Brownsea Island is the largest of the islands in Poole Harbour in the county of Dorset, England. The island is owned by the National Trust. Much of the island is open to the public and includes areas of woodland and heath with a wide variety of wildlife, together with cliff top views across Poole Harbour and the Isle of Purbeck; the island was the location of an experimental camp in 1907 that led to the formation of the Scout movement the following year. Access is by private boat; the island's name comes from Anglo-Saxon Brūnoces īeg = "Brūnoc's island". Brownsea Island lies in Poole Harbour opposite the town of Poole in England, it is the largest of eight islands in the harbour. The island can be reached by private boat. There is a small dock near the main castle; the island is 1 1⁄2 miles long and 3⁄4 mile wide and consists of 500 acres of woodland and salt-marsh. The entire island, except the church and a few other buildings which are leased or managed by third parties, is owned by the National Trust.
Most of the buildings are situated near the small landing stage. The northern portion of the island is a Nature Reserve managed by Dorset Wildlife Trust and an important habitat for birds. A small portion to the southeast of the island, along with Brownsea Castle, is leased to the John Lewis Partnership for use as a holiday hotel for staff, is not open to the public; the island forms part of the Studland civil parish in the Purbeck local government district. It is within the South Dorset constituency of the House of Commons and the South West England constituency of the European Parliament. Brownsea Island has built up on a bare sand and mud bank deposited in the shallow harbour. Ecological succession has taken place on the island to create topsoil able to support ecosystems; the nature reserve on the island is leased from the National Trust by Dorset Wildlife Trust. This reserve includes a brackish area of woodland. Other ecosystems on the island include salt marsh, two freshwater lakes, alder carr, coniferous woodland, deciduous woodland and arboretum.
In the past invasive species such as rhododendrons non-native, were introduced to the island, but the trusts have cleared many areas. The entire island is designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest; the island is one of the few places in southern England where indigenous red squirrels survive because non-native grey squirrels have never been introduced to the island. The Brownsea red squirrel population is the only population known in the UK to carry the human form of the bacteria stem Mycobacterium leprae that causes leprosy in humans. Brownsea has a small ornamental population of peacocks; the island has a heronry, in which little egret nest. There is a large population of non-native sika deer on the island. In the past the numbers have been higher than the island can have overgrazed. To try to limit damage to trees and other vegetation by deer, areas of the island have been fenced off to provide areas of undamaged woodland to allow other species such as red squirrels to thrive; the lagoon is noted for the large population of common tern and sandwich tern in summer, a large flock of avocets in winter, when more than 50 per cent of British bird species can be present.
Some imported stonework and statuary on the island serves as a habitat for a Mediterranean land snail, Papillifera bidens. The first records of inhabitants on Brownsea Island occurred in the 9th century, when a small chapel and hermitage were built by monks from Cerne Abbey near Dorchester; the chapel was dedicated to St Andrew and the only resident of the island was a hermit, who may have administered to the spiritual welfare of sailors passing through Poole Harbour. In 1015, Canute led a Viking raid to the harbour and used Brownsea as a base to sack Wareham and Cerne Abbey. In the 11th century the owner of the island was Bruno, Lord of the Manor of Studland. Following his invasion of England, William the Conqueror gave Studland, which included Brownsea, to his half-brother, Robert de Mortain. In 1154, King Henry II granted the Abbot of Cerne the right of wreck for the island and the abbey continued to control the interests of Brownsea for the following 350 years. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries, control of Brownsea passed to the Crown.
Henry VIII recognised the island's strategic importance of guarding the narrow entrance to the expanding port of Poole. As part of a deterrent to invasion forces from Europe, the island was fortified in 1547 by means of a blockhouse, which became known as Brownsea Castle. In the following centuries, the island passed into the hands of a succession of various owners. In 1576, Queen Elizabeth I made a gift of Brownsea to one of her court favourites and rumoured lover, Sir Christopher Hatton. During the English Civil War, Poole garrisoned Brownsea Castle. Colonel Thomas Pride, the instigator of Pride's Purge– the only military coup d'état in English history – was stationed on the island in 1654. Sir Robert Clayton, a Lord Mayor of the City of London and wealthy merchant became owner in the mid-1650s and after his death in 1707 the island was sold to William Benson, a Whig Member of Parliament and architect, he converted the castle into a residence and was responsible for introducing many varieties of trees to the island.
In 1765 Sir Humphrey Sturt, a local landowner and MP purchased the island, which in turn passed to his sons. Sturt expanded the castle and records suggest that he spent £50,000 on enhancing the island's gardens. Sir Augustus John Fos
World Scout Jamboree
The World Scout Jamboree is a Scouting jamboree of the World Organization of the Scout Movement attended by several tens of thousands of Scouts from around the world, aged 14 to 17. The first World Scout Jamboree was organized by The Boy Scout Association in London. With exceptions for the war years, it has been organized every four years, in the more recent years by the World Organization of the Scout Movement, in different locations over the world; the 21st World Scout Jamboree in 2007 was held in Hylands Park, United Kingdom, celebrated the Centenary of Scouting. The 22nd World Scout Jamboree was at Rinkaby, Sweden from 27 July to 8 August 2011; the next World Scout Jamboree will be held in the United States at The Summit Bechtel Family National Scout Reserve in West Virginia, from 22 July to 2 August 2019. In lexicography, "Jamboree" is considered an Americanism that traces back to 1860–65 and refers to a joyful, noisy gathering; the term is believed to shivaree, with "m" from jam. While World Scout Jamboree is the expression used by the World Organization of the Scout Movement, other organizations held events called "jamborees" for their members.
The Scouting program became an international success following its founding by Robert Baden-Powell in 1907. With its continuing growth, the founder of the movement saw a need for a gathering of representatives of Scouting from all around the world; the general aim was to foster a worldwide brotherhood, to help the young Scouts in the movement learn about other peoples and nations by direct interaction with them. The idea of organizing such periodical international gatherings was conveyed to Baden-Powell by the General Chief of the Scouts of Greece, Konstantinos Melas, during the 1918 international Scout meeting, in England. Captain Melas proposed the gatherings should repeat every four years, in the same way Olympic Games were held in Ancient Greece; the suggestion was accepted with enthusiasm by Baden-Powell, who named the gatherings "Jamborees". It was in 1920 that the first World Scout Jamboree was realized, held in the Olympia halls in Kensington, London. Symbolically, the Jamboree site bore the name of the birthplace of Olympia.
8,000 Scouts from 34 countries attended the event. Thereafter, a Jamboree has been held every four years. There are two exceptions to this: no Jamboree was held between 1937 and 1947 because of the Second World War, the 1979 Jamboree, to be held in Iran, was cancelled due to the political upheaval in the region at that time; the Jamboree has been held in different countries around the world. The first seven Jamborees were held in Europe; the eighth World Jamboree was held in North America where the tradition of moving the Jamboree among the continents began. As yet, Africa has not hosted a jamboree. To replace the cancelled event of 1979, the World Scout Committee determined that an alternative celebration, the World Jamboree Year should take place. Several regional camps took place, such as the 12th Australian/4th Asia-Pacific Jamboree, held in Perth, Western Australia, along with countless Join-in-Jamboree activities — designed to allow Scouts from around the world to participate in an activity that thousands of other Scouts around the world were participating in at the same time.
This Join-in programme was reproduced again as part of the Scouting 2007 Centenary celebrations. So far, the greatest attendance of all Jamborees was in 2011, where over 40,000 members from around the world descended upon Rinkaby in Sweden; this number represented the permanent contingent. They were joined by hundreds of thousands of visiting Scouts; the first Jamboree was more akin to an exhibition of Scouting, allowing visitors to see how things were done in other parts of the world. The Second Jamboree was conducted on a camp basis and each successive Jamboree has developed on this format where the programme is more activity oriented, with plenty of time for Scouts from different nations to interact and learn about each other in less formal ways than an exhibition would allow; the 2007 Jamboree coincided with the Scouting Centenary celebrations. Because of this, the honour of hosting the event was again bestowed upon the United Kingdom, as the birthplace of Scouting. Over 40,000 young people camped in August at Hylands Park in Essex.
Hundreds of thousands of day visitors attended events in the south-east of England as part of the Jamboree. The following Jamboree was held at Rinkaby in Sweden, opening on 27 July 2011, followed in 2015 by Japan, the Jamboree in 2019 will be at The Summit Bechtel Family National Scout Reserve in West Virginia. Jamboree on the Air referred to as JOTA, is an international Scouting and Guiding activity held annually on the third full weekend in October; the event was first held in conjunction with the fiftieth anniversary of Scouting in 1957, was devised by radio amateur operator Leslie R. Mitchell who used the callsign G3BHK, it is now considered the largest event organized by the WOSM annually. Amateur radio operators from all over the world participate with over 500,000 Scouts and Guides to teach them about radio and to assist them to contact their fellow Scouts and Guides by means of amateur radio and since 2004, by the VOIP-based Echolink. Scouts and Guides are encouraged to send paper or electronic confirmations known as "QSL cards", or "eQSLs" when they are sent electronically.
This provides the Scouts and Guides with a means of learning about fellow Scouts and Guides from around the world. It is
Baden-Powell Scouts' Association
The Baden-Powell Scouts' Association is a worldwide youth organisation originating in the United Kingdom, with friendly relationships with similar traditional scouting organisations in various countries. Baden-Powell Scouting focuses on the importance of tradition in the scout movement; the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association shares the heritage of the youth scouting movement, however they believe in a traditional way of scouting which follows the programme set out by Lt. General Robert Baden-Powell in his book: Scouting for Boys; the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association was formed in the United Kingdom in 1970 by the Reverend William Dowling when it was felt that the Scout Association was abandoning the traditions and intentions set out by Baden-Powell in 1908. The Baden-Powell Scouts retain the belief that the essence of the movement should be based on outdoor activities related to the skills of explorers and frontiersmen, it is a non-formal educational charity association for young people. It is an independent, non-political, non-military organisation.
The B-PSA believes. As an independent scout association, they are members of the World Federation of Independent Scouts; the WFIS was formed in Laubach, Germany, in 1996 by Lawrie Dring, a scouter and President of the B-PSA, scouts from Laubach. The WFIS is an international body that recognises independent scouts associations in countries around the world that teach traditional Baden-Powell scouting values, their aim is to improve the standard of future citizens with the object of using their efficiency for service for their fellows. For the origins and history of the scout movement see: Scouting Following the origin of the Boy Scout Movement and, in 1908, the publication of Robert Baden-Powell's book, Scouting for Boys, the Boy Scouts Association was formed in 1910 and, until 1967, it followed the programme established by Baden-Powell. However, the publication of the Chief Scouts' Advance Party Report, introduced major changes to that association's name, uniform and programme. In 1969, some of those, led by the Reverend William Dowling, who did not agree with changes being introduced following the Advance Party Report formed a pressure group within the Scout Association, known as'the Scout Action Group'.
They asked that Scout Groups wishing to maintain a more traditional approach to Scouting should be allowed to do so. In mid-1970 the Scout Action Group published A Boy Scout Black Paper; as a result of discussions, the whole organisation factioned into two groups on 20 September 1970 – The Scout Association and the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association. In 1979, due to internal arguments, the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association split into two organisations, with both claiming the name and charity number of the association; the two factions reconciled their differences in June 1990, in 1994 there were nearly 70 groups in the association. In the 1990s there was a dip in the number of active groups in the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association, in common with a fall in numbers experienced by the various United Kingdom Scout organisations at that time, the number of groups had dropped to around 40 in 2001; the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association, as with Scouting in the United Kingdom has shown subsequent growth in numbers with the opening of new groups.
The B-PSA celebrated 100 years of Scouting in 2007, issuing centenary badges and holding their own Centenary Camp in Southampton. Jamboree 2008, marked the centenary of the first official Scout Camp held by Baden-Powell at Humshaugh; the event included parades at a ceremony at the original Carr Edge camp site. The main policy is Traditional Scouting –, taking Baden-Powell's original nine Scout Laws and the 10th Scout Law and using them, along with Baden-Powell's original training programme and rank system. Once a Scout is invested Baden-Powell believed; this law is kept by Scouts from the age of ten and Adult Leaders must renew their promise on regular occasions. The original Scout Law, written by Baden-Powell, appeared in 1908; the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association uses his 1911 version, as follows: A Scout's honour is to be trusted A Scout is loyal to the King and to his officers, to his country, to his employers. A Scout's duty is to help others. A Scout is a friend to all and a brother to every other Scout, no matter to what social class the other belongs.
A Scout is courteous. A Scout is a friend to animals. A Scout obeys orders of his patrol Scout master without question. A Scout whistles under all difficulties. A Scout is thrifty. A Scout is clean in thought and deed; the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association hold to the ideals of Scouting that were created by Baden-Powell. The association's heritage dates back to the foundations of Scouting in the UK in 1908; the association follows a charter set down in their Policy Association Rules. They have Leaders; the traditional programme develops a sense of duty, personal discipline and honour. In addition to a wide range of activities Scouts in the B-PSA continue to practise traditional Scouting skills: lighting fire by friction navigating by means other than a compass backwoods cooking camping in self erected "bivvys"The Baden-Powell Scouts' Association are members of the World Federation of Independent Scouts; the Baden-Powell Scouts wear traditional uniforms. Wolf Cubs continue to use the Grand Howl at the end of their meetings.
The advancement program for members of the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association is symbolised by the earning of badges and awards. In Wolf Cubs this consists of Ten
Since the publication of Scouting for Boys in 1908, all Scouts and Girl Guides around the world have taken a Scout promise or oath to live up to ideals of the movement, subscribed to a Scout Law. The wording of the Scout Promise and Scout Law have varied over time and from country to country; some national organization promises are given below. Although most Scouting and Guiding organizations use the word "promise", a few such as the Boy Scouts of America tend to use "oath" instead. Scouts and Guides will make the three-fingered Scout Sign when reciting the promise. In his original book on Boy Scouting, Baden-Powell introduced the Scout Promise, as follows: The form of the promise has varied from country to country and over time, but must fulfill the requirements of the World Organization of the Scout Movement to qualify a National Scout Organization for membership. Together with clarifying its Scout Law, the Constitution of WOSM states: Article II, paragraph 2: "Adherence to a Promise and Law" All members of the Scout Movement are required to adhere to a Scout Promise and Law reflecting, in language appropriate to the culture and civilization of each National Scout Organization and approved by the World Organization, the principles of Duty to God, Duty to others and Duty to self, inspired by the Promise and Law conceived by the Founder of the Scout Movement in the following terms: The Scout Promise In order to accommodate many different religions within Scouting, "God" may refer to a higher power, is not restricted to the God of the monotheistic religions.
The WOSM Constitution explains "Duty to God" as "Adherence to spiritual principles, loyalty to the religion that expresses them and acceptance of the duties resulting therefrom." The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, a sister organization to WOSM, has the same wording in their constitution, follows similar policies. Although the Constitution of WOSM states that the Promise should include a reference to Duty to God, Scouting founder Lord Baden-Powell approved the use of promises with reference to a higher ideal, higher truth, an optional reference to God, or without a reference to God, for Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Finland. Three of these countries still offer this alternative promise. WOSM stated in 1932 that no new exceptions would be made and expressed the hope that the few remaining countries would stop using a promise without any reference to Duty to God; the Israeli Scouts, though founded in 1919/1920, joining WOSM in 1951 and WAGGGS in 1963 have no "duty to God" or apparent equivalent in their promise.
In 1969, the Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs israélites de France decided to discontinue using the reference to God due to its inconsistency with religious beliefs and practices from a Jewish perspective. Use of the word God, derived from Zeus, can be seen as an inappropriate pagan reference in Jewish texts or education; as of July 2017, Scouts Australia provides the option to use one of two different versions of the Scout Promise, one which allows scouts to promise "To be true to my spiritual beliefs To contribute to my community and our world." The other option is to promise "To do my duty to my God, To the Queen of Australia." Scout sections that follow traditional Scouting, such as Baden-Powell Scouts within the World Federation of Independent Scouts, use several promises including the original Scout promise above that includes the reference to God. Some, for example the 1st Tarrant Scout Group in Fort Worth, Texas use a blend of the original promise and the "Outlander Promise" which, "according to tradition", B-P wrote for Scouts that had to omit the reference to God or a monarch for reasons of conscience.
Religion in Scouting Scouting
Wood Badge is a Scouting leadership programme and the related award for adult leaders in the programmes of Scout associations throughout the world. Wood Badge courses aim to make Scouters better leaders by teaching advanced leadership skills, by creating a bond and commitment to the Scout movement. Courses have a combined classroom and practical outdoors-based phase followed by a Wood Badge ticket known as the project phase. By "working the ticket", participants put their newly gained experience into practice to attain ticket goals aiding the Scouting movement; the first Wood Badge training was organized by Francis "Skipper" Gidney and lectured at by Robert Baden-Powell and others at Gilwell Park in September 1919. Wood Badge training has since spread across the world with international variations. On completion of the course, participants are awarded the Wood Badge beads to recognize significant achievement in leadership and direct service to young people; the pair of small wooden beads, one on each end of a leather thong, is worn around the neck as part of the Scout uniform.
The beads are presented together with a taupe neckerchief bearing a tartan patch of the Maclaren clan, honoring William de Bois Maclaren, who donated the £7000 to purchase Gilwell Park in 1919 plus an additional £3000 for improvements to the house, on the estate. The neckerchief with the braided leather woggle denotes the membership of the 1st Gilwell Scout Group or Gilwell Troop 1. Recipients of the Wood Badge are known as Wood Badgers or Gilwellians. Soon after founding the Scout movement, Robert Baden-Powell saw the need for leader training. Early Scoutmaster training camps were held in Yorkshire. Baden-Powell wanted practical training in the outdoors in campsites. World War I delayed the development of leader training, so the first formal Wood Badge course was not offered until 1919. Gilwell Park, just outside London, was purchased to provide a venue for the course and the Opening Ceremonies were held on July 26, 1919. Francis Gidney, the first Camp Chief at Gilwell Park, conducted the first Wood Badge course there from September 8–19, 1919.
It was produced by Percy Everett, the Commissioner of Training, Baden-Powell himself gave lectures. The course was attended by 18 participants, other lecturers. After this first course, Wood Badge training continued at Gilwell Park, it became the home of leadership training in the Scout movement; the main goals of a Wood Badge course are to: Recognize the contemporary leadership concepts utilized in the corporate world and leading governmental organizations that are relevant to Scouting's values. Apply the skills one learns from participating as a member of a successful working team. View Scouting globally, as a family of interrelated, values-based programmes that provide age-appropriate activities for youth. Revitalize the leader's commitment by sharing in an inspirational experience that helps provide Scouting with the leadership it needs to accomplish its mission. A Wood Badge course consists of classroom work, a series of self-study modules, outdoor training, the Wood Badge "ticket" or "project".
Classroom and outdoor training are combined and taught together, occur over one or more weeks or weekends. As part of completing this portion of the course, participants must write their tickets; the exact curriculum varies from country to country, but the training includes both theoretical and experiential learning. All course participants are introduced to the 1st Gilwell Scout group or Gilwell Scout Troop 1. In the Boy Scouts of America, they are assigned to one of the traditional Wood Badge "critter" patrols. Instructors deliver training designed to strengthen the patrols. One-on-one work with an assigned troop guide helps each participant to reflect on what he has learned, so that he can better prepare an individualized "ticket"; this part of the training program gives the adult Scouter the opportunity to assume the role of a Scout joining the original "model" troop, to learn firsthand how a troop ideally operates. The locale of all initial training is referred to as Gilwell Field, no matter its geographical location.
The phrase'working your ticket' comes from a story attributed in Scouting legend to Baden-Powell: Upon completion of a British soldier's service in India, he had to pay the cost of his ticket home. The most affordable way for a soldier to return was to engineer a progression of assignments that were successively closer to home. Part of the transformative power of the Wood Badge experience is the effective use of metaphor and tradition to reach both heart and mind. In most Scout associations, "working your ticket" is the culmination of Wood Badge training. Participants apply themselves and their new knowledge and skills to the completion of items designed to strengthen the individual's leadership and the home unit's organizational resilience in a project or "ticket"; the ticket consists of specific goals that must be accomplished within a specified time 18 months due to the large amount of work involved. Effective tickets require much planning and are approved by the Wood Badge course staff before the course phase ends.
Upon completion of the ticket, a participant is said to have earned his way back to Gilwell. After completion of the Wood Badge course, participants are awarded the insignia in a Wood Badge bead ceremony, they receive automatic membership in 1st Gilwell Park Scout Group or Gilwell Troop 1. These leaders are henceforth called Wood Badgers, it is estimated. The 1st Gilwell Scout Group meets annually during the first weeken
Girl Guides or Girl Scouts is a movement found worldwide, still designed for girls and women only. This organisation was introduced in 1909, because girls demanded to take part in the grassroots Boy Scout Movement. In different places around the world, the movement developed in diverse ways. In some places, girls attempted to join Scouting organisations. In other places, girls' groups were started independently, some of them opening up to boys or merging with boys' organisations. In other instances, mixed groups were formed, sometimes to split. In the same way, the name Girl Guide or Girl Scout has been used by groups at different times and in different places, with some groups changing from one to another; the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts was formed in 1928 and has member organisations in 145 countries. There are now more than 10 million members worldwide. WAGGGS celebrated the centenary of the international Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting Movement over three years, from 2010 to 2012.
Lieutenant-General Robert Baden-Powell was a British soldier during the Second Anglo-Boer War in South Africa. He was the commander during the Siege of Mafeking, noted during the siege how young boys made themselves useful by carrying messages for the soldiers; when he came home, he decided to put his Scouting ideas into practice to see if they would work for young boys, took 21 boys camping on Brownsea Island, near Poole in Dorset. The camp was a success, subsequently Baden-Powell wrote the book Scouting for Boys; the book covered topics such as tracking and cooking, it outlined a Scout method for an'instruction in good citizenship'. Soon boys began to organise themselves into Patrols and Troops and calling themselves "Boy Scouts". Girls bought the book as well and formed themselves into Patrols of Girl Scouts, while some girls and boys formed mixed Patrols. In those days, for girls to camp and hike was not common, as shown by this excerpt from The Boy Scouts Headquarters Gazette of 1909: "If a girl is not allowed to run, or hurry, to swim, ride a bike, or raise her arms above her head, how can she become a Scout?"
Girl Scouts were registered at Scout Headquarters. In 1909 there was a Boy Scout rally at Crystal Palace in London. Among the thousands of Boy Scouts at the rally were several hundred Girl Scouts, including a group of girls from Peckham Rye who had no tickets, they asked Baden-Powell to let them join in. Following negative publicity in "The Spectator" magazine Baden-Powell decided that a separate single-sex organisation would be best. Baden-Powell asked Agnes Baden-Powell, to form a separate Girl Guides organisation. In 1910 The Girl Guides were formed in the United Kingdom; the first Guide Company to be registered was 1st Pinkneys Green Guides, who still exist in Pinkneys Green, Berkshire. Many, though by no means all, Girl Guide and Girl Scout groups across the globe trace their roots to this point. Baden-Powell chose the name "Guides" from a regiment in the British Indian Army, the Corps of Guides, which served on the Northwest Frontier and was noted for its skills in tracking and survival. In some countries, the girls preferred to remain or call themselves ‘Girl Scouts’.
Other influential women in the history of the movement were Juliette Gordon Low, founder of the Girl Scouts of the USA, Olga Drahonowska-Małkowska in Poland and Antoinette Butte in France. The Guide International Service was an organisation set up by the Girl Guides Association in Britain in 1942, their aim was to send teams of adult Girl Guides to Europe after World War II to aid with relief work. It is described in two books: All Things Uncertain by Phyllis Stewart Brown and Guides Can Do Anything by Nancy Eastick. A total of 198 Guiders and 60 Scouts, drawn from Britain, Canada and Kenya, served in teams; some went to relieve the Bergen-Belsen displaced persons camp. There has been much discussion about how similar Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting should be to boys' Scouting programmes. While many girls saw what the boys were doing and wanted to do it too, many girls' organisations have sought to avoid copying or mimicking the boys. Julie Bentley, appointed chief executive of the United Kingdom Girl Guides in 2012 and head of the Family Planning Association since 2007, described the Girl Guides in an interview with The Times as "the ultimate feminist organisation".
When most Scout organisations became mixed-sex, Guiding remained separate in most countries to provide a female-centred programme. For example, the UK Scout Association introduced a mixed-sex provision in 1976 with the Venture Scout programme, for all age-based sections in 1991, became co-educational in 2007; however Girl Guiding in the UK remains limited to girls. Transgender girls are admitted to units in some countries. Transgender women are allowed to become leaders in the United Kingdom Girl Guides. Things that are shared amongst all Guide Units are: The Guide Promise – Girls become Guides by making their Promise; each country has its own Promise, but all have the same three parts: duty to God or to your beliefs, duty to your country and keeping the Guide Law. Though there was a religious aspect, many countries are moving towards more non-denominational promises; the Good Turn – Each Guide tries to do a kind thing for someone else, without payment and without being asked, every day. The World Badge – This can be worn on uniform or ordinary clothes.
The three leaves of the trefoil stand for the threefold Promise. The vein in the centre is a compass needle, pointing the way and the two stars stand for t
Brownsea Island Scout camp
The Brownsea Island Scout camp began as a boys' camping event on Brownsea Island in Poole Harbour, southern England, organised by Lieutenant-General Baden-Powell to test his ideas for the book Scouting for Boys. Boys from different social backgrounds participated from 1 to 8 August 1907 in activities around camping, woodcraft, chivalry and patriotism. Recognised as the world's first Scout camp, the event is regarded as the real origin of the worldwide Scout movement. Up to the early 1930s, camping by Boy Scouts continued on Brownsea Island. In 1963, a formal 50-acre Scout campsite was opened by Olave Baden-Powell, when the island became a nature conservation area owned by the National Trust. In 1973, a Scout Jamboree was held on the island with 600 Scouts; the worldwide centenary of Scouting took place at the Brownsea Island Scout camp, celebrated on 1 August 2007, the 100th anniversary of the start of the first encampment. Activities by The Scout Association at the campsite included four Scout camps and a Sunrise Ceremony.
Named after this one, there is a Brownsea Island in The Summit Bechtel Reserve in West Virginia, USA, a training and adventure centre. Robert Baden-Powell had become a national hero during the Boer War as a result of his successful defence of the town of Mafeking, under siege from October 1899 to May 1900; the Mafeking Cadets, made up of local boys aged 12 to 15, acted as messengers throughout the siege, had impressed him with their resourcefulness and courage. Baden-Powell had published a number of popular books on military scouting, including Aids to Scouting for NCOs and Men, published in 1899. Though written for non-commissioned officers, it became a best-seller and was used by teachers and youth organisations. In the years after the war Baden-Powell broached the idea of a new youth organisation with a number of people, including William Alexander Smith, founder of the Boys' Brigade, with whom he discussed setting up a Boys Brigade Scouting achievement. To test his ideas while writing Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell conceived of an experimental camp, creating a program to take place on Brownsea Island during the summer of 1907.
He invited Major Kenneth McLaren, to attend the camp as an assistant. Baden-Powell had visited Brownsea Island as a boy with his brothers, it covers 560 acres of woodland and open areas, features two lakes. The island suited his needs for the camp as it was isolated from the mainland and hence from the press, yet was only a short ferry trip from the town of Poole, making for easy logistics. Baden-Powell invited boys from different social backgrounds to the camp, a revolutionary idea during the class-conscious Edwardian era. Eleven came from the well-to-do private boarding schools of Eton and Harrow sons of Baden-Powell's friends. Seven came from the Boys' Brigade at Bournemouth, three came from the Brigade at Poole & Hamworthy. Baden-Powell's nine-year-old nephew Donald Baden-Powell attended; the camp fee was dependent on means: one pound for the public school boys, three shillings and sixpence for the others. The boys were arranged into four patrols, designated as the Wolves, Ravens and Curlews.
It is uncertain if 21 boys attended the camp. At least four authors list attendance at 20 boys, that they were organized into five patrols with Baden-Powell's nephew Donald as camp orderly; these sources included an article in The Scout, Sir Percy Everett in The First Ten Years and Rover Word, E. E. Reynolds in The Scout Movement. In 1964, William Hillcourt added the fourth Rodney brother, Simon, in Two Lives of a Hero, bringing the total to 21; this evidence was supported by the oldest Rodney brother the 8th Baron Rodney. The reasons why Simon Rodney was not listed by the other authors is not clear, but evidence that he was present and the 6th member of the Curlews Patrol, was recounted by Scouting historian Colin Walker; as this was the first Boy Scouting event, the boys did not have uniform shirts, but they did wear khaki scarves and were presented with brass fleur-de-lis badges, the first use of the Scout emblem. They wore a coloured knot on their shoulder indicating their patrol: green for Bulls, blue for Wolves, yellow for Curlews, red for Ravens.
The patrol leader carried a staff with a flag depicting the patrol animal. After passing tests on knots and the national flag, they were given another brass badge, a scroll with the words Be Prepared, to wear below the fleur-de-lis; each patrol camped in an army bell tent. The camp began each day with a blast from a kudu horn that Baden-Powell had found in the Somabula forest during the Matabele campaign of 1896, he used the same kudu horn to open the Coming of Age Jamboree 22 years in 1929. The day began at 6:00 a.m. with cocoa, flag break and prayers, followed by breakfast at 8:00 a.m. Followed the morning exercise of the subject of the day, as well as bathing, if deemed necessary. After lunch there was a strict siesta, followed by the afternoon activity based on the subject of the day. At 5:00 p.m. the day ended with games, campfire yarns and prayers. Baden-Powell made full use of his personal fame as the hero of the Siege of Mafeking. For many of the participants, the highlights of the camp were his campfire yarns of his African experiences, the Zulu "Ingonyama" chant, translating to "he is a lion".
Turning in for the night was compulsory for every patrol at 9:00 p.m. regardless of age. Each day was based on a different theme: Day 1 was preliminary, day 2 was campaigning, day 3 was observation, day 4 for woodcraft, day 5 was chivalry, day 6 was saving a life, day 7 was patriotism, day 8 was the conclusion; the participant