notable exception was during the Napoleonic wars. Frictions with foreign ships, started from the beginning of the 19th century; the Nagasaki Harbour Incident involving HMS Phaeton in 1808, other subsequent incidents in the following decades, led the shogunate to enact an Edict to Repel Foreign Vessels. Western ships, which were increasing their presence around Japan due to whaling and the trade with China, began to challenge the seclusion policy; the Morrison Incident in 1837 and news of China's defeat during the Opium War led the shogunate to repeal the law to execute foreigners, instead to adopt the Order for the Provision of Firewood and Water. The shogunate began to strengthen the nation's coastal defenses. Many Japanese realized that traditional ways would not be sufficient to repel further intrusions, western knowledge was utilized through the Dutch at Dejima to reinforce Japan's capability to repel the foreigners.
Numerous attempts to open Japan ended in failure, in part to Japanese resistance, until the early 1850s. During 1853 and 1854, American warships under the command of Commodore Matthew Perry entered Edo Bay and made demonstrations of force requesting trade negotiations. After two hundred years of seclusion, the 1854 Convention of Kanagawa led to the opening of Japan to international trade and interaction; this was soon followed by treaties with other powers. As soon as Japan opened up to foreign influences, the Tokugawa shogunate recognized the vulnerability of the country from the sea and initiated an active policy of assimilation and adoption of Western naval technologies. In 1855, with Dutch assistance, the shogunate acquired its first steam warship, Kankō Maru, began using it for training, establishing a Naval Training Center at Nagasaki. Samurai such as the future Admiral Enomoto Takeaki were sent by the shogunate to study in the Netherlands for several years. In 1859 the