British NVC community S1
It is a fairly localised community. There are no subcommunities.
It is a fairly localised community. There are no subcommunities.
Calamagrostis stricta, known as slim-stem small reed grass or narrow small-reed, is a species of bunchgrass in the family Poaceae of the Holarctic Kingdom. The species is perennial and caespitose with elongated rhizomes and 30–100 centimetres long culms which are erect; the leaf-sheaths have a glabrous surface. It leaf-blades are flat and stiff; the leaf-blade have a ribbed and pubescent surface with scaberulous margins the apex of, filiformed. The panicle is inflorescenced and lanceolate with the diameter being 7–20 centimetres by 1–3 centimetres; the main branches of the panicle are appressed and are 3–6 centimetres long while the other branches are terete and scabrous. Its spikelets are solitary and are 3–4 millimetres long, they have pedicelled fertile spikelets which are 0.5–2 millimetres long and have the same features as the branches. The spikelets carry fertile one which have a 0.2 millimetres long rhachilla, pilosed. It callus is hairy with its hairs being 0.6–0.75 millimetres long reaching the lemma.
Its lemma have a toothed apex, truncate and awned. The fertile lemma is both membranous and oblong; the species have an elliptic and hyaline palea, 0.6–0.7 millimetres long of lemma. The glumes are firmer than fertile lemma and are elliptic, with acute apexes and asperulous surfaces; the flowers have two stigmas. They have three stamens which are 2–2.5 millimetres long with it fruits being caryopsis and fusiformed with an additional pericarp. The fruits have a farinosed endosperm and punctiform hilum. Calamagrostis stricta is found into Mongolia and China, it is common in Canada and the United States to which it was introduced
Anglesey is an island off the north coast of Wales with an area of 276 square miles. Anglesey is by the seventh largest in the British Isles. Anglesey is the largest island in the Irish Sea by area, the second most populous island; the ferry port of Holyhead handles more than 2 million passengers each year. The Menai Suspension Bridge, designed by Thomas Telford in 1826, the Britannia Bridge span the Menai Strait to connect Anglesey with the mainland. Anglesey, one of the historic counties of Wales, was administered as part of Gwynedd, but along with Holy Island and other smaller islands, it is now governed by the Isle of Anglesey County Council. Much of this article covers the whole of this administrative area; the majority of Anglesey's inhabitants are Welsh speakers and Ynys Môn, the Welsh name for the island, is used for the UK Parliament and National Assembly constituencies. The population at the 2011 census was 69,751; the island falls within the LL postcode area, covering LL58 to LL78. The name of the island may be derived from the Old Norse.
No record of such an Ǫngli survives, but the place name was used in the Viking raiders as early as the 10th century and was adopted by the Normans during their invasions of Gwynedd. The traditional folk etymology reading the name as the "Island of the Angles" may account for its Norman use but has no merit, although the Angles' name itself is a cognate reference to the shape of the Angeln peninsula. All of these derive from the proposed Proto-Indo-European root *ank-. Through the 18th and 19th centuries and into the 20th, it was spelt Anglesea in documents. Ynys Môn, the island's Welsh name, was first recorded as Latin Mona by various Roman sources, it was known to the Saxons as Monez. The Brittonic original was in the past taken to have meant "Island of the Cow"; this view is untenable, according to modern scientific philology, the etymology remains a mystery. Poetic names for Anglesey include the Old Welsh Ynys Dywyll for its former groves and Ynys y Cedairn for its royal courts. There are numerous megalithic monuments and menhirs on Anglesey, testifying to the presence of humans in prehistory.
Plas Newydd is near one of 28 cromlechs. The Welsh Triads claim. Anglesey has long been associated with the druids. In AD 60 the Roman general Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, determined to break the power of the druids, attacked the island using his amphibious Batavian contingent as a surprise vanguard assault and destroying the shrine and the nemeta. News of Boudica's revolt reached him just after his victory, causing him to withdraw his army before consolidating his conquest; the island was brought into the Roman Empire by Gnaeus Julius Agricola, the Roman governor of Britain, in AD 78. During the Roman occupation, the area was notable for the mining of copper; the foundations of Caer Gybi, a fort in Holyhead, are Roman, the present road from Holyhead to Llanfairpwllgwyngyll was a Roman road. The island was grouped by Ptolemy with Ireland rather than with Britain. British Iron Age and Roman sites have been excavated and coins and ornaments discovered by the 19th century antiquarian William Owen Stanley.
After the Roman departure from Britain in the early 5th century, pirates from Ireland colonised Anglesey and the nearby Llŷn Peninsula. In response to this, Cunedda ap Edern, a Gododdin warlord from Scotland, came to the area and began to drive the Irish out; this was continued by grandson Cadwallon Lawhir ap Einion. As an island, Anglesey was in a good defensive position, so Aberffraw became the site of the court, or Llys, of the Kingdom of Gwynedd. Apart from a devastating Danish raid in 853 it remained the capital until the 13th century, when improvements to the English navy made the location indefensible. Anglesey was briefly the most southerly possession of the Norwegian Empire. After the Irish, the island was invaded by Vikings — some of these raids were noted in famous sagas — and by Saxons, Normans, before falling to Edward I of England in the 13th century. Anglesey is one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales. In medieval times, before the conquest of Wales in 1283, Môn had periods of temporary independence, as it was bequeathed to the heirs of kings as a sub-kingdom of Gwynedd.
The last times this occurred were a few years after 1171, following the death of Owain Gwynedd, when the island was inherited by Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd, between 1246 and c. 1255, when it was granted to Owain Goch as his share of the kingdom. Following the conquest of Wales by Edward I, Anglesey was created a county under the terms of the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284. Prior to this it had been divided into the cantrefi of Aberffraw and Cemaes. During the First World War, the Presbyterian minister and celebrity preacher John Williams toured the island as part of an effort to recruit young men to volunteer for a “just war”. German POWs were kept on the island. By the end of the war, some 1,000 of the island's men had died while on active service. In 1936 the NSPCC opened its first branch on Anglesey. During the Second World War, Anglesey received Italian POWs; the isla
Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county, the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness on the southwestern tip of the county; the county of Cumbria consists of six districts and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million. Cumbria is one of the most sparsely populated counties in the United Kingdom, with 73.4 people per km2. Cumbria is the third largest county in England by area, is bounded to the north by the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders, to the west by the Irish Sea, to the south by Lancashire, to the southeast by North Yorkshire, to the east by County Durham and Northumberland. Cumbria is predominantly rural and contains the Lake District National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered one of England's finest areas of natural beauty, serving as inspiration for artists and musicians.
A large area of the southeast of the county is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park while the east of the county fringes the North Pennines AONB. Much of Cumbria is mountainous, it contains every peak in England over 3,000 feet above sea level, with Scafell Pike at 3,209 feet being the highest point of England. An upland and rural area, Cumbria's history is characterised by invasions and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and the Scots. Notable historic sites in Cumbria include Carlisle Castle, Furness Abbey, Hardknott Roman Fort, Brough Castle and Hadrian's Wall; the county of Cumbria was created in April 1974 through an amalgamation of the administrative counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, to which parts of Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire were added. During the Neolithic period the area contained an important centre of stone axe production, products of which have been found across Great Britain. During this period stone circles and henges began to be built across the county and today'Cumbria has one of the largest number of preserved field monuments in England'.
While not part of the region conquered in the Romans' initial conquest of Britain in 43 AD, most of modern-day Cumbria was conquered in response to a revolt deposing the Roman-aligned ruler of the Brigantes in 69 AD. The Romans built a number of fortifications in the area during their occupation, the most famous being UNESCO World Heritage Site Hadrian's Wall which passes through northern Cumbria. At the end of the period of British history known as Roman Britain the inhabitants of Cumbria were Cumbric-speaking native Romano-Britons who were descendants of the Brigantes and Carvetii that the Roman Empire had conquered in about AD 85. Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii seems to have covered portions of Cumbria; the names Cumbria, Cymru and Cumberland are derived from the name these people gave themselves, *kombroges in Common Brittonic, which meant "compatriots". Although Cumbria was believed to have formed the core of the Early Middle Ages Brittonic kingdom of Rheged, more recent discoveries near Galloway appear to contradict this.
For the rest of the first millennium, Cumbria was contested by several entities who warred over the area, including the Brythonic Celtic Kingdom of Strathclyde and the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. Most of modern-day Cumbria was a principality in the Kingdom of Scotland at the time of the Norman conquest of England in 1066 and thus was excluded from the Domesday Book survey of 1086. In 1092 the region was incorporated into England; the region was dominated by the many Anglo-Scottish Wars of the latter Middle Ages and early modern period and the associated Border Reivers who exploited the dynamic political situation of the region. There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England and Scotland, two further sieges during the Jacobite risings. After the Jacobite Risings of the eighteenth century, Cumbria became a more stable place and, as in the rest of Northern England, the Industrial Revolution caused a large growth in urban populations. In particular, the west-coast towns of Workington and Barrow-in-Furness saw large iron and steel mills develop, with Barrow developing a significant shipbuilding industry.
Kendal and Carlisle all became mill town, with textiles and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. The early nineteenth century saw the county gain fame as the Lake Poets and other artists of the Romantic movement, such as William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, lived among, were inspired by, the lakes and mountains of the region; the children's writer Beatrix Potter wrote in the region and became a major landowner, granting much of her property to the National Trust on her death. In turn, the large amount of land owned by the National Trust assisted in the formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951, which remains the largest National Park in England and has come to dominate the identity and economy of the county; the county of Cumbria was created in 1974 from the traditional counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, the Cumberland County Borough of Carlisle, along with the North Lonsdale or Furness part of Lancashire referred to as "Lancashire North of
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, Suffolk to the south, its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn and Thetford; the Broads is a network of lakes in the east of the county, extending south into Suffolk. The area is not a national park, it has similar status to a national park, is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in pre-Roman times, with camps along the higher land in the west, where flints could be quarried. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD; the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD 47, again in 60 led by Boudica.
The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county and farming was widespread. Situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. By the 5th century the Angles, after whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Norfolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and with Wessex; the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in "-ton" and "-ham". Endings such as "-by" and "-thorpe" are common, indicating Danish place names: in the 9th century the region again came under attack, this time from Danes who killed the king, Edmund the Martyr. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, settlements grew in these areas.
Migration into East Anglia must have been high: by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable woollen industries. Norfolk's prosperity at that time is evident from the county's large number of medieval churches: out of an original total of over one thousand, 659 have survived, more than in the whole of the rest of Great Britain; the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which reduced the population in 1349. By the 16th century Norwich had grown to become the second-largest city in England, but over one-third of its population died in the plague epidemic of 1579, in 1665 the Great Plague again killed around one-third of the population. During the English Civil War Norfolk was Parliamentarian; the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich, a late addition to the railway network.
In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation. The first development in airfields came with the First World War. For the local army regiments the Royal Norfolk Regiment and the Norfolk Yeomanry please click on the links. During the Second World War agriculture intensified, it has remained intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolk's low-lying land and eroded cliffs, many of which are composed of chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to weathering by the sea; the most recent major erosion event occurred during the North Sea flood of 1953. The low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is managed by the British Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding. Management policy for the North Norfolk coastline is described in the "North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan" published in 2006, but has yet to be accepted by local authorities; the Shoreline Management Plan states that the stretch of coast will be protected for at least another 50 years, but that in the face of sea level rise and post-glacial lowering of land levels in the South East, there is an urgent need for further research to inform future management decisions, including the possibility that the sea defences may have to be realigned to a more sustainable position.
Natural England have contributed some research into the impacts on the environment of various realignment options. The draft report of their research was leaked to the press, who created great anxiety by reporting that Natural England plan to abandon a large section of the Norfolk Broads and farmland to the sea to save the rest of the Norfolk coastline from the impact of climate change. In 1998 Norfolk had a Gross Domestic Product of £9,319 million, which represents 1.5% of England's economy and 1.25% of the United Kingdom's economy. The GDP per head was £11,825, compared to £13,635 for East Anglia, £12,845 for England and £12,438 for the United Kingdom. In 1999–2000 the county had an unemployment rate of 5.6%, compared to 5.8% for England and 6.0% for the UK. Data from 2017 provided a useful update on the county's economy; the median hourly gross pay was £12.17 and the median weekly pay was £496.80. The employm