A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient. The term refers to a health care provider's written authorization for a patient to purchase a prescription drug from a pharmacist; the format of a prescription falls in to seven parts. However, with modern prescribing habits, some are no longer applicable or included on an everyday basis. Definition: For such prescriptions to be accepted as a legal medical prescription, it needs to be filed by a qualified dentist, nurse, physician, veterinarian etc. which falls within their remit to prescribe such treatments. This is regardless of whether they included controlled substances or available over-the-counter treatments. Prescriptions may be entered into an electronic medical record system and transmitted electronically to a pharmacy. Alternatively, a prescription may be handwritten on preprinted prescription forms that have been assembled into pads, or printed onto similar forms using a computer printer or on plain paper according to the circumstance.
In some cases, a prescription may be transmitted from the physician to the pharmacist orally by telephone. The content of a prescription includes the name and address of the prescribing provider and any other legal requirement such as a registration number. Unique for each prescription is the name of the patient. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the patient's name and address must be recorded; each prescription is dated and some jurisdictions may place a time limit on the prescription. In the past, prescriptions contained instructions for the pharmacist to use for compounding the pharmaceutical product but most prescriptions now specify pharmaceutical products that were manufactured and require little or no preparation by the pharmacist. Prescriptions contain directions for the patient to follow when taking the drug; these directions are printed on the label of the pharmaceutical product.'℞' is a symbol meaning "recipe". It is sometimes transliterated as "Rx" or just "Rx"; this symbol originated in medieval manuscripts as an abbreviation of the late Latin verb recipere the second person singular imperative form recipe meaning "take", thus: "take thou".
Abbreviated Rc, the c was simplified and written as a straight stroke making it look like an x in combination with the right "leg" of R. Medieval prescriptions invariably began with the command to "take" certain materials and compound them in specified ways. Folk theories about the origin of the symbol'℞' note its similarity to the Eye of Horus, or to the ancient symbol for Zeus or Jupiter, gods whose protection may have been sought in medical contexts; the word "prescription", from "pre-" and "script", refers to the fact that the prescription is an order that must be written down before a compound drug can be prepared. Those within the industry will call prescriptions "scripts". In certain states medical marijuana legislation has been drafted calling for a health care professional's written or oral "recommendation", in the belief that a written one would be distinguishable from a prescription, but since written advice to a patient is what a prescription is, that belief is mistaken. Jurisdictions may adopt a statutory definition of "prescription" that applies as a term of art only to the operation of that statute, but the general legal definition of the word is this broad one.
Many brand name drugs have cheaper generic drug substitutes that are therapeutically and biochemically equivalent. Prescriptions will contain instructions on whether the prescriber will allow the pharmacist to substitute a generic version of the drug; this instruction is communicated in a number of ways. In some jurisdictions, the preprinted prescription contains two signature lines: one line has "dispense as written" printed underneath; some have a preprinted box "dispense as written" for the prescriber to check off. Other jurisdictions the protocol is for the prescriber to handwrite one of the following phrases: "dispense as written", "DAW", "brand necessary", "do not substitute", "no substitution", "medically necessary", "do not interchange". In other jurisdictions they may use different languages, never mind a different formula of words. In some jurisdictions, it may be a legal requirement to include the age of child on the prescription. For pediatric prescriptions some advise the inclusion of the age of the child if the patient is less than twelve and the age and months if less than five.
Adding the weight of the child is helpful. Prescriptions have a "label" box; when checked, the pharmacist is instructed to label the medication and provide information about the prescription itself is given in addition to instructions on taking the medication. Otherwise, the patient is given the instructions; some prescribers further inform the patient and pharmacist by providing the indication for the medication. This assists the pharmacist in checking for errors as many common medications can be used for multiple medical conditions; some prescriptions will specify whether and how many "repeats" or "refills" are allowed. Regul
Shire (pharmaceutical company)
Shire Plc was a Jersey-registered, Irish-headquartered global specialty biopharmaceutical company. Originating in the United Kingdom with an operational base in the United States, its brands and products included Vyvanse and Adderall XR. Shire had its primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. Shire has a secondary listing on NASDAQ. Shire was acquired by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company on 8 January 2019. Shire was a global biotechnology company focused on serving people with rare diseases and other specialized conditions; the company's products were available in more than 100 countries across core therapeutic areas including Hematology, Neuroscience, Lysosomal Storage Disorders, Gastrointestinal / Internal Medicine / Endocrine and Hereditary Angioedema. The original corporate headquarters was located in Basingstoke, England. Main offices are located in Dublin, the United States in Cambridge and Chicago, Illinois and in Zug, Switzerland. In addition, Shire owns manufacturing sites in Lexington and Social Circle, Georgia.
Shire’s headquarters in Lexington, MA will be integrated with Takeda’s new U. S. headquarters, being relocated from Deerfield, IL to the Boston area. Shire was founded in 1986 in the UK by four entrepreneurs: Harry Stratford, Dennis Stephens, Peter Moriarty, Geoff Hall. Under the management of Rolf Stahel Shire was first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1996. Shire's initial products were calcium supplements for patients seeking to treat or prevent osteoporosis. In 1997 the company acquired Pharmavene for £105 million in order to access Pharmavene's drug delivery methods. In the same year Shire acquired Richwood Pharmaceutical Company, forming Shire-Richwood Inc. In 2001 the company acquired Biochem Canada. Shire's next acquisition didn't come until 2005 when it acquired Transkaryotic Therapeutics and two years - in 2007 - New River Pharmaceuticals Inc, for a company record of $2.6 billion. With the purchase of New River, Shire gained ownership of Vyvanse. A year the company acquired the German company Jerini, for $521 million.
Jerini focused on treating hereditary angioedema. In 2008, in reaction to new taxation measures announced by the Labour Party in the treatment of royalties on patents, the company moved its tax domicile to Dublin, Ireland. 2010 saw a change in company strategy, with the company seeking to expand through mergers and acquisitions - culminating in the company becoming one of the most acquisitive in the industry. In 2010 the company acquired Movetis, a Belgian company focusing on gastrointestinal products for $565 million, a year it acquired regenerative medicine manufacturer Advanced BioHealing. In 2012 the company acquired FerroKin BioSciences for $325 million along with FerroKins lead iron chelator - FBS0701. 2013 saw the company complete its highest number of acquisitions with Inc.. SARcode Bioscience Inc. with the last being ViroPharma. Shire changed the name of ViroPharma to Shire Viropharma Inc. upon acquisition and on their final day of trading the company was valued at $3.3 billion. At $4.2 billion, ViroPharma set a new company record.
In 2014 Shire acquired two rare disease drug companies: Fibrotech with its antifibrotic compounds for $75 million, Lumena, a company researching rare gastro-intestinal and hepatic compounds, for $260 million. In 2015, NPS Pharmaceuticals was acquired for $5.2 billion, bringing along its rare disease drugs Gattex and Natpara. On their final day of trading, NPS had a market capitalisation of $4.99 billion. The company acquired in the same year, Meritage Pharma for $245 million, Foresight Biotherapeutics for $300 million and Dyax for $6.5 billion. The purchases bolstered Shires gastro-intestinal and rare disease sectors, with Phase-III-ready treatment - Budesonide - for the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis; as well as expanding the company's pipeline with a late-stage treatment candidate for infectious conjunctivitis with lead candidate FST-100 and increasing the company's rare disease catalogue with Dyax’s portfolio of plasma kallikrein inhibitors against hereditary angioedema. In January 2016, the company made its most significant purchase, with the $32 billion acquisition of Baxalta, creating the largest global biotech company focused on rare diseases.
In April 2018, Shire agreed to sell its oncology business to French pharmaceutical company Servier for £1.7billion. On 20 June 2014, Shire rejected a takeover attempt by AbbVie. AbbVie offered £46.11 per share. On 8 July, the offer was increased to $51.5 billion. On 18 July, it was announced. On 15 October, news broke suggesting AbbVie was reconsidering their proposed takeover deal due to changes in US "Tax Inversion" law and on 16 October AbbVie's board recommended that shareholders vote against the deal; this news sent Shire's share price down over 27%. On 21 October, the merger was called off. In April 2018, reported that Takeda Pharmaceutical Company had an approach to acquire Shire. Days Shire announced they had rejected all three Takeda bids; the first bid valued the business at £41 billion, the second £43 billion and the third £44 billion (£28 per Shire shares paid in Takeda shares plus £17.75 per share i
Pharmaceutical Press is the publishing arm of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society. It is a provider of independent pharmaceutical information, its principal publishing focus is the design and therapeutic use of medicines, as well as the professional concerns of those working to ensure their safe administration and use. Its international catalogue contains more than 150 print and digital works, with a range of products consisting of reference works, professional titles and subscription products; the most renowned resources include: Martindale: The complete drug reference – a drug reference book providing unbiased, evaluated information on all drugs and medicines in clinical use. British National Formulary and British National Formulary for Children – the UK standard reference in the use and selection of medicines, published in conjunction with the BMJ Group; the Pharmaceutical Journal and PJ Publications – the official weekly journal of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society, providing news coverage on all aspects of pharmacy, original research and articles on pharmaceutical and related subjects.
MedicinesComplete – an online service providing access to multiple drug information resources on a single platform. Pharmaceutical Press
Manufacturing in the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom, where the Industrial Revolution began in the late 18th century, has a long history of manufacturing, which contributed to Britain's early economic growth. During the second half of the 20th century, there was a steady decline in the importance of manufacturing and the economy of the United Kingdom shifted toward services. Manufacturing, remains important for overseas trade and accounted for 44% of goods exports in 2014. In June 2010, manufacturing in the United Kingdom accounted for 8.2% of the workforce and 12% of the country's national output. The East Midlands and West Midlands were the regions with the highest proportion of employees in manufacturing. London had the lowest at 2.8%. Manufacturing in the United Kingdom expanded on an unprecedented scale in the 19th century. Innovation in Britain led to revolutionary changes in manufacturing, the development of factory systems, growth of transportation by railway and steam ship that spread around the world, its growth was driven by international trading relationships Britain developed with Asia and the Americas, as well as entrepreneurialism, work ethic and the availability of natural resources such as coal.
The main sectors were textiles and steel making and ship building. Between 1809 and 1839, exports tripled from £25 million to £76 million, while imports nearly doubled from £28 million to £52 million during the same period. In many industrial sectors, Britain was the largest manufacturer in the world and the most technologically advanced. In the part of the 19th century, a second phase developed, sometimes known as the Second Industrial Revolution. Germany and the United States, which made use of the American system of manufacturing, caught up and overtook Britain as the world's largest manufacturers in the early 20th century. Nonetheless, Britain remained one of the largest industrial producers. By the middle of the century, in 1948, manufacturing made up 48% of the UK economy. In the post-war decades, manufacturing began to lose its competitive advantage and heavy industry experienced a relative decline. By 2013, the percentage of manufacturing in the economy had fallen to 13%, replaced by services which had risen from 46% to 79% over the same period.
This trend is common in all mature Western economies. Heavy industry, employing many thousands of people and producing large volumes of low-value goods has either become efficient or has been replaced by smaller industrial units producing high-value goods. Although the manufacturing sector's share of both employment and the UK's GDP has fallen since the 1960s, data from the OECD shows that manufacturing output in terms of both production and value has increased since 1945. A 2009 report from PricewaterhouseCoopers, citing data from the UK Office for National Statistics, stated that manufacturing output has increased in 35 of the 50 years between 1958 and 2007, output in 2007 was at record levels double that in 1958. Manufacturing employment fell faster in the UK since 1998; this started with manufacturing productivity flatlining from 1993 to 1997 and a rise in pound sterling. PricewaterhouseCoopers presumed that British manufacturing was less able to adapt to new production immune from Asian competition.
Since 1993, the UK invested less in R&D and adaptation than its OECD competitors. However, manufacturing remains an important sector of the modern British economy and the UK is one of the most attractive countries in the world for direct foreign industrial investment in 2003; the Blue Book 2006 reports that this sector added a gross value of £147,469 million to the UK economy in 2004. Engineering and allied industries comprise the single largest sector, contributing 30.8% of total Gross Value Added in manufacturing in 2003. Within this sector, transport equipment was the largest contributor, with 8 global car manufacturers being present in the UK; these include British makers now owned by overseas companies such MINI, Rolls-Royce, Jaguar Land Rover and Vauxhall Motors and plants making vehicles under foreign ownership and branding such as Honda and Toyota with a number of smaller, specialist manufacturers including Aston Martin and Morgan and commercial vehicle manufacturers including Leyland Trucks, Alexander Dennis, JCB, the main global manufacturing plant for the Ford Transit, London Electric Vehicle Company and Case-New Holland being present.
The British motor industry comprises numerous components for the sector, such as Ford's diesel engine plant in Dagenham, which produces half of Ford's diesel engines globally. Triumph Motorcycles Ltd is the only wholly British owned major transport manufacturer. A range of companies like Brush Traction and Hunslet manufacture railway locomotives and other related components. Associated with this sector are the defence equipment industries; the UK manufactures a broad range of equipment, with the sector being dominated by BAE Systems, which manufactures civil and defence aerospace and marine equipment. Commercial shipbuilders include Harland and Wolff, Cammell Laird, Barclay Cur
A pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea, in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society. Descriptions of preparations are called monographs. In a broader sense it is a reference work for pharmaceutical drug specifications; the term derives from Ancient Greek: φαρμακοποιΐα pharmakopoiia "making of medicine, drug-making", a compound of φάρμακον pharmakon "healing medicine, poison", the verb ποιεῖν poiein "to make" and the abstract noun suffix -ία -ia. In early modern editions of Latin texts, the Greek diphthong οι is latinized to its Latin equivalent oe, in turn written with the ligature œ, giving the spelling pharmacopœia. Although older writings exist which deal with herbal medicine, the major initial works in the field are considered to be the Edwin Smith Papyrus in Egypt, Pliny’s pharmacopoeia and De Materia Medica, a five-volume book written in Greek by Pedanius Dioscorides.
The latter is considered to be precursor to all modern pharmacopoeias, is one of the most influential herbal books in history. In fact it remained in use until about CE 1600. A number of early pharmacopoeia books were written by Arab physicians; these included The Canon of Medicine of Avicenna in 1025, works by Ibn Zuhr in the 12th century, Ibn Baytar in the 14th century. The Shen-nung pen ts'ao ching is the earliest known Chinese pharmacopia; the text describes 365 medicines derived from plants and minerals. The first known work of this kind published under civic authority appears to have been that of Tang Dynasty in China; the treatise was written by several officials of Emperor Gaozong of Tang. The pharmacopoeia contained 850 sorts of crude medicine, revising the treatises written by ancient Chinese pharmacists. However, the first dated work appeared in Nuremberg in 1542. A work known as the Antidotarium Florentinum, was published under the authority of the college of medicine of Florence in the 16th century.
In 1511, the Concordie Apothecariorum Barchinone was published by the Society of Apothecaries of Barcelona and kept in the School of Pharmacy of the University of Barcelona. The term Pharmacopoeia first appears as a distinct title in a work published at Basel, Switzerland, in 1561 by A. Foes, but does not appear to have come into general use until the beginning of the 17th century. Before 1542 the works principally used by apothecaries were the treatises on simples by Avicenna and Serapion. Of this last work, there were two editions in use — Nicolaus magnus and Nicolaus parvus: in the latter, several of the compounds described in the large edition were omitted and the formulae given on a smaller scale. Vesalius claimed he had written some "dispensariums" and "manuals" on the works of Galenus, he burnt them. According to recent research communicated at the congresses of the International Society for the History of Medicine by the scholar Francisco Javier González Echeverría, Michel De Villeneuve published a pharmacopeia.
Michel De Villeneuve, fellow student of Vesalius and the best galenist of Paris according to Johann Winter von Andernach, published the anonymous ""Dispensarium or Enquiridion" in 1543, at Lyon, with Jean Frellon as editor. This work contains 224 original recipes by Michel De Villeneuve and others by Lespleigney and Chappuis; as usual when it comes to pharmacopeias, this work was complementary to a previous Materia Medica that Michel De Villeneuve published that same year. This finding was communicated by the same scholar in the International Society for the History of Medicine, with agreement of John M. Riddle, one of the foremost experts on Materia Medica-Dioscorides works. Nicolaes Tulp, mayor of Amsterdam and respected surgeon general, gathered all of his doctor and chemist friends together and they wrote the first pharmacopoeia of Amsterdam in 1636 Pharmacopoea Amstelredamensis; this was a combined effort to improve public health after an outbreak of the plague, limit the number of quack apothecary shops in Amsterdam.
Until 1617 such drugs and medicines as were in common use were sold in England by the apothecaries and grocers. In that year the apothecaries obtained a separate charter, it was enacted that no grocer should keep an apothecary’s shop; the preparation of physicians’ prescriptions was thus confined to the apothecaries, upon whom pressure was brought to bear to make them dispense by the issue of a pharmacopoeia in May 1618 by the College of Physicians, by the power which the wardens of the apothecaries received in common with the censors of the College of Physicians of examining the shops of apothecaries within 7 m. of London and destroying all the compounds which they found unfaithfully pre
Alliance Boots GmbH was a multinational pharmacy-led health and beauty group with corporate headquarters in Bern and operational headquarters in Nottingham and Weybridge, United Kingdom. The company had a presence in over 27 countries including associates and joint ventures and in 2013/14, reported revenue in excess of £23.4 billion. It had two core business activities – pharmacy-led health and beauty retailing, pharmaceutical wholesaling and distribution – and increasingly developed and internationalised its product brands; the company was formed in 2006 by the merger of the British high street pharmacist Boots Group and the pan-European wholesale and retail pharmacy group Alliance UniChem and was listed on the London Stock Exchange as Alliance Boots plc. In 2007 it was bought out in a private equity transaction by AB Acquisitions Limited, led by Stefano Pessina and Kohlberg Kravis Roberts. Alliance Boots GmbH was established in Switzerland during 2008 and is a direct subsidiary of AB Acquisitions Holdings Limited, which held all shares in the company.
In August 2012, the US company Walgreens purchased 45% of shares as part of a plan to merge the two businesses, with an option to acquire the remaining shares within three years. It exercised that option in August 2014, following shareholder and regulatory approvals, the two businesses merged on 31 December 2014 to form Walgreens Boots Alliance; the group's operations were carried out under the Boots and Alliance Healthcare brands. Boots UK is beauty retailer. Alliance Boots is the largest pharmaceutical wholesaler in the UK through its Alliance Healthcare Ltd business; the company employs over 120,000 staff and operates more than 4,600 retail stores, of which just over 4,450 have pharmacies. Alliance Boots pharmaceutical wholesale division serves over 180,000 pharmacies, doctors and health centres from over 370 distribution centres in 20 countries. Both companies became subsidiaries of Walgreens Boots Alliance on completion of the merger. Following a short period of speculation amongst financial analysts, it was announced in October 2005 that Boots Group would merge with Alliance UniChem in a deal valuing both companies and said to be worth around £7 billion.
Rival firm Celesio, owner of the Lloyds Pharmacy chain, challenged the deal, although were rejected by the Competition Appeal Tribunal. The merger received final approval from the Office of Fair Trading in February 2006 and completed on 31 March 2006, although 96 shops were sold to comply with a condition laid down by the OFT. Former Boots Group shareholders held 50.2% of the new company, with former Alliance UniChem shareholders owning 49.8%. On 25 April 2007, Alliance Boots was approached with a buy-out offer by New York City-based Private Equity firm Kohlberg Kravis Roberts in conjunction with Alliance Boots' Executive Deputy Chairman, Stefano Pessina, for an estimated £12.4 billion. Alliance Boots was the first company on the FTSE 100 share index to be bought-out by a private equity firm. £9 billion was advanced by investment banks, including Deutsche Bank, Citigroup, J. P. Morgan, UniCredit, Merrill Lynch, the Bank of America and the Royal Bank of Scotland; the banks, as so-called "equity underwriters“, together invested around £1.4 billion in the buyout company.
The reverse takeover and subsequent privatisation was dubbed as "the best deal struck" by a managing partner at a private equity firm in June 2008. Alliance Boots GmbH was established in Switzerland during 2008 and is a direct subsidiary of AB Acquisitions Holdings Limited, a company which owns 55% of Alliance Boots GmbH’s shares, it was announced on 19 June 2012 that Walgreens would purchase a 45% stake in Alliance Boots, as the first step in a three-year merger plan. Walgreens paid $6.7 billion for this share, subsequently on 6 August 2014 Walgreens exercised its option to complete the second step of its strategic transaction with Alliance Boots to create the first global pharmacy-led health and beauty retailer, with over 12,000 stores worldwide. The two companies had established Walgreens Boots Alliance Development Company in late 2012 to further their integration; the first publicly visible sign of the merger came in November 2012 when Boots skincare brand No7 debuted in a Walgreens store in Los Angeles, with a view to further rolling out the Boots brand across the US.
Walgreens' shareholders approved the purchase on 29 December 2014, it was completed on 31 December. Under the terms of the merger, the two companies became subsidiaries of a new holding company, Walgreens Boots Alliance Inc. which remains headquartered in Deerfield, Illinois. The new company is organised into four divisions, of which Boots each became one; the two remaining divisions are Pharmaceutical Wholesale and International Retail, which includes Alliance Healthcare, Global Brands. Alliance Boots operations are split into two areas, pharmacy-led health and beauty retailing and pharmaceutical wholesaling and distribution; the Group has a stand-alone contract manufacturing business called BCM and develops and internationalises its product brands. Boots UK formed the main retail business of Alliance Boots in the United Kingdom, all former Alliance Pharmacy branches were rebranded as Boots; the Boots brand has a history stretching back over 160 years and is a familiar sight on Britain's high streets.
Boots stores are located in prominent high street and city centre locations as well as in local communities. Most branches include a pharmacy, focus on healthcare, personal care and cosmetic products, with most stores selling over the counter medicines. Larger stores offer a variety of healthcare services in addition to dispensing pres
Upsher-Smith Laboratories, LLC is a U. S. pharmaceutical company based in Maple Grove, Minnesota that has delivered generic medications for nearly a century. Upsher-Smith is a part of Co. Ltd.. Maple Grove, Minnesota: Corporate Headquarters Plymouth, Minnesota: Manufacturing and R&D Denver, Colorado: Manufacturing and R&D Founded in 1919 as a maker of digitalis drugs, Upsher-Smith has traditionally focused on the manufacture of generic medications. In 2017, after owning and operating Upsher-Smith for 47 years, the Evenstad family made the decision to sell the largest part of their company, the generics business, to Sawai Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. a large publicly traded generics company in Japan, seeking entry into the U. S. market. Upsher-Smith’s non-generic pharmaceuticals businesses Proximagen, Pairnomix and MOBĒ remained with ACOVA, a holding company owned by the Evenstads. Upsher-Smith offers generic pharmaceuticals to treat the following disease states: Hypertension High Cholesterol Influenza Epilepsy Congestive Heart Failure Blood Clots Alzheimer's Disease Depression Overactive Bladder Heart Arrhythmia Schizophrenia Multiple Sclerosis Low Testosterone