Are You Sure? (The Allisons song)
"Are You Sure?" is a song by British pop duo The Allisons, that represented the United Kingdom at the Eurovision Song Contest 1961, performed in English. The song was performed 15th on the night of the contest, held on 18 March 1961, following Luxembourg's Jean-Claude Pascal with "Nous les amoureux", preceding Italy's Betty Curtis with "Al di là"; the song received 24 points, placing 2nd in a field of 16, the third consecutive second place Eurovision finish for the UK for whom two subsequent Eurovision entrants would be second-place finishers before "Puppet on a String" by Sandie Shaw would give the UK its first Eurovision victory at Eurovision 1967. "Are You Sure?" was the first UK Eurovision entrant to become a Top Ten hit reaching #2 UK, the best chart showing for a UK Eurovision entrant until "Puppet on a String" by Sandie Shaw reached #1 in 1967. The song was succeeded as the UK representative at the 1962 Contest by Ronnie Carroll with "Ring-A-Ding Girl"; the lyrics are memorable for a unique example of the bizarre grammatical error "Comes tomorrow, you won't want me"
Guinness is a dark Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness at St. James's Gate, Ireland, in 1759, it is one of the most successful beer brands worldwide, brewed in 50 countries, available in over 120. Sales in 2011 amounted to 850 million litres, it is popular with the Irish, both in Ireland and abroad. In spite of declining consumption since 2001, it is still the best-selling alcoholic drink in Ireland. Where Guinness & Co. Brewery makes €2 billion worth annually. Guinness' flavour derives from malted barley and roasted unmalted barley, a modern development, not becoming part of the grist until the mid-20th century. For many years, a portion of aged brew was blended with freshly brewed beer to give a sharp lactic acid flavour. Although Guinness's palate still features a characteristic "tang", the company has refused to confirm whether this type of blending still occurs; the draught beer's thick, creamy head comes from mixing the beer with carbon dioxide. The company moved its headquarters to London at the beginning of the Anglo-Irish Trade War in 1932.
In 1997, Guinness Plc merged with Grand Metropolitan to form the multinational alcoholic-drinks producer Diageo plc, based out of London. Arthur Guinness started brewing ales in 1759 at Dublin. On 31 December 1759, he signed a 9,000 year lease at £45 per annum for the unused brewery. Ten years on 19 May 1769, Guinness first exported his ale: he shipped six-and-a-half barrels to Great Britain. Arthur Guinness started selling the dark beer porter in 1778; the first Guinness beers to use the term were Single Stout and Double Stout in the 1840s. Throughout the bulk of its history, Guinness produced only three variations of a single beer type: porter or single stout, double or extra and foreign stout for export. "Stout" referred to a beer's strength, but shifted meaning toward body and colour. Porter was referred to as "plain", as mentioned in the famous refrain of Flann O'Brien's poem "The Workman's Friend": "A pint of plain is your only man."Already one of the top-three British and Irish brewers, Guinness's sales soared from 350,000 barrels in 1868 to 779,000 barrels in 1876.
In October 1886 Guinness became a public company, was averaging sales of 1,138,000 barrels a year. This was despite the brewery's refusal to either offer its beer at a discount. Though Guinness owned no public houses, the company was valued at £6 million and shares were twenty times oversubscribed, with share prices rising to a 60 per cent premium on the first day of trading; the breweries pioneered several quality control efforts. The brewery hired the statistician William Sealy Gosset in 1899, who achieved lasting fame under the pseudonym "Student" for techniques developed for Guinness Student's t-distribution and the more known Student's t-test. By 1900 the brewery was operating unparalleled welfare schemes for its 5,000 employees. By 1907 the welfare schemes were costing the brewery £40,000 a year, one-fifth of the total wages bill; the improvements were supervised by Sir John Lumsden. By 1914, Guinness was producing 2,652,000 barrels of beer a year, more than double that of its nearest competitor Bass, was supplying more than 10 per cent of the total UK beer market.
In the 1930s, Guinness became the seventh largest company in the world. Before 1939, if a Guinness brewer wished to marry a Catholic, his resignation was requested. According to Thomas Molloy, writing in the Irish Independent, "It had no qualms about selling drink to Catholics but it did everything it could to avoid employing them until the 1960s."Guinness thought they brewed their last porter in 1973. In the 1970s, following declining sales, the decision was taken to make Guinness Extra Stout more "drinkable"; the gravity was subsequently reduced, the brand was relaunched in 1981. Pale malt was used for the first time, isomerized hop extract began to be used. In 2014, two new porters were introduced: Dublin Porter. Guinness acquired the Distillers Company in 1986; this led to a scandal and criminal trial concerning the artificial inflation of the Guinness share price during the takeover bid engineered by the chairman, Ernest Saunders. A subsequent £5.2 million success fee paid to an American lawyer and Guinness director, Tom Ward, was the subject of the case Guinness plc v Saunders, in which the House of Lords declared that the payment had been invalid.
In the 1980s, as the IRA's bombing campaign spread to London and the rest of Britain, Guinness considered scrapping the harp as its logo. The company merged with Grand Metropolitan in 1997 to form Diageo. Due to controversy over the merger, the company was maintained as a separate entity within Diageo and has retained the rights to the product and all associated trademarks of Guinness; the Guinness brewery in Park Royal, London closed in 2005. The production of all Guinness sold in the UK and Ireland was moved to St. James's Gate Brewery, Dublin. Guinness has been referred to as "that black stuff". Guinness had a fleet of ships and yachts; the Irish Sunday Independent newspaper reported on 17 June 2007 that Diageo intended to close the historic St James's Gate plant in Dublin and move to a greenfield site on the outskirts of the city. This news caused some controversy; the following day, the Irish Daily Mail ran a follow-up story with a double page spread complete with images and a history of the plant since 1759.
Diageo said that talk of a move was pure speculation but in the face of mounting speculation in the wake of the Sunday Independent article, the company confirmed that it is undertaking a "significant review of its operations"
A photograph is an image created by light falling on a photosensitive surface photographic film or an electronic image sensor, such as a CCD or a CMOS chip. Most photographs are created using a camera, which uses a lens to focus the scene's visible wavelengths of light into a reproduction of what the human eye would see; the process and practice of creating such images is called photography. The word photograph was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek φῶς, meaning "light," and γραφή, meaning "drawing, writing," together meaning "drawing with light." The first permanent photograph, a contact-exposed copy of an engraving, was made in 1822 using the bitumen-based "heliography" process developed by Nicéphore Niépce. The first photographs of a real-world scene, made using a camera obscura, followed a few years but Niépce's process was not sensitive enough to be practical for that application: a camera exposure lasting for hours or days was required. In 1829 Niépce entered into a partnership with Louis Daguerre and the two collaborated to work out a similar but more sensitive and otherwise improved process.
After Niépce's death in 1833 Daguerre concentrated on silver halide-based alternatives. He exposed a silver-plated copper sheet to iodine vapor, creating a layer of light-sensitive silver iodide, he named this first practical process for making photographs with a camera the daguerreotype, after himself. Its existence was announced to the world on 7 January 1839 but working details were not made public until 19 August. Other inventors soon made improvements which reduced the required exposure time from a few minutes to a few seconds, making portrait photography practical and popular; the daguerreotype had shortcomings, notably the fragility of the mirror-like image surface and the particular viewing conditions required to see the image properly. Each was a unique opaque positive. Inventors set about working out improved processes. By the end of the 1850s the daguerreotype had been replaced by the less expensive and more viewed ambrotype and tintype, which made use of the introduced collodion process.
Glass plate collodion negatives used to make prints on albumen paper soon became the preferred photographic method and held that position for many years after the introduction of the more convenient gelatin process in 1871. Refinements of the gelatin process have remained the primary black-and-white photographic process to this day, differing in the sensitivity of the emulsion and the support material used, glass a variety of flexible plastic films, along with various types of paper for the final prints. Color photography is as old as black-and-white, with early experiments including John Herschel's Anthotype prints in 1842, the pioneering work of Louis Ducos du Hauron in the 1860s, the Lippmann process unveiled in 1891, but for many years color photography remained little more than a laboratory curiosity, it first became a widespread commercial reality with the introduction of Autochrome plates in 1907, but the plates were expensive and not suitable for casual snapshot-taking with hand-held cameras.
The mid-1930s saw the introduction of Kodachrome and Agfacolor Neu, the first easy-to-use color films of the modern multi-layer chromogenic type. These early processes produced transparencies for use in slide projectors and viewing devices, but color prints became popular after the introduction of chromogenic color print paper in the 1940s; the needs of the motion picture industry generated a number of special processes and systems the best-known being the now-obsolete three-strip Technicolor process. Non-digital photographs are produced with a two-step chemical process. In the two-step process the light-sensitive film captures a negative image. To produce a positive image, the negative is most transferred onto photographic paper. Printing the negative onto transparent film stock is used to manufacture motion picture films. Alternatively, the film is processed to invert the negative image; such positive images are mounted in frames, called slides. Before recent advances in digital photography, transparencies were used by professionals because of their sharpness and accuracy of color rendition.
Most photographs published in magazines were taken on color transparency film. All photographs were monochromatic or hand-painted in color. Although methods for developing color photos were available as early as 1861, they did not become available until the 1940s or 1950s, so, until the 1960s most photographs were taken in black and white. Since color photography has dominated popular photography, although black and white is still used, being easier to develop than color. Panoramic format images can be taken with cameras like the Hasselblad Xpan on standard film. Since the 1990s, panoramic photos have been available on the Advanced Photo System film. APS was developed by several of the major film manufacturers to provide a film with different formats and computerized options available, though APS panoramas were created using a mask in panorama-capable cameras, far less desirable than a true panoramic camera, which achieves its effect through a wider film format. APS has been discontinued; the advent of the microcomputer and d
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical and secular music. While a more precise term is used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820, this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods; the central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, known as the common-practice period. The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the ancient music period, before 500 AD the early music period, which includes the Medieval including the ars antiqua the ars nova the ars subtilior the Renaissance eras. Baroque the galant music period the common-practice period, which includes Baroque the galant music period Classical Romantic eras the 20th and 21st centuries which includes: the modern that overlaps from the late-19th century, impressionism that overlaps from the late-19th century neoclassicism, predominantly in the inter-war period the high modern the postmodern eras the experimental contemporary European art music is distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.
Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music; this can leave less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, which are heard in non-European art music and in popular-music styles such as jazz and blues. Another difference is that whereas most popular styles adopt the song form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, fugue and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera and mass; the term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.
Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain, such as the use of music notation and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works. Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble—and the works written for it—have become a defining feature of classical music; the key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. This score determines details of rhythm, and, where two or more musicians are involved, how the various parts are coordinated.
The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic that would be difficult to achieve in the heat of live improvisation. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago. Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced; that said, the score does allow the interpreter to make choices on. For example, if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, it is not known how fast the piece should be played; as well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or how the chordal instrument should play the chords, which are not notated in the part.
The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas or pauses, the use of effects such as vibrato or glissando. Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and b
New Musical Express is a British music journalism website and former magazine, published since 1952. It was the first British paper to include a singles chart, in the edition of 14 November 1952. In the 1970s it became the best-selling British music newspaper. During the period 1972 to 1976, it was associated with gonzo journalism became associated with punk rock through the writings of Julie Burchill, Paul Morley and Tony Parsons, it started as a music newspaper, moved toward a magazine format during the 1980s and 1990s, changing from newsprint in 1998. An online version, NME.com, was launched in 1996. It became the world's biggest standalone music site, with over sixteen million users per month. With newsstand sales falling across the UK magazine sector, the magazine's paid circulation in the first half of 2014 was 15,830. In 2013, the list of NME's The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time and the way it was conceived was criticized by the media; the printed magazine NME was relaunched in September 2015 to be distributed nationally as a free publication.
The first average circulation published in February 2016 of 307,217 copies per week was the highest in the brand's history, beating the previous best of 306,881, recorded in 1964 at the height of the Beatles' fame. By December 2017, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, average distribution of NME had fallen to 289,432 copies a week, although its publisher Time Inc. UK claimed to have more than 13m global unique users per month, including 3m in the UK. In March 2018, the publisher announced that the print edition of NME would cease publication after 66 years, leaving it as an online-only title. NME's headquarters are in Southwark, England; the brand's current editor is Charlotte Gunn, replacing Mike Williams, who stepped down in February 2018. The paper was established in 1952; the Accordion Times and Musical Express was bought by London music promoter Maurice Kinn, for the sum of £1,000, just 15 minutes before it was due to be closed. It was relaunched as the New Musical Express, was published in a non-glossy tabloid format on standard newsprint.
On 14 November 1952, taking its cue from the US magazine Billboard, it created the first UK Singles Chart, a list of the Top Twelve best-selling singles. The first of these was, in contrast to more recent charts, a top twelve sourced by the magazine itself from sales in regional stores around the UK; the first number one was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino. During the 1960s the paper championed the new British groups emerging at the time; the NME circulation peaked under Andy Gray with a figure of 306,881 for the period from January to June 1964. The Beatles and the Rolling Stones were featured on the front cover; these and other artists appeared at the NME Poll Winners' Concert, an awards event that featured artists voted as most popular by the paper's readers. The concert featured a ceremony where the poll winners would collect their awards; the NME Poll Winners' Concerts took place between 1959 and 1972. From 1964 onwards they were filmed and transmitted on British television a few weeks after they had taken place.
In the mid-1960s, the NME was dedicated to pop while its older rival, Melody Maker, was known for its more serious coverage of music. Other competing titles included Record Mirror, which led the way in championing American rhythm and blues, Disc, which focused on chart news; the latter part of the decade saw the paper chart the rise of psychedelia and the continued dominance of British groups of the time. During this period some sections of pop music began to be designated as rock; the paper became engaged in a sometimes tense rivalry with Melody Maker. By the early 1970s, NME had lost ground to Melody Maker, as its coverage of music had failed to keep place with the development of rock music during the early years of psychedelia and progressive rock. In early 1972 the paper found itself on the verge of closure by its owner IPC. According to Nick Kent: After sales had plummeted to 60,000 and a review of guitar instrumentalist Duane Eddy had been printed which began with the immortal words "On this, his 35th album, we find Duane in as good as voice as ever," the NME had been told to rethink its policies or die on the vine.
Alan Smith was made editor in 1972, was told by IPC to turn things around or face closure. To achieve this and his assistant editor Nick Logan raided the underground press for writers such as Charles Shaar Murray and Nick Kent, recruited other writers such as Tony Tyler, Ian MacDonald and Californian Danny Holloway. According to The Economist, the New Musical Express "started to champion underground, up-and-coming music.... NME became the gateway to a more rebellious world. First came glamrock, bands such as T. Rex, came punk....by 1977 it had become the place to keep in touch with a cultural revolution, enthralling the nation's listless youth. Bands such as Sex Pistols, X-Ray Spex and Generation X were regular cover stars, eulogised by writers such as Julie Burchill and Tony Parsons, whose nihilistic tone narrated the punk years perfectly." By the time Smith handed the editor's chair to Logan in mid-1973, the paper was selling nearly 300,000 copies per week and was outstripping Melody Maker, Record Mirror and Sounds.
According to MacDonald: I think all the other papers knew by 1974 that NME had become the best music paper in Britain. We had most of the best writers and photographers, the best layouts
Al Martino was an American singer and actor. He had his greatest success as a singer between the early 1950s and mid-1970s, being described as "one of the great Italian American pop crooners", became well known as an actor for his role as singer Johnny Fontane in The Godfather. Jasper "Al" Cini was born in Pennsylvania; the name Jasper was an anglicisation of Gasparino. His parents were immigrants from Abruzzo, who ran a construction business, while growing up, he worked alongside his brothers and Frank as a bricklayer, he aspired to become a singer, emulating artists such as Al Jolson and Perry Como, by the success of a family friend, Alfredo Cocozza, who had changed his name to Mario Lanza. After serving with the United States Navy in World War II, during which he was part of, injured in, the Iwo Jima invasion, Cini began his singing career. Encouraged by Lanza, he adopted the stage name Al Martino—based on the name of his good friend Lorraine Cianfrani's husband Alfred Martin Cianfrani—and began singing in local nightclubs.
In 1948, he moved to New York City, recorded some sides for the Jubilee label, in 1952, won first place on Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts television program with a performance of Como's hit "If". As a result, he won a recording contract with the Philadelphia-based independent record label BBS, where he recorded "Here in My Heart". Lanza's label RCA Victor had asked him to record the song, but Martino called and pleaded with him to let Martino's version have a clear run; the song spent three weeks at No. 1 on the US pop charts in June 1952, earning Martino a gold disc, in the year reached the top of the UK charts. It was number one in the first UK Singles chart, published by the New Musical Express on November 14, 1952, putting him into the Guinness Book of World Records. "Here in My Heart" remained in the top position for nine weeks in the UK, a record for the longest consecutive run at number one, that has only since been beaten by five other songs. The record's success led to a deal with Capitol Records, he released three more singles: "Take My Heart", "Rachel", "When You're Mine" through 1953, all of which hit the U.
S. top 40. However, his success attracted the attention of the Mafia, which bought out Martino's management contract and ordered him to pay $75,000 as a safeguard for their investment. After making a down-payment to appease them, he moved to Britain, his popularity allowed him to continue to perform and record in the UK, headlining at the London Palladium and having six further British chart hits in the period up to 1955, including "Now" and "Wanted". However, his work received no exposure back in the US. In 1958, thanks to the intervention of a family friend, Martino was allowed to return to the U. S. and resume his recording career, but he faced difficulties in re-establishing himself with the arrival of rock and roll. In 1959, Martino signed with 20th Fox Records; the success of his 1962 album The Exciting Voice of Al Martino secured him a new contract with Capitol, was followed by a Italian-language album, The Italian Voice of Al Martino, which featured his version of the internationally popular song "Al Di Là".
He made several high-profile television appearances, helping to re-establish his visibility. In 1963, he had his biggest U. S. chart success with "I Love You Because", a cover of Leon Payne's 1950 country music hit. Arranged by Belford Hendricks, Martino's version went to number three on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 chart, number one on the Easy Listening chart; the album of the same name went top 10 in the Billboard 200. Martino had four other U. S. top 10 hits in 1963 and 1964 - "Painted, Tainted Rose", "I Love You More and More Every Day", "Tears and Roses", "Silver Bells". He sang the title song for the 1964 film, Hush, Sweet Charlotte. One of his biggest hits was "Spanish Eyes", achieving several platinum discs for sales. Recorded in 1965, the song reached number five on the UK Singles chart when reissued in 1973; the song, with a tune by Bert Kaempfert titled "Moon Over Naples", is among the 50 most-played songs worldwide. Martino's run of chart success faded after the mid-1960s, although many of his records continued to reach the U.
S. Hot 100. Another hit was a disco version of "Volare". In 1976, it reached number one on the Italian and Flemish charts, was in the top 10 in Spain, the Netherlands, France, as well as in many other European countries. In 1993, Martino recorded a new studio album with German producer Dieter Bohlen; the single "Spanish Ballerina" reached number 93 in the German single charts. Apart from singing, Martino played the role of Johnny Fontane in the 1972 film The Godfather, as well as singing the film's theme, "Speak Softly Love", he played the same role in The Godfather Part III and The Godfather Trilogy: 1901–1980. He returned to acting, playing aging crooner Sal Stevens in the short film Cutout, appearing in film festivals around the world in 2006. Martino was married first to Jenny Furini, he had four children: Debbie Martino, Alison Martino, Alfred Cini, Alana Cini. Daughter Alison Martino is a writer and television producer of such programs as Mysteries
Robert Frederick Zenon Geldof, is an Irish singer-songwriter, political activist and occasional actor. He rose to prominence as the lead singer of the Irish rock band The Boomtown Rats in the late 1970s and early 1980s, alongside the punk rock movement; the band had Number One hits with his compositions "Rat Trap" and "I Don't Like Mondays". Geldof co-wrote "Do They Know It's Christmas?", one of the best-selling singles of all time, starred in Pink Floyd's 1982 film Pink Floyd – The Wall as "Pink". Geldof is recognised for his activism anti-poverty efforts concerning Africa. In 1984 he and Midge Ure founded the charity supergroup Band Aid to raise money for famine relief in Ethiopia, they went on to organise the charity super-concert Live Aid the following year and the Live 8 concerts in 2005. Geldof serves as an adviser to the ONE Campaign, founded by fellow Irishman Bono, is a member of the Africa Progress Panel, a group of ten distinguished individuals who advocate at the highest levels for equitable and sustainable development in Africa.
A single father, Geldof has been outspoken for the fathers' rights movement. Geldof was appointed Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Elizabeth II, is a recipient of the Man of Peace title which recognises individuals who have made "an outstanding contribution to international social justice and peace", among numerous other awards and nominations. In 2005 he received the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music. Geldof was brought up in Dún Laoghaire, Ireland, a son of Robert and Evelyn Geldof, his paternal grandfather, Zenon Geldof, was a hotel chef. His paternal grandmother, Amelia Falk, was a British Jew from London; when Geldof was six or seven, his mother, Evelyn, 41, died of a cerebral haemorrhage. Geldof attended Blackrock College, where he was bullied for being a poor rugby player and for his middle name, Zenon. After work as a slaughterman, a road navvy and pea canner in Wisbech, he was hired as a music journalist in Vancouver, British Columbia, for The Georgia Straight.
He guest hosted the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation children's program Switchback. Returning to Ireland in 1975, he became lead singer of the Boomtown Rats, a rock group linked with the punk movement. In 1978, The Boomtown Rats had their first No. 1 single in the UK with "Rat Trap", the first new wave chart-topper in Britain. In 1979, they gained international attention with their second UK No. 1, "I Don't Like Mondays". This was both controversial. Geldof had written it in the aftermath of Brenda Ann Spencer's attempted massacre at an elementary school in San Diego, California in 1979. In 1980, The Boomtown Rats released the album Mondo Bongo, its single "Up All Night" was a huge hit in the U. S. and its video was played on MTV. Geldof became known as a colourful interview subject; the Boomtown Rats' first appearance on Ireland's The Late Late Show saw Geldof as deliberately brusque to host Gay Byrne and during his interview he attacked Irish politicians and the Catholic Church, which he blamed for many of the country's problems.
He responded to nuns in the audience who tried to shout him down by saying they had "an easy life with no material worries in return for which they gave themselves body and soul to the church". He criticised Blackrock College; the interview caused uproar. In January 2013, Geldof announced The Boomtown Rats would be reforming to play together for the first time since 1986 at that year's Isle of Wight Festival in June, they have subsequently announced further tour dates and released a new CD Back to Boomtown: Classic Rats Hits. Geldof left the Boomtown Rats in 1986, to launch a solo career and publish his autobiography, Is That It?, a UK best-seller. His first solo records sold reasonably well and spawned the hit singles "This Is The World Calling" and "The Great Song of Indifference", he occasionally performed with other artists, such as David Gilmour and Thin Lizzy. A performance of "Comfortably Numb" with Gilmour is documented in the 2002 DVD David Gilmour in Concert. In 1992, he performed at the Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert with the surviving members of Queen at the old Wembley Stadium, singing a song he jokingly claimed to have co-written with Mercury, called "Too Late God".
The song was co-written by Karl Hyde. Geldof has worked as a DJ for XFM radio. In 1998, he erroneously announced Ian Dury's death from cancer due to hoax information from a listener, disgruntled at the station's change of ownership; the event caused music paper NME to call Geldof "the world's worst DJ". Along with U2's Bono, he has devoted much time since 2000 to campaigning for debt relief for developing countries, his commitments in this field, including the organisation of the Live 8 concerts, kept Geldof from producing any more musical output since 2001's Sex, Age & Death album. In 2002, he was listed as one of the 100 Greatest Britons in a poll conducted among the general public, despite the fact that he is not British. After Live 8, Geldof returned to his career as a musician by releasing a box set containing all of his solo albums entitled Great Songs of Indifference – The Anthology 1986–2001 in late 2005. Following that release, Geldof toured, albeit with mixed success. In July 2006, Geldof arrived at Milan's Arena Civica, a venue capable of holding 12,000 people, to play a scheduled concert to find that the organisers had not put the tickets on general sale and