Agrostis stolonifera is a perennial grass species in the Poaceae family. Agrostis stolonifera may form mats or tufts; the prostrate stems of this species grow to 0.4–1.0 metre long with 2–10-centimetre long leaf blades and a panicle reaching up to 40 cm in height. The ligule is pointed and up to 5 millimetres long; this differs from common bent, Agrostis capillaris, short and does not come to a point. The leaves are tapering with a blue-grey colour; the grass is not tufted and the spikelets are red and closed within the panicle. It flowers in August, it can be found growing in a variety of habitats including woodlands and meadows, riparian zones, as a pioneer species on disturbed sites. It is native to North Africa, it is possible that it may be to native to northern parts of North America, in any case it has been introduced and naturalised on that continent and in many other places. It is a constituent of wet habitats such as marshy grasslands; some of its species can cope with heavy metals. It can exist up to 2,500 feet.
It is the most used species of Agrostis. It is used for turf in gardens and landscapes on golf courses. Many of the putting greens as well as an increasing number of fairways in the northern USA are creeping bentgrass. Early work in creeping bentgrass transgenics looked at glyphosate-resistance. However, due to easy wind pollination, seeds were dispersed into the environment. A 2004 gene flow study documents gene flow on a landscape level, with a maximum at 21 kilometres and 14 km in sentinel and resident plants observed by scientist, located in nonagronomic places such as irrigation ditches. Other work in transgenic bentgrass looks into salinity tolerance; the improved performance of the transgenic plants was associated with higher relative water content, higher sodium uptake and lower solute leakage in leaf tissues, with higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl- and total phosphorus in root tissues, with higher auxin accumulation rate in the root tissue. This transgenic plant can survive in the presence of 1.7% sodium chloride, while the non transgenic line and wild type plants cannot
Festuca arundinacea is a species of grass known as tall fescue. It is a cool-season perennial C3 species of bunchgrass native to Europe, it is an important forage grass throughout Europe, many cultivars have been used in agriculture. It is an ornamental grass in gardens, a phytoremediation plant; the predominant cultivar found in British pastures is an endophyte-free variety. In its native European environment, tall fescue is found in damp grasslands, river banks, in coastal seashore locations, its distribution is a factor of climatic, other environmental attributes. Tall fescue was introduced into the United States in the late 19th century, but it did not establish itself as a used perennial forage until the 1940s; as in Europe, tall fescue has become an important, well-adapted cool season forage grass for agriculture in the US with many cultivars. In addition to forage, it has become an important grass for soil conservation. Tall fescue is the most heat tolerant of the major cool season grasses.
Tall fescue has a deep root system compared to other cool season grasses. This non-native grass is well adapted to the "transition zone" Mid Atlantic and Southeastern United States and now occupies over 35,000,000 acres. Tall fescue has become an invasive species and noxious weed in native California grasslands and habitats, such as the California coastal prairie plant community; the dominant cultivar grown in the United States is Kentucky 31. In 1931 E. N. Fergus, a professor of agronomy at the University of Kentucky, collected seed from a population on a hillside in Menifee County, Kentucky although formal cultivar release did not happen until 1943. Fergus heard about this "wonder grass" while judging a sorghum syrup competition in a nearby town, he wanted to see this grass because it was green and growing well on a sloped hillside during a drought. While visiting the site he took seed samples with him. With this seed he conducted variety trials, initiated seed increase nurseries, lauded its performance.
It was released as Kentucky 31 in 1943 and today it dominates grasslands in the humid southeastern US. In 1943, Fergus and others recognized this tall fescue cultivar as being vigorous adaptable, able to withstand poor soil conditions, resistant to pests and drought, it is used in pastures and low maintenance situations. Breeders have created numerous cultivars that are dark green with desirable narrower blades than the light green coarse bladed K-31. Tall fescue is the grass on the South Lawn of the White House. Tall fescue is a long-lived perennial bunchgrass species. Photosynthesis occurs throughout the leaves, which form bunches and are thick and wide with prominent veins running parallel the entire length of the blade; the blades have a "toothed" edge which can be felt if fingers are run down the edge of the leaf blade. The underside of the leaf may be shiny. Emerging leaves are rolled in the bud with no prominent ligule. Note that most grasses are folded not rolled, which make this a key identification feature on tall fescue.
The auricles are blunt but may be more clawlike. The culm is round in cross-section; this species of grass has a long growing season and ranges between 2 and 4 feet tall in seedhead stage. Tall fescue spreads through tillering and seed transmission — not by stolons or rhizomes, which are common in many grass species. However, tall fescue may have numerous sterile shoots. There are 227,000 seeds per pound. Found across the mid-Atlantic and Southeast US, tall fescue performs best in soils with pH values between 5.5 and 7. Growth may occur year-round if conditions are adequate, but growth ceases when soil temperature falls below 40 °F. Festuca arundinacea was first described by the German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1771, it was moved to the genus Schedonorus by the Belgian botanist Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier in 1824 and again to the genus Lolium under the name Lolium arundinaceum by Stephen J. Darbyshire in 1993; the genus Schedonorus was resurrected in 1998 and the name Schedonorus arundinaceus Dumort. was conserved against the earlier name Schedonorus arundinaceus Roem.
& Schult. Best known by the name Festuca arundinacea, there is disagreement by taxonomists whether Festuca subgenus Schedonorus is allied more with the genus Lolium or best elevated to genus rank on its own. Tall fescue can be found growing in most soils of the southeast including marginal and poorly drained soils and in areas of low fertility, where stresses occur due to drought and overgrazing; these beneficial attributes are now known to be a result of a symbiotic association with the fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum. This association between tall fescue and the fungal endophyte is a mutualistic symbiotic relationship; the fungus remains intercellular, growing between the cells of the aboveground parts of its grass host. The fungus is asexual, is transmitted to new generations of tall fescue only through seed, a mode known as vertical transmission, thus in nature, the fungus does not live outside the plant. Viability of the fungus in seeds is limited; the tall fescue–endophyte symbiosis confers a competitive advantage to the plant.
Endophyte-infected tall fescue compared to endophyte-free tall fescue deters herbivory by insects and mammals, bestows drought resistance, disease resistance. In return for shelter, seed tra
Festuca rubra is a species of grass known by the common name red fescue or creeping red fescue. It can tolerate many habitats and climates, it is best adapted to well-drained soils in temperate climates. Wild animals browse it, but it has not been important for domestic forage due to low productivity and palatability, it is an ornamental plant for gardens. Festuca rubra has sub-species that have rhizomes and/or form bunchgrass tufts, it exists in neutral and acidic soils. It can grow between 20 cm tall. Like all fescues, the leaves are needle like, making it less palatable to livestock; the swards that it forms are not as tufted as sheep's wavy hair grass. The tufted nature is; the leaves are bright green. There are 4 to 10 spikelet flowers; the ligule is short and blunt. Festuca rubra, as red fescue or creeping red fescue, is cultivated as an ornamental plant for use as a turfgrass and groundcover, it can be left unmowed, or trimmed for a lush meadow-like look. There are many subspecies, many cultivars have been bred for the horticulture trade.
Native grasses of California Festuca Rubra, detailed ecology at the Fire Effects Information System, US Forest Service Festuca rubra in the CalPhotos Photo Database, University of California, Berkeley Jepson Manual Treatment: Festuca rubra "Tips for Fine Fall Fescue", article at Learn2Grow.com USDA Plants Profile – Festuca rubra
British NVC community MG10
British NVC community MG10 is one of the mesotrophic grassland communities in the British National Vegetation Classification system. It is one of three communities associated with poorly drained permanent pastures, it is a widespread community throughout the British lowlands. There are three subcommunities; the following constant species are found in this community: Creeping Bent Yorkshire-fog Soft Rush Creeping Buttercup No rare species are associated with this community. This community is widespread in Wales. There are three subcommunities: the so-called typical subcommunity the Juncus inflexus subcommunity the Iris pseudoacorus subcommunity Rodwell, J. S. British Plant Communities Volume 3 - Grasslands and montane communities ISBN 0-521-39166-0, ISBN 0-521-62719-2
Yorkshire, formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Due to its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have been subject to periodic reform. Throughout these changes, Yorkshire has continued to be recognised as a geographical territory and cultural region; the name is familiar and well understood across the United Kingdom and is in common use in the media and the military, features in the titles of current areas of civil administration such as North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire and East Riding of Yorkshire. Within the borders of the historic county of Yorkshire are vast stretches of unspoiled countryside; this can be found in the Yorkshire Dales and North York Moors and with the open aspect of some of the major cities. Yorkshire has been named "God's Own County" or "God's Own Country"; the emblem of Yorkshire is the White Rose of the English royal House of York, the most used flag representative of Yorkshire is the White Rose on a blue background, which after nearly fifty years of use, was recognised by the Flag Institute on 29 July 2008.
Yorkshire Day, held annually on 1 August, is a celebration of the general culture of Yorkshire, ranging from its history to its own dialect. Yorkshire is covered by different Government Office Regions. Most of the county falls within Yorkshire and the Humber while the extreme northern part of the county, such as Middlesbrough, Redcar and Startforth, falls within North East England. Small areas in the west of the county are covered by the North West England region. Yorkshire or the County of York was so named as it is the shire of York's Shire. "York" comes from the Viking name for Jórvík. "Shire" is from scir meaning care or official charge. The "shire" suffix is locally pronounced /-ʃə/ "shuh", or /-ʃiə/, a homophone of "sheer". Early inhabitants of Yorkshire were Celts, who formed two separate tribes, the Brigantes and the Parisi; the Brigantes controlled territory which became all of the North Riding of Yorkshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The tribe controlled most of Northern England and more territory than any other Celtic tribe in England.
That they had the Yorkshire area as their heartland is evident in that Isurium Brigantum was the capital town of their civitas under Roman rule. Six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county; the Parisi, who controlled the area that would become the East Riding of Yorkshire, might have been related to the Parisii of Lutetia Parisiorum, Gaul. Their capital was at Petuaria, close to the Humber Estuary. Although the Roman conquest of Britain began in 43 AD, the Brigantes remained in control of their kingdom as a client state of Rome for an extended period, reigned over by the Brigantian monarchs Cartimandua and her husband Venutius; this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes, who were known as the most militant tribe in Britain. Queen Cartimandua left her husband Venutius for his armour bearer, setting off a chain of events which changed control of the region. Cartimandua, due to her good relationship with the Romans, was able to keep control of the kingdom.
At the second attempt, Venutius seized the kingdom, but the Romans, under general Petillius Cerialis, conquered the Brigantes in 71 AD. The fortified city of Eboracum was named as capital of Britannia Inferior and joint capital of all Roman Britain; the emperor Septimius Severus ruled the Roman Empire from Eboracum for the two years before his death. Another emperor, Constantius Chlorus, died in Eboracum during a visit in 306 AD; this saw his son Constantine the Great, who became renowned for his contributions to Christianity, proclaimed emperor in the city. In the early 5th century, the Roman rule ceased with the withdrawal of the last active Roman troops. By this stage, the Western Empire was in intermittent decline. After the Romans left, small Celtic kingdoms arose in the region, including the Kingdom of Ebrauc around York and the Kingdom of Elmet to the west. Elmet remained independent from the Germanic Northumbrian Angles until some time in the early 7th century, when King Edwin of Northumbria expelled its last king and annexed the region.
At its greatest extent, Northumbria stretched from the Irish Sea to the North Sea and from Edinburgh down to Hallamshire in the south. Scandinavian York or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings. Norse monarchy controlled varying amounts of Northumbria from 875 to 954, however the area was invaded and conquered for short periods by England between 927 and 954 before being annexed into England in 954, it was associated with the much longer-lived Kingdom of Dublin throughout this period. An army of Danish Vikings, the Great Heathen Army as its enemies referred to it, invaded Northumbrian territory in 866 AD; the Danes conquered and assumed what is now York and renamed it Jórvík, making it the capital city of a new Danish kingdom under the same name. The area which this kingdom covered included most of Southern Northumbria equivalent to the borders of Yorkshire extending further West.
The Danes went on to conque