British Formula 3 International Series

The British Formula Three Championship was an international motor racing series that took place in the United Kingdom with a small number of events in mainland Europe. It was a junior-level feeder formula, its final official title was the Cooper Tires British Formula 3 International Series. Notable former champions included Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, Emerson Fittipaldi, Nelson Piquet, Ayrton Senna, Mika Häkkinen, Rubens Barrichello, Takuma Sato, Daniel Ricciardo; the first Formula Three championship to take place in the UK was the Autosport F3 championship held in 1951, won by Eric Brandon. By 1954, it had evolved into a national-level series and was organised by the British Racing and Sports Car Club; this was the 500cc period of Formula Three, active in the UK and other countries until 1959, at which point Formula Three was adapted into Formula Junior. In this period, there were two or three series running concurrently and a single national series had yet to be established; the FIA reintroduced Formula Three in 1964 using a one-litre engine formula, there were two F3 championships held in the UK that year.

This was not the last occasion of two or more F3 championships running concurrently in the post-1964 era: from 1970 to 1973, there were three regional series and there were two series between and 1978, with many drivers running in both. From 1979 onwards, there would be a single championship as the BARC and BRDC combined their series into the Vandervell British F3 Championship, renamed for sponsorship reasons to the Marlboro British F3 Championship and the Lucas British F3 Championship. In 1974, the engine capacity was raised to two litres, which remained the engine formula all the way until the championship's demise some 40 years later. In 1984, the series adopted a B class for competitors with older chassis, which helped grid sizes to grow in the 1980s, renamed in 2000 as the Scholarship class and the National class. In 2004, the organisation of the series was taken over by SRO, which began to run the series alongside the British GT Championship. Five years the series declined an invitation to join the support bill of the British Touring Car Championship, which attracted larger crowds than the British F3/GT meetings run by SRO.

However, rising costs in the late 2000s as a result of the arrival of big-spending engine manufacturers such as Mercedes-Benz and Volkswagen and hosting rounds abroad, combined with the revival of an FIA-backed European Formula 3 Championship in 2012, starved the British series of grid numbers, which were down to the mid-teens by 2012. Facing a shortfall of entries in 2013, the calendar was cut from 10 to just four meetings in a bid to save the series; the following year saw the calendar back up to seven meetings, but grids remained small, with some races attracting as few as five cars. In October 2014, it was announced that the 2014 season would be the final season of the British Formula Three Championship after a planned merger with the German Formula Three Championship fell through. Like most Formula Three championships, competitors in British F3 were permitted to use any eligible chassis, but in practice few competitors deviated from the Dallara after the Italian marque's arrival in 1993.

Since TOM'S, Mygale and Lola have been among those to take on the might of the Italian marque without success. Prior to Dallara's domination and Reynard were the pacesetting chassis, with March being the chassis of choice for much of the 1970s. Two engine manufacturers – AMG-Mercedes and Volkswagen – were represented on a full-time basis at the time of the series' demise; the Mugen-Honda engine was the dominant powerplant of the 1990s and the early-to-mid 2000s, prior to the arrival of Mercedes in 2006, although other manufacturers, including Toyota, Vauxhall/Opel and Mitsubishi enjoyed success in the past. All entrants in the series had to use control tyres from a single supplier. Since 1982, these were manufactured by Avon Tyres, which from the 2009 season onwards were re-branded as Cooper Tires, as Cooper became the championship's official title sponsor. European Formula 3 Championship Formula 3 Euro Series List of British Formula Three champions Official British F3 International website British Formula 3 Championship at

Nicholas Pandolfi

Nicholas Pandolfi known as Nick Pandolfi, is an English actor, voice artist & radio presenter, who has worked for the BBC and Global Radio. He was named BBC Local Radio "Presenter of the Year" at the 2004 Frank Gillard Awards and won the bronze in the category in 2006 for his work at BBC Radio Suffolk, he left the station in 2007. He has presented the breakfast programme at Town 102 in Ipswich, Suffolk since 2011, he has worked with SGR FM, BBC Radio Suffolk and London's Liberty Radio. He played the character Matthew Cartwright in 12 episodes of the BBC children's television series Grange Hill between 1981 and 1982. In 1989 he appeared in the film Reunion. Nicholas Pandolfi Online Nicholas Pandolfi on IMDb

A Choice Not an Echo

In 1964, Phyllis Schlafly self-published one of her most famous books, A Choice Not an Echo. This book was the first of Schlafly's 19 authored texts, sold 3 million copies, granting her national attention as a conservative activist. Schlafly published this book in support of Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater, hoping to help him triumph in the California Primary, thus granting him the ability to be nominated for president. Schlafly’s secondary motivation behind the publishing of A Choice Not an Echo was to break control of the "Eastern Establishment" over the republican party. In other words, this book served as an exposition of the covert influence that “kingmakers” had on Republican primary nominations. Prior to 1963, Phyllis Schlafly had prepared a whole series of Republican speeches that she hoped to deliver. However, after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, she deemed it inappropriate to give Anti-Democratic speeches after his death. Therefore, Schlafly altered course and wrote a speech called “How Political Conventions Are Stolen” in December of 1963 and delivered it all throughout January and February the following year.

However, Schlafly hoped to create a permanent impact with her writing and thus tasked herself to convert her speech into a book. By setting up her own publisher, the Pere Marquette Press, Schlafly was able to self-publish her book that she soon distributed in mass quantities, she sent copies to the Republican National Convention in 1964 urging people to read her book and sent 5000 copies to a Yurok Convention in California. By the following weekend, Schlafly’s book had statewide distribution in California and had sold over half a million copies by May to help support Barry Goldwater’s campaign. Phyllis’s book gives in-depth accounts of Kingmakers’ influence on Republican nominations and national elections starting in the 1940s, continuing all the way to the presidential race of 1964, in which Barry Goldwater, a former student at University of Arizona who dropped after one year, ran; as a Republican party insider and political activist, Schlafly gives first hand accounts of kingmakers silencing grassroots republicans who threatened the party establishment.

She begins with the 1940 election, in which the Republican establishment worked against Robert Taft, because his father, president William Howard Taft, played a major role in opposing the Federal Reserve. Taft lost the nomination to Wendell Willkie, a former democrat and socialist who Schlafly did not see as a “true republican”. In the 1952 primaries, Taft was on the rise again, leading against Eisenhower. Schlafly details how republican kingmakers again intervened, orchestrating rump meetings in key states and convincing democratic representatives to nominate Goldwater delegates; the republican establishment called on democratic nominators to hand the election to Eisenhower, allowing him to narrowly defeat Taft again. Taft attributed his defeat to “New York financial interests”; this pattern continued in elections. After Goldwater won the 1954 Republican primaries, he was abandoned by influential establishment Republicans in the general election, lost to Eisenhower. After Eisenhower’s election, Schlafly excused his lack of strong republican policies, citing his lack of political experience.

Taft, attributed this inaction to Eisenhower being a “compassionate conservative”, a liberal leaning republican. He saw Eisenhower’s presidency as yet another “echo”, calling it a “dime store New Deal.”Interference in republican presidential nomination processes continued throughout the 20th century, are detailed by Schlafly. Her call to voters to remain staunchly supportive of real, anti-establishment republican candidates was a key factor in the success of Barry Goldwater in the 1964 primaries. Phyllis Schlafly’s “A Choice Not an Echo” was a key factor in Barry Goldwater’s securing of the 1964 republican nomination. In preceding months, Goldwater was close to winning the nomination, but needed to win a major primary in order to do so; the California primary, was key if Goldwater were to win the republican nomination. The liberal New York governor Nelson Rockefeller contended Goldwater in the California primary, a close race. Conservative lobbyists and volunteers, traveled to the most important precincts and handed out more than fifty thousand copies of “A Choice Not an Echo.”

Schlafly’s book was evidently influential: studies showed that Goldwater had secured narrow victories in many of these precincts. Goldwater won the California primary, got the Republican presidential nomination. Schlafly’s influence through “A Choice Not an Echo” extends past this, as the nomination for Goldwater spurred Reagan to make his “A Time for Choosing” speech, run for governor of California, the presidency. Chapter 12 of A Choice Not an Echo is titled "Anybody but Goldwater." In this crucial chapter of her book, Schlafly focuses in on the work of the "kingmakers," exposing their attempts to prevent Goldwater from securing the popular republican vote. For example, Schlafly references "The chief propaganda organ of the secret kingmakers, The New York Times," demonstrating the tension between Goldwater and the Eastern establishment in the following sentence: "The most bitter resistance to Senator Goldwater centers in the "eastern, internationalist power structure that for two decades has dictated Republican nominations.

The members of that elite will not relinquish their party to Barry Goldwater." Schlafly referenc