British passports are passports issued by the United Kingdom to those holding any form of British nationality. There are different types of British nationality, different types of British passports as a result. A British passport serves as proof of citizenship, it facilitates access to consular assistance from British embassies around the world, or any embassy of another European Union member state. Passports are issued using royal prerogative, exercised by Her Majesty's Government. British citizen passports have been issued in the UK by Her Majesty's Passport Office since 2006, a division of the Home Office. British citizens can use their passport as evidence of right of abode in the United Kingdom and EU citizenship. All passports issued in the UK since 2006 have been biometric. In 1988, the UK government changed the colour of the passport to burgundy red, in line with most EU passports. In response to Brexit, the UK government announced in December 2017 its plan to change the passport colour to dark blue from October 2019.
New passports were introduced from 30 March 2019 that removed all references to the European Union as part of the Brexit planning by the Home Office. Owing to the many different categories in British nationality law, there are different types of passports for each class of British nationality. All categories of British passports are issued by Her Majesty's Government under royal prerogative. Since all British passports are issued in the name of the Crown, the reigning monarch does not require a passport; the following table shows the number of valid British passports on the last day of 2018 and shows the different categories eligible to hold a British passport: British citizen, British overseas citizen, British subject, British protected person and British national passports are issued by HM Passport Office in the UK. British nationals of these categories applying for passports outside the UK can apply for their passport online from HMPO. British passports were issued by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in British embassies around the world.
However, in 2009, this was stopped and British citizen passports can now only be issued by the Passport Office in the UK. The FCO says: "In their 2006 report on consular services, the National Audit Office recommended limiting passport production to fewer locations to increase security and reduce expenditure." British citizens and British Overseas Territory citizens of Gibraltar can apply for their passport in Gibraltar, where it will be issued by the Gibraltar Civil Status and Registration Office. British citizens, British Overseas Territory citizens of Gibraltar and British subjects with right of abode are considered to be UK nationals for the purpose of EU law, they are therefore considered to be EU citizens, allowing them to move within the European Economic Area and Switzerland. Other types of British nationals are not considered to be EU citizens, but may enjoy visa-free travel to the European Union on a short-term basis. British passports in Jersey and the Isle of Man are issued in the name of the Lieutenant-Governor of the respective Crown Dependencies on behalf of the States of Jersey, States of Guernsey and the Government of the Isle of Man respectively.
Meanwhile, in British Overseas Territories, British Overseas Territories Citizen passports are issued in the name of the respective territory's governor. Diplomatic passports are issued in the UK by HMPO, they are issued to British diplomats and high-ranking government officials to facilitate travel abroad. Official passports are issued to those travelling abroad on official state business. Queen's Messenger passports are issued to diplomatic couriers who transport documents on behalf of HM Government. Emergency passports are issued by British embassies across the world. Emergency passports may be issued to any person holding British nationality. Commonwealth citizens are eligible to receive British emergency passports in countries where their country of nationality is unrepresented. Under a reciprocal agreement, British emergency passports may be issued to EU citizens in countries where their own country does not have a diplomatic mission or is otherwise unable to assist. Safe conduct documents notes signed by the monarch, were issued to foreigners as well as English subjects in medieval times.
They were first mentioned in an Act of Parliament, the Safe Conducts Act in 1414. Between 1540 and 1685, the Privy Council issued passports, although they were still signed by the monarch until the reign of Charles II when the Secretary of State could sign them instead; the Secretary of State signed all passports in place of the monarch from 1794 onwards, at which time formal records started to be kept. Passports were written in English until 1772, when French was used instead. From about 1855 English was used, with some sections translated into French for many years. In 1855 passports became a standardised document issued to British nationals, they were a simple single-sheet paper document, by 1914 included a photograph of the holder. The British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act 1914 was passed on the outbreak of World War I. A new format was introduced in 1915: a single sheet folded into eight with a cardboard cover, it included a description of the holder as well as a photograph, had to be renewed after two years.
Some duplicate passports and passport records are available at the British Library. A passport signed by King Charles I still exists. Various changes to the design were made over the years: In 1927, the country name changed from "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland" to "Unit
Citizenship of the European Union
Citizenship of the European Union is afforded to qualifying citizens of European Union member states. It was given to the citizens of member states by the 1992 Maastricht Treaty, at the same time as the European Community was gaining its own legal identity; the treaty established a direct legal relationship between that new legal identity and its citizens by establishing a directly elected European Parliament and the ability for citizens to bring cases directly to the ECJ, has been in force since 1993. European Union citizenship is additional to national citizenship. EU citizenship affords rights and legal protections to all of its citizens. European Union citizens have the right to free movement and employment across the EU. EU citizens are free to trade and transport goods and capital through EU borders, as in a national market, with no restrictions on capital movements or fees. Citizens have the right to vote in and run as a candidate in local elections in the country where they live, European elections and European Citizens' Initiative.
Citizenship of the EU confers the right to consular protection by embassies of other EU member states when a person's country of citizenship is not represented by an embassy or consulate in the country in which they require protection. EU citizens have the right to address the European Parliament, European Ombudsman, EU agencies directly in their own language, provided the issue raised is within that institution's competence. EU citizens enjoy the legal protections of EU law, including the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and acts and directives regarding, for example, protection of personal data, rights of victims of crime and combating trafficking in human beings, equal pay, protection from discrimination in employment on grounds of religion or belief, sexual orientation and age; the EU has an office of European Ombudsman whom EU citizens can approach directly. Given the substantial number of Europeans who left Europe for other continents in the 1800s and 1900s, the extension of citizenship by descent, or jus sanguinis, by some European countries to an unlimited number of generations of those emigrants' descendants, there are many tens of millions or hundreds of millions of persons outside Europe who have a claim to citizenship in an EU member state and, by extension, to EU citizenship.
If these individuals were to overcome the bureaucratic hurdles of certifying their citizenship, they would have freedom of movement to live anywhere in the EU, under the 1992 European Court of Justice decision Micheletti v Cantabria. EU citizenship was first introduced by the Maastricht Treaty, was extended by the Treaty of Amsterdam. Prior to the 1992 Maastricht Treaty, the European Communities treaties provided guarantees for the free movement of economically active persons, but not for others; the 1951 Treaty of Paris establishing the European Coal and Steel Community established a right to free movement for workers in these industries and the 1957 Treaty of Rome provided for the free movement of workers and services. However, the treaty provisions were interpreted by the European Court of Justice not as having a narrow economic purpose, but rather a wider social and economic purpose. In Levin, the Court found that the "freedom to take up employment was important, not just as a means towards the creation of a single market for the benefit of the member state economies, but as a right for the worker to raise her or his standard of living".
Under the ECJ caselaw, the rights of free movement of workers applies regardless of the worker's purpose in taking up employment abroad, to both part-time and full-time work, whether or not the worker required additional financial assistance from the member state into which he moves. Since the ECJ has held that a recipient of service has free movement rights under the treaty and this criterion is fulfilled every national of an EU country within another member state, whether economically active or not, had a right under Article 12 of the European Community Treaty to non-discrimination prior to the Maastricht Treaty. In the case of Martinez Sala, the European Court of Justice held that the citizenship provisions provided substantive equal treatment rights alongside those granted by union law; the case of Baumbast established that the right to equal treatment applies to both economically active and inactive citizens. Despite these broad interpretations, the landmark case of Dano combined the criteria of freedom to move and equal treatment, citing them as inter-dependant, subsequently limiting the scope of Martinez Sala.
The main benefit of being a citizen of an EU country has been that of free movement. The free movement applies to the citizens of European Economic Area countries and Switzerland. However, with the creation of EU citizenship, certain political rights came into being; the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union provides for citizens to be "directly represented at Union level in the European Parliament" and "to participate in the democratic life of the Union". The following rights are afforded: Political rightsVoting in European elections: a right to vote and stand in elections to the European Parliament, in any EU member state Voting in municipal elections: a right to vote and stand in local elections in an EU state other than their own, under the same conditions as the nationals of that state Accessing European government documents: a right to access to European Parliament and Commission documents. Petitioning Parliament and the Ombudsman: the right to petition the European Pa
Civil Service (United Kingdom)
Her Majesty's Home Civil Service known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent bureaucracy or secretariat of Crown employees that supports Her Majesty's Government, composed of a cabinet of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but not the Northern Ireland Executive. As in other states that employ the Westminster political system, Her Majesty's Home Civil Service forms an inseparable part of the British government; the executive decisions of government ministers are implemented by HM Civil Service. Civil servants are employees of the Crown and not of the British parliament. Civil servants have some traditional and statutory responsibilities which to some extent protect them from being used for the political advantage of the party in power. Senior civil servants may be called to account to Parliament.
In general use, the term civil servant in the United Kingdom does not include all public sector employees. As such, the civil service does not include government ministers, members of the British Armed Forces, the police, officers of local government authorities or quangos of the Houses of Parliament, employees of the National Health Service, or staff of the Royal Household; as at the end of March 2018 there were 430,075 civil servants in the Home Civil Service, this is up 2.5% on the previous year. There are two other administratively separate civil services in the United Kingdom. One is for Northern Ireland; the heads of these services are members of the Permanent Secretaries Management Group. The Offices of State grew in England, the United Kingdom; as in other countries, they were little more than secretariats for their leaders, who held positions at court. They were chosen by the king on the advice of a patron, replaced when their patron lost influence. In the 18th century, in response to the growth of the British Empire and economic changes, institutions such as the Office of Works and the Navy Board grew large.
Each had its own system and staff were appointed by purchase or patronage. By the 19th century, it became clear that these arrangements were not working. In 1806, the East India Company, a private company that ruled only in India, established a college, the East India Company College, near London; the purpose of this college was to train administrators. The civil service, based on examination similar to the Chinese system, was advocated by a number of Englishmen over the next several decades. William Ewart Gladstone a junior minister, in 1850 sought a more efficient system based on expertise rather than favouritism; the East India Company provided a model for Stafford Northcote, the private Secretary to Gladstone, who with Charles Trevelyan drafted the key report in 1854. A permanent and politically neutral civil service, in which appointments were made on merit, was introduced on the recommendations of the Northcote–Trevelyan Report of 1854, which recommended a clear division between staff responsible for routine work, those engaged in policy formulation and implementation in an "administrative" class.
The report was not implemented, but it came at a time when the bureaucratic chaos in the Crimean War demonstrated that the military was as backward as the civil service. A Civil Service Commission was set up in 1855 to end patronage. Prime Minister Gladstone took the decisive step in 1870 with his Order in Council to implement the Northcote-Trevelyan proposals; this system was broadly endorsed by Commissions chaired by Playfair, MacDonnell and Priestley. The Northcote–Trevelyan model remained stable for a hundred years; this was a tribute to its success in removing corruption, delivering public services, responding to political change. Patrick Diamond argues: The Northcote-Trevelyan model was characterised by a hierarchical mode of Weberian bureaucracy; this bequeathed a set of theories and practices to subsequent generations of administrators in the central state. The Irish Civil Service was separate from the British civil service; the Irish Office in Whitehall liaised with Dublin Castle. Some British departments' area of operation extended to Ireland, while in other fields the Dublin department was separate from the Whitehall equivalent.
Following the Second World War, demands for change again grew. There was a concern that technical and scientific expertise was mushrooming, to a point at which the "good all-rounder" culture of the administrative civil servant wit
British Overseas Territories
The British Overseas Territories or United Kingdom Overseas Territories are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom. They are remnants of the British Empire that have not been granted independence or have voted to remain British territories; these territories do not form part of the United Kingdom and, with the exception of Gibraltar, are not part of the European Union. Most of the permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. Three are inhabited only by a transitory population of scientific personnel, they all share the British monarch as head of state. As of April 2018 the Minister responsible for the Territories excluding the Falkland Islands and the Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus, is the Minister of State for the Commonwealth and the UN; the other three territories are the responsibility of the Minister of State for Europe and the Americas. The fourteen British Overseas Territories are: The term "British Overseas Territory" was introduced by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, replacing the term British Dependent Territory, introduced by the British Nationality Act 1981.
Prior to 1 January 1983, the territories were referred to as British Crown Colonies. Although the Crown dependencies of Jersey and the Isle of Man are under the sovereignty of the British monarch, they are in a different constitutional relationship with the United Kingdom; the British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are themselves distinct from the Commonwealth realms, a group of 16 independent countries each having Elizabeth II as their reigning monarch, from the Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary association of 53 countries with historic links to the British Empire. With the exceptions of the British Antarctic Territory and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the British Indian Ocean Territory, the Territories retain permanent civilian populations. Permanent residency for the 7,000 civilians living in the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia is limited to citizens of the Republic of Cyprus. Collectively, the Territories encompass a population of about 250,000 people and a land area of about 1,727,570 square kilometres.
The vast majority of this land area, 1,700,000 square kilometres, constitutes the uninhabited British Antarctic Territory, while the largest territory by population, accounts for a quarter of the total BOT population. At the other end of the scale, three territories have no civilian population. Pitcairn Islands, settled by the survivors of the Mutiny on the Bounty, is the smallest settled territory with 49 inhabitants, while the smallest by land area is Gibraltar on the southern tip of the Iberian peninsula; the United Kingdom participates in the Antarctic Treaty System and, as part of a mutual agreement, the British Antarctic Territory is recognised by four of the six other sovereign nations making claims to Antarctic territory. Early colonies, in the sense of English subjects residing in lands hitherto outside the control of the English government, were known as "Plantations"; the first, colony was Newfoundland, where English fishermen set up seasonal camps in the 16th century. It is now a province of Canada known as Labrador.
It retains strong cultural ties with Britain. English colonisation of North America began in 1607 with the settlement of Jamestown, the first successful permanent colony in Virginia, its offshoot, was settled inadvertently after the wrecking of the Virginia company's flagship there in 1609, with the Virginia Company's charter extended to include the archipelago in 1612. St. George's town, founded in Bermuda in that year, remains the oldest continuously inhabited British settlement in the New World. Bermuda and Bermudians have played important, sometimes pivotal, but underestimated or unacknowledged roles in the shaping of the English and British trans-Atlantic Empires; these include maritime commerce, settlement of the continent and of the West Indies, the projection of naval power via the colony's privateers, among other areas. The growth of the British Empire in the 19th century, to its territorial peak in the 1920s, saw Britain acquire nearly one quarter of the world's land mass, including territories with large indigenous populations in Asia and Africa.
From the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, the larger settler colonies – in Canada, New Zealand and South Africa – first became self-governing colonies and achieved independence in all matters except foreign policy and trade. Separate self-governing colonies federated to become Canada, South Africa, Rhodesia; these and other large self-governing colonies had become known as Dominions by the 1920s. The Dominions achieved full independence with the Statute of Westminster. Through a process of decolonisation following the Second World War, most of the British colonies in Africa and the Caribbean gained independence; some colonies becam
National Health Service
The NHS in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, the affiliated Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland were established together in 1948 as one of the major social reforms following the Second World War. The founding principles were that services should be comprehensive and free at the point of delivery; each service provides a comprehensive range of health services, free at the point of use for people ordinarily resident in the United Kingdom, apart from dental treatment and optical care. Dr Somerville Hastings, President of the Socialist Medical Association proposed a resolution at the 1934 Labour Party Conference that the party should be committed to the establishment of a State Health Service. Conservative MP and Health Minister, Henry Willink, first proposed the National Health Service in 1944 with the publication of a White Paper "A National Health Service", distributed in full and short versions as well as in newsreel by Henry Willink himself. Henry Willink's National Health Service received cross party support and became Westminster legislation for England and Wales from 1946 and Scotland from 1947, the Northern Ireland Parliament's Public Health Services Act 1947.
NHS Wales was split from NHS in 1969 when control was passed to the Secretary of State for Wales before transferring to the Welsh Executive and Assembly under devolution in 1999. Calls for a "unified medical service" can be dated back to the Minority Report of the Royal Commission on the Poor Law in 1909, but it was following the 1942 Beveridge Report's recommendation to create "comprehensive health and rehabilitation services for prevention and cure of disease" that cross-party consensus emerged on introducing a National Health Service of some description; when Clement Attlee's Labour Party won the 1945 election he appointed Aneurin Bevan as Health Minister. Bevan embarked upon what the official historian of the NHS, Charles Webster, called an "audacious campaign" to take charge of the form the NHS took; the NHS was born out of the ideal that good healthcare should be available to all, regardless of wealth. Although being accessible regardless of wealth maintained Henry Willink's principle of free healthcare for all, Conservative MPs were in favour of maintaining local administration of the NHS through existing arrangements with local authorities fearing that an NHS which owned hospitals on a national scale would lose the personal relationship between doctor and patient.
Conservative MPs voted in favour of their amendment to Bevan's Bill to maintain local control and ownership of hospitals and against Bevan's plan for national ownership of all hospitals. The Labour government defeated Conservative amendments and went ahead with the NHS as it remains today. Bevan's principle of ownership with no private sector involvement has since been diluted, with Labour governments implementing large scale financing arrangements with private builders in private finance initiatives and joint ventures. At its launch by Bevan on 5 July 1948 it had at its heart three core principles: That it meet the needs of everyone, that it be free at the point of delivery, that it be based on clinical need, not ability to pay. Three years after the founding of the NHS, Bevan resigned from the Labour government in opposition to the introduction of charges for the provision of dentures and glasses; the following year, Winston Churchill's Conservative government introduced prescription charges.
These charges were the first of many controversies over reforms to the NHS throughout its history. From its earliest days, the cultural history of the NHS has shown its place in British society reflected and debated in film, TV, cartoons and literature; the NHS had a prominent slot during the 2012 London Summer Olympics opening ceremony directed by Danny Boyle, being described as "the institution which more than any other unites our nation". Each of the UK's health service systems operates independently, is politically accountable to the relevant government: the Scottish Government. NHS Wales was part of the same structure as that of England until powers over the NHS in Wales were firstly transferred to the Secretary of State for Wales in 1969 and thereafter, in 1999, to the Welsh Assembly as part of Welsh devolution; some functions may be performed by one health service on behalf of another. For example, Northern Ireland has no high-security psychiatric hospitals and depends on hospitals in Great Britain at Carstairs hospital in Scotland for male patients and Rampton Secure Hospital in England for female patients.
Patients in North Wales use specialist facilities in Manchester and Liverpool which are much closer than facilities in Cardiff, more routine services at the Countess of Chester Hospital. There have been issues about cross-border payments. Taken together, the four National Health Services in 2015–16 employed around 1.6 million people with a combined budget of £136.7 billion. In 2014 the total health sector workforce across the UK was 2,165,043; this broke down into 1,789,586 in England, 198,368 in Scotland, 110,292 in Wales and 66,797 in Northern Ireland. In 2017, there were 691,000 nurses registered in the UK, down 1,783 from the previous year. However, this is the first time nursing numbers have fallen since 2008. Although there has been increasing policy divergence between the four National Health Services in the UK, it can b
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
Right of abode (United Kingdom)
The right of abode is an immigration status in the United Kingdom that gives a person the unrestricted right to enter and live in the UK. It was introduced by the Immigration Act 1971 which went into effect on 1 January 1973; this status is held by all British citizens, certain British subjects, as well as certain Commonwealth citizens with specific connections to the UK before 1983. Since 1983, it is not possible for a person to acquire this status without being a British citizen; the right of abode is the most common immigration status in the UK due to its association with British citizenship. However, it should not be confused with the indefinite leave to remain, another form of long-term residency status in the UK, more comparable to other countries' permanent residence status. All individuals who have the right of abode in the UK enjoy the following rights and privileges: an unconditional right to enter, live and study in the United Kingdom an entitlement to use the UK/EEA/Switzerland immigration channel at United Kingdom ports of entry an entitlement to apply for United Kingdom social security and welfare benefits a right to vote and to stand for public office in the United Kingdom.
Unlike the indefinite leave to remain, a person's right of abode is valid for life and will not lapse regardless how long they stay outside the UK and cannot be revoked unless they lose their Commonwealth or British citizenship, or, for Commonwealth citizens, when the Home Secretary deemed it necessary for "the public good". In comparison, a person's ILR status may be revoked if they had remained outside the UK for more than two years and they were refused a resident return visa. In addition, those with the right of abode who are not yet British citizens may apply for British citizenship by naturalisation. Children born in the United Kingdom, British Crown Dependencies and British Overseas Territories to those with the right of abode in the UK will be British citizens by birth automatically. Prior to the enactment of British Nationality Act 1981, right of abode in the UK was determined by a mix of one's connection with the UK and their nationality status; the following two categories of persons had right of abode: Citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies CUKCs who met any of the following requirements acquired right of abode between 1973 to 1983.
Born in a part of the British Islands. Commonwealth citizensAny Commonwealth citizens who met one of the requirements below would acquire right of abode between 1973 and 1983. Born to or adopted by a CUKC parent born in the British Islands; the person they were married to must not have a living ex-partner who had acquired right of abode in the UK at any given time. Right of abode was limited to CUKCs and Commonwealth citizens, therefore certain people with connections to the UK were not eligible if they had a UK-born parent. For example, a person born to a UK-born CUKC mother and a non-Commonwealth citizen father in the United States would not acquire right of abode as they possessed neither CUKC status nor Commonwealth citizenship. However, the same person would obtain right of abode if born in Canada, due to Canada's membership in the Commonwealth when they would not be a CUKC or, since 1983, a British citizen. CUKCs with right of abode would in 1983 become British citizens, whereas Commonwealth citizens' nationality status remained unchanged.
However, any person who had voluntarily or involuntarily lost their CUKC status between 1973 and 1983 would lose their right of abode. This would mean that they would have no legal status in the UK; this issue was highlighted in the 2018 Windrush scandal. The introduction of the right of abode principle created two tiers of CUKCs: those with right of abode and those without right of abode, both of which shared the same nationality status until 1983; the latter group would become either British Dependent Territories citizens or British Overseas citizens that year, depending on whether they had a connection with a British Dependent Territory. Since 1983, right of abode is established by the British Nationality Act 1981 and subsequent amendments, although the 1981 Act did not deprive any person's right of abode providing that they had retained the right on 31 December 1982. Two