British North America Acts

The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts at the core of the constitution of Canada. They were enacted by the Parliament of Canada. In Canada, some of the Acts were amended or repealed by the Constitution Act, 1982; the rest were renamed in Canada as the Constitution Acts. In the United Kingdom, those Acts that were passed by the British Parliament remain under their original names; the term "British North America" refers to the British colonies in North America. Canada dates its history as a country to the British North America Act, 1867, which came into effect on July 1, 1867. However, Canada was not established as independent, since the United Kingdom retained legislative control over Canada and full control over Canadian foreign policy. Canada did not have any foreign embassies until its first one was established in Washington, D. C. in 1931. Until 1949, changes to the British North America Acts could be made only by the British parliament; the British North America Act, 1949, gave the Parliament of Canada the power to make limited constitutional amendments, but full Canadian control over the constitution was not achieved until the passage of the Canada Act 1982.

This long delay was in large part due to the inability to agree upon a procedure for making constitutional amendments, acceptable to all of the provinces, in particular the Province of Quebec. Because of this, all British North America Acts dated before 1949 were passed by the British Parliament, while some of those dated after 1949 were passed by the Canadian Parliament; when Canada patriated its constitution with the passage of the Canada Act 1982, most of the British North America Acts were renamed as "Constitution Acts" in Canada, while a few of the Acts were repealed as no longer having any relevance. The Acts are collectively called the Constitution Acts 1867 to 1982; the fifteen BNA Acts enacted by the United Kingdom Parliament do not have official French-language versions. Only the English version is official; the five BNA Acts enacted by the Canadian Parliament do have official French-language versions, the English-language and French-language versions are authoritative. The French Constitutional Drafting Committee produced translations of all the British North America Acts, pursuant to section 55 of the Constitution Act, 1982, but these were never enacted by the federal and provincial gouvernements through the constitutional amending process to make them official.

The different Acts of this series are distinguished by appending the year of their enactment. BNA Acts were passed in 1867, 1871, 1886, 1907, 1915, 1916*, 1930, 1940, 1943*, 1946*, 1949, 1949 *, 1951*, 1952*, 1960, 1964, 1965, 1974, 1975 and 1975; those marked. Five of the British North America Acts were enacted by the Parliament of Canada; the other fifteen were enacted by the Imperial Parliament in London. The first Act, the British North America Act, 1867, created the self-governing Dominion of Canada; the remaining acts dealt with a variety of topics, though the majority were concerned with modifying the representation in Parliament or in the Senate of Canada as the country enlarged and changed, adding the newer Provinces of Manitoba, British Columbia, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland. Other topics include modifying the country's boundaries, transfer payments, temporary changes due to two world wars, federal-provincial powers, power over changes in the constitution, the creation of new social programs, mandatory retirement ages in the Canadian government The British North America Act, 1867 known as the BNA Act, comprises a major part of the Constitution of Canada.

The Act entails the original creation of a federal dominion and sets the framework for much of the operation of the Government of Canada, including its federal structure, the House of Commons of Canada, the Senate, the justice system, the taxation system. In 1982, this Act was renamed 1867, with the patriation of the constitution. Amendments were made at this time: section 92A was added, giving the Provinces greater control over non-renewable natural resources; this Act gave Canada the power to establish new provinces and territories and to change provincial boundaries with the affected province's consent. The act recognized the creation of the province of Manitoba, the incorporation of Rupert's Land and the Northwest Territories into Canada; this Act allowed the Canadian parliament and the legislatures of Ontario and Quebec to redraw the boundaries of the province of Ontario and the province of Quebec in order to include parts of these land acquisitions in northern Canada around Hudson Bay.

In 1982, this Act was renamed the Constitution Act, 1871. This Act gave parliament the authority to allow the Territories of Canada to have representation in the Canadian Senate and Canadian House of Commons. In 1982, this Act was renamed the Constitution Act, 1886; this Act regulated transfer payments by the Federal government to the smaller provinces to support their legislatures and governments. The funds transferred were set at between C$100,000 and $250,000 depending on the province's population with an extra $100,000 a year for ten years to British Columbia. In 1982, this Act was renamed the Constitution Act, 1907; this Act expanded the Senate of Canada by giving the Western Canadian provinces 24 senators, the same number th


IBMDOS. COM is the filename of the DOS kernel. Loaded and invoked by the DOS BIOS in IBMBIO. COM during the boot process, it contains the hardware-independent parts of the operating system, including the embedded FAT12, FAT16 and, in newer versions, the FAT32 file system code, as well as the code to provide the DOS API to applications; the file exists in PC DOS 1.0 to 7.10 and DR DOS 5.0 and higher, with MS-DOS using MSDOS. SYS for the same purpose. DR DOS 3.31 to 3.41 used the equivalent DRBDOS. SYS file instead. By default, the file is located in the root directory of the bootable drive/partition and has the hidden, read-only, system file attributes set; as IBMDOS. COM is a binary image containing executable code rather than a true COM-style program, the hidden attribute is set to keep the file from being accidentally invoked at the command prompt, which would lead to a crash; this is not necessary for DR-DOS 7.02 and higher, because under these systems the file is a fat binary containing a tiny COM-style stub just displaying some version info and exiting gracefully when loaded inappropriately.

In Digital Research terminology, the kernel component of the operating system is called the BDOS, a term coined by Gary Kildall in 1975 for CP/M, but, continued to be used in all other DRI operating systems. Microsoft has used this name as well; the FAT file system specific code is called the FDOS in DRI terminology. IBMBIO. COM MSDOS. SYS List of DOS system files

Concurrent testing

Research and literature on concurrency testing and concurrent testing focuses on testing software and systems that use concurrent computing. The purpose is, as with most software testing, to understand the behaviour and performance of a software system that uses concurrent computing assessing the stability of a system or application during normal activity. Research and study of program concurrency started in the 1950s, with research and study of testing program concurrency appearing in the 1960s. Examples of problems that concurrency testing might expose are incorrect shared memory access and unexpected order sequence of message or thread execution. Resource contention resolution, deadlock avoidance, priority inversion and race conditions are highlighted. Approaches to concurrency testing may be on a limited unit test level right up to system test level; some approaches to research and application of testing program/software concurrency have been: Execute a test once. This was considered to be ineffective for testing concurrency in a non-deterministic system and was equivalent to the testing of a sequential non-concurrent program on a systemExecution of the same test sequence multiple times.

Considered to find some issues in non-deterministic software execution. This became called non-deterministic testing. Deterministic testing; this is an approach to set the system into a particular state so that code can be executed in a known order. Reachability testingAn attempt to test synchronisation sequence combinations for a specified input; the sequence is derived for non-deterministic test execution. Structural Approaches / Static AnalysisAnalysis of code structure and static analysis tools. An example was a heuristic approach, for example jlint. Research and comparison of static analysis and code checkers for concurrency bugs See List of tools for static code analysisMulti-user approachThis is an approach to testing program concurrency by looking at multiple user access, either serving different users or tasks simultaneously. Testing software and system concurrency should not be confused with stress testing, associated with loading a system beyond its defined limits. Testing of concurrent programs can exhibit problems when a system is performing within its defined limits.

Most of the approaches above do not rely on overloading a system. Some literature states. A study in 2008 analysed bug databases in a selection open source software, it was thought to be the first real-world study of concurrency bugs. 105 bugs were classified as concurrency bugs and analysed, split as 31 being deadlock bugs and 74 non-deadlock bugs. The study had several findings, for potential follow-up and investigation: Approximately one-third of the concurrency bugs cause crashes or hanging programs. Most non-deadlock concurrency bugs are order violation. I.e. Focusing on atomicity or sequence will find most non-deadlock type bugs. Most concurrency bugs involve 2 threads. I.e. Heavy simultaneous users/usage is not the trigger for these bugs. There is a suggestion. Over 20% deadlock bugs occurred with a single thread. Most deadlock concurrency bugs involved two resources. An implication that pairwise testing from a resource usage perspective could be applied to reveal deadlocks. Software testing Scalability testing Load testing Software performance testing Scenario analysis Simulation Stress test System testing What is Concurrent Testing? at the Wayback Machine