Project management is the practice of initiating, executing and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria at the specified time. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals within the given constraints; this information is described in project documentation, created at the beginning of the development process. The primary constraints are scope, time and budget; the secondary – and more ambitious – challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and apply them to meet pre-defined objectives. The object of project management is to produce a complete project which complies with the client's objectives. In many cases the object of project management is to shape or reform the client's brief in order to feasibly be able to address the client's objectives. Once the client's objectives are established they should influence all decisions made by other people involved in the project – for example project managers, designers and sub-contractors.
Ill-defined or too prescribed project management objectives are detrimental to decision making. A project is a temporary endeavor designed to produce a unique product, service or result with a defined beginning and end undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives to bring about beneficial change or added value; the temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual, which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of such distinct production approaches requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies; until 1900, civil engineering projects were managed by creative architects and master builders themselves, for example, Christopher Wren, Thomas Telford and Isambard Kingdom Brunel. In the 1950s organizations started to systematically apply project-management tools and techniques to complex engineering projects; as a discipline, project management developed from several fields of application including civil construction and heavy defense activity.
Two forefathers of project management are Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, famous for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool. Both Gantt and Fayol were students of Frederick Winslow Taylor's theories of scientific management, his work is the forerunner to modern project management tools including work breakdown structure and resource allocation. The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project management era where core engineering fields come together to work as one. Project management became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline with engineering model. In the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad-hoc basis, using Gantt charts and informal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project-scheduling models were developed; the "critical path method" was developed as a joint venture between DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects.
The "program evaluation and review technique", was developed by the U. S. Navy Special Projects Office in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation and Booz Allen Hamilton as part of the Polaris missile submarine program. PERT and CPM are similar in their approach but still present some differences. CPM is used for projects. PERT, on the other hand, allows for stochastic activity times; because of this core difference, CPM and PERT are used in different contexts. These mathematical techniques spread into many private enterprises. At the same time, as project-scheduling models were being developed, technology for project cost estimating, cost management and engineering economics was evolving, with pioneering work by Hans Lang and others. In 1956, the American Association of Cost Engineers was formed by early practitioners of project management and the associated specialties of planning and scheduling, cost estimating, cost/schedule control. AACE continued its pioneering work and in 2006 released the first integrated process for portfolio and project management.
In 1969, the Project Management Institute was formed in the USA. PMI publishes A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, which describes project management practices that are common to "most projects, most of the time." PMI offers a range of certifications. Project management can apply to any project, but it is tailored to accommodate the specific needs of different and specialized industries. For example, the construction industry, which focuses on the delivery of things like buildings and bridges, has developed its own specialized form of project management that it refers to as construction project management and in which project managers can become trained and certified; the information technology industry has evolved to develop its own form of project management, referred to as IT project manag
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent; the mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is the case; the concentration of a solute in a solution is the mass of that solute expressed as a percentage of the mass of the whole solution. The term aqueous solution is. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances; the particles of solute in a solution cannot be seen by the naked eye. A solution does not allow beams of light to scatter. A solution is stable; the solute from a solution cannot be separated by filtration. It is composed of only one phase. Homogeneous means. Heterogeneous means; the properties of the mixture can be uniformly distributed through the volume but only in absence of diffusion phenomena or after their completion.
The substance present in the greatest amount is considered the solvent. Solvents can be liquids or solids. One or more components present in the solution other; the solution has the same physical state as the solvent. If the solvent is a gas, only gases are dissolved under a given set of conditions. An example of a gaseous solution is air. Since interactions between molecules play no role, dilute gases form rather trivial solutions. In part of the literature, they are not classified as solutions, but addressed as mixtures. If the solvent is a liquid almost all gases and solids can be dissolved. Here are some examples: Gas in liquid: Oxygen in water Carbon dioxide in water – a less simple example, because the solution is accompanied by a chemical reaction. Note that the visible bubbles in carbonated water are not the dissolved gas, but only an effervescence of carbon dioxide that has come out of solution. Liquid in liquid: The mixing of two or more substances of the same chemistry but different concentrations to form a constant.
Alcoholic beverages are solutions of ethanol in water. Solid in liquid: Sucrose in water Sodium chloride or any other salt in water, which forms an electrolyte: When dissolving, salt dissociates into ions. Solutions in water are common, are called aqueous solutions. Non-aqueous solutions are. Counter examples are provided by liquid mixtures that are not homogeneous: colloids, emulsions are not considered solutions. Body fluids are examples for complex liquid solutions. Many of these are electrolytes. Furthermore, they contain solute molecules like urea. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are essential components of blood chemistry, where significant changes in their concentrations may be a sign of severe illness or injury. If the solvent is a solid gases and solids can be dissolved. Gas in solids: Hydrogen dissolves rather well in metals in palladium. Liquid in solid: Mercury in gold, forming an amalgam Water in solid salt or sugar, forming moist solids Hexane in paraffin wax Solid in solid: Steel a solution of carbon atoms in a crystalline matrix of iron atoms Alloys like bronze and many others Polymers containing plasticizers The ability of one compound to dissolve in another compound is called solubility.
When a liquid can dissolve in another liquid the two liquids are miscible. Two substances that can never mix to form a solution are said to be immiscible. All solutions have a positive entropy of mixing; the interactions between different molecules or ions may be energetically favored or not. If interactions are unfavorable the free energy decreases with increasing solute concentration. At some point the energy loss outweighs the entropy gain, no more solute particles can be dissolved. However, the point at which a solution can become saturated can change with different environmental factors, such as temperature and contamination. For some solute-solvent combinations a supersaturated solution can be prepared by raising the solubility to dissolve more solute, lowering it; the greater the temperature of the solvent, the more of a given solid solute it can dissolve. However, most gases and some compounds exhibit solubilities that decrease with increased temperature; such behavior is a result of an exothermic enthalpy of solution.
Some surfactants exhibit this behaviour. The solubility of liquids in liquids is less temperature-sensitive than that of solids or gases; the physical properties of compounds such as melting point and boiling point change when other compounds are added. Together they are called colligative properties. There are several ways to quantify the amount of one compound dissolved in the other compounds collectively called concentration. Examples include molarity, volume fraction, mole fraction; the properties of ideal solutions can be calculated by the linear combination of the properties of
Essex is a county in the south-east of England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, London to the south-west; the county town is the only city in the county. For government statistical purposes Essex is placed in the East of England region. Essex occupies the eastern part of the ancient Kingdom of Essex, which united with the other Anglian and Saxon kingdoms to make England a single nation state; as well as rural areas, the county includes London Stansted Airport, the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, Lakeside Shopping Centre, the port of Tilbury and the borough of Southend-on-Sea. The name Essex originates in the Anglo-Saxon period of the Early Middle Ages and has its root in the Anglo-Saxon name Ēastseaxe, the eastern kingdom of the Saxons who had come from the continent and settled in Britain during the Heptarchy. Recorded in AD 527, Essex occupied territory to the north of the River Thames, incorporating all of what became Middlesex and most of what became Hertfordshire.
Its territory was restricted to lands east of the River Lea. Colchester in the north-east of the county is Britain's oldest recorded town, dating from before the Roman conquest, when it was known as Camulodunum and was sufficiently well-developed to have its own mint. In AD 824, following the Battle of Ellandun, the kingdoms of the East Saxons, the South Saxons and the Jutes of Kent were absorbed into the kingdom of the West Saxons, uniting Saxland under King Alfred's grandfather Ecgberht. Before the Norman conquest the East Saxons were subsumed into the Kingdom of England. After the Norman conquest, Essex became a county. During the medieval period, much of the area was designated a Royal forest, including the entire county in a period to 1204, when the area "north of the Stanestreet" was disafforested; the areas subject to forest law diminished, but at various times they included the forests of Becontree, Epping, Hatfield and Waltham. Essex County Council was formed in 1889. However, County Boroughs of West Ham, Southend-on-Sea and East Ham formed part of the county but were unitary authorities.
12 boroughs and districts provide more localised services such as rubbish and recycling collections and planning, as shown in the map on the right. A few Essex parishes have been transferred to other counties. Before 1889, small areas were transferred to Hertfordshire near Bishops Stortford and Sawbridgeworth. At the time of the main changes around 1900, parts of Helions Bumpstead, Sturmer and Ballingdon-with-Brundon were transferred to Suffolk. Part of Hadstock, part of Ashton and part of Chrishall were transferred to Cambridgeshire and part of Great Horkesley went to Suffolk; the boundary with Greater London was established in 1965, when East Ham and West Ham county boroughs and the Barking, Dagenham, Ilford, Romford and Wanstead and Woodford districts were transferred to form the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Newham and Waltham Forest. Essex became part of the East of England Government Office Region in 1994 and was statistically counted as part of that region from 1999, having been part of the South East England region.
In 1998, the boroughs of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock were granted autonomy from the administrative county of Essex after successful requests to become unitary authorities. Essex Police covers the two unitary authorities; the county council chamber and main headquarters is at the County Hall in Chelmsford. Before 1938, the council met in London near Moorgate, which with significant parts of the county close to that point and the dominance of railway travel had been more convenient than any place in the county, it has 75 elected councillors. Before 1965, the number of councillors reached over 100; the County Hall, made a listed building in 2007, dates from the mid-1930s and is decorated with fine artworks of that period the gift of the family who owned the textile firm Courtaulds. The highest point of the county of Essex is Chrishall Common near the village of Langley, close to the Hertfordshire border, which reaches 482 feet; the ceremonial county of Essex is bounded to the south by its estuary.
The pattern of settlement in the county is diverse. The Metropolitan Green Belt has prevented the further sprawl of London into the county, although it contains the new towns of Basildon and Harlow developed to resettle Londoners after the destruction of London housing in the Second World War, since which they have been developed and expanded. Epping Forest prevents the further spread of the Greater London Urban Area; as it is not far from London with its economic magnetism, many of Essex's settlements those near or within short driving distance of railway stations, function as dormitory towns or villages where London workers raise their families. Part of the s
Cairn Energy PLC is one of Europe's leading independent oil and gas exploration and development companies and is listed on the London Stock Exchange. Cairn has developed oil and gas reserves in a variety of locations around the world. Cairn Energy has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index; the company was founded in 1981 by Sir Bill Gammell, the former international Rugby player, his father James, his brother Pete and others. Its initial operations were in the USA and, following its listing on the London Stock Exchange in 1988, it expanded into the UK North Sea and internationally. Cairn acquired Conoco's UK onshore acreage in 1988 and became one of the largest operators of UK onshore oil production with the Palmers Wood oil field just south of London, near Junction 6 of the M25, at Humbly Grove. Cairn's expansion started with a substantial gas discovery Bangladesh near Chittagong, in 1996. In parallel, Cairn launched a series of takeovers of public listed companies – Teredo Petroleum in 1994, Holland Sea Search NV in 1995 and Command Petroleum in 1996.
In 1996, Cairn farmed out a 25% interest in the Sangu field to Halliburton in return for Halliburton bearing a 50% share of the development costs. In 1997, it sold half of all its Bangladeshi interests to Royal Dutch Shell in return for Shell assuming a $330 million carry of Cairn's exploration and development costs; this agreement gave Cairn an interest in Shell's huge acreage position in Rajasthan onshore in North West India. Cairn drilled two unsuccessful exploration wells and Shell sold its 50% share to Cairn for $7.5 million: Cairn's third well, now 100% owned, found the Mangala oil field. In December 2010, Cairn agreed to sell a stake of 58.5% of Cairn India, its India-focused subsidiary, to Vedanta Resources for $8.67 billion. Talks between the two companies started in August 2010. However, approval did not come from the Indian government until September 2011 and the deal had to be restructured; the company sold an additional 3.5 per cent of its shares in its Cairn India for about USD 360 million in June 2012.
In March 2014, the company announced that Bill Gammell would step down as chairman after the annual general meeting on 15 May 2014. Cairn's business operations are now focused on frontier exploration acreage in Senegal and the United Kingdom as well as Africa and the Mediterranean. Official website
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For electric utilities in the electric power industry, it is the first stage in the delivery of electricity to end users, the other stages being transmission, energy storage and recovery, using the pumped-storage method. A characteristic of electricity is that it is not a primary energy present in nature in remarkable amounts and it must be produced. Production is carried out in power stations. Electricity is most generated at a power plant by electromechanical generators driven by heat engines fueled by combustion or nuclear fission but by other means such as the kinetic energy of flowing water and wind. Other energy sources include geothermal power; the fundamental principles of electricity generation were discovered in the 1820s and early 1830s by British scientist Michael Faraday. His method, still used today, is for electricity to be generated by the movement of a loop of wire, or disc of copper between the poles of a magnet.
Central power stations became economically practical with the development of alternating current power transmission, using power transformers to transmit power at high voltage and with low loss. In 1870, commercial electricity production started with the coupling of the dynamo to the hydraulic turbine. In 1870, the mechanical production of electric power began the Second Industrial Revolution and created inventions using the energy, whose major contributors were Thomas Alva Edison and Nikola Tesla; the only way to produce electricity was by chemical reactions or using battery cells, the only practical use of electricity was for the telegraph. Electricity generation at central power stations started in 1882, when a steam engine driving a dynamo at Pearl Street Station produced a DC current that powered public lighting on Pearl Street, New York; the new technology was adopted by many cities around the world, which adapted their gas-fueled street lights to electric power, soon after electric lights would be used in public buildings, in businesses, to power public transport, such as trams and trains.
The first power plants used water coal. The use of power-lines and power-poles has been important in the distribution of electricity. Several fundamental methods exist to convert other forms of energy into electrical energy; the triboelectric effect, piezoelectric effect, direct capture of the energy of nuclear decay Betavoltaics are used in niche applications, as is direct conversion of heat to electric power in the thermoelectric effect. Utility-scale generation is done by photovoltaic systems. A small proportion of electric power distributed by utilities is provided by batteries. Electric generators transform kinetic energy into electricity; this is based on Faraday's law. It can be seen experimentally by rotating a magnet within closed loops of a conducting material. All commercial electrical generation is done using electromagnetic induction, in which mechanical energy forces a generator to rotate: Electrochemistry is the direct transformation of chemical energy into electricity, as in a battery.
Electrochemical electricity generation is important in mobile applications. Most electrochemical power comes from batteries. Primary cells, such as the common zinc–carbon batteries, act as power sources directly, but secondary cells are used for storage systems rather than primary generation systems. Open electrochemical systems, known as fuel cells, can be used to extract power either from natural fuels or from synthesized fuels. Osmotic power is a possibility at places where fresh water merge; the photovoltaic effect is the transformation of light into electrical energy, as in solar cells. Photovoltaic panels convert sunlight directly to electricity. Although sunlight is free and abundant, solar power electricity is still more expensive to produce than large-scale mechanically generated power due to the cost of the panels. Low-efficiency silicon solar cells have been decreasing in cost and multijunction cells with close to 30% conversion efficiency are now commercially available. Over 40% efficiency has been demonstrated in experimental systems.
Until photovoltaics were most used in remote sites where there is no access to a commercial power grid, or as a supplemental electricity source for individual homes and businesses. Recent advances in manufacturing efficiency and photovoltaic technology, combined with subsidies driven by environmental concerns, have accelerated the deployment of solar panels. Installed capacity is growing by 40% per year led by increases in Germany and the United States; the selection of electricity production modes and their economic viability varies in accordance with demand and region. The economics vary around the world, resulting in widespread selling prices, e.g. the price in Venezuela is 3 cents per kWh while in Denmark it is 40 cents per kWh. Hydroelectric plants, nuclear power plants, thermal power plants and renewable sources have their own pros and cons, selection is based upon the local power requirement and the fluctuations in demand. All power grids have varying loads on them but the daily minimum is the base load, supplied by plants which run continuously.
Nuclear, coal and gas plants can supply base load. Thermal energy is economical in ar
Desire Petroleum plc was an oil and gas exploration company headquartered in Malvern, England. It owned offshore exploration and production licences in the North Falkland Basin in the waters north of the Falkland Islands and its core focus was to develop the basin into a major new hydrocarbon province. Desire Petroleum was acquired by Falkland Oil and Gas for £61million on 5 December 2013. Falkland Oil & Gas was itself acquired by Rockhopper Exploration plc in November 2015. Desire Petroleum was founded in 1996 by a former geologist for Royal Dutch Shell; the company was named after Desire, the ship, captained by John Davis, which discovered the Falkland Islands in 1592. In 1998 the company was floated on the Alternative Investment Market. Desire Petroleum were awarded licences for drilling in the Falklands in 1997, test drilling was carried out in 1998. Oil was not found in commercial quantities, the price of oil, until 2007-8 was not high enough to make it viable, exploration companies left the area.
A 3D seismic survey was acquired in 2004. In February 2010 Desire began a programme of exploratory drilling, with costs shared by farming out drilling slots to Rockhopper Exploration and Falkland Oil & Gas Ltd, in the North Falkland Basin. In the northern section of the basin this covers the prospects of Rachel, Pam, Anna, South Orca, Beth and Helen. In the southern section are Dawn, Kate and Barbara; the first well was categorised as a gas discovery, with one other gas event and two sets of oil shows encountered. Stock market disappointment that the first well was not an immediate commercial discovery of oil led to an immediate slump in share price, though Desire continue to analyse the data gathered in order to assist with the remainder of the drilling programme; the second well, drilling for partner company Rockhopper Exploration, was an oil discovery which further confirmed the geological model for the North Falkland Basin for Desire and Rockhopper's remaining prospects. The company was sold in December 2013 to Falkland Gas for £ 61million.
Obituary of Desire Petroleum
Newcastle University is a public research university in Newcastle upon Tyne in the North East of England. The university can trace its origins to a School of Medicine and Surgery, established in 1834, to the College of Physical Science, founded in 1871; these two colleges came to form one division of the federal University of Durham, with the Durham Colleges forming the other. The Newcastle colleges merged to form King's College in 1937. In 1963, following an Act of Parliament, King's College became the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Newcastle University is a red brick university and is a member of the Russell Group, an association of prestigious research-intensive UK universities; the university has one of the largest EU research portfolios in the UK. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £495.7 million of which £109.4 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £483.3 million. Teaching and research are delivered in 24 academic schools and 40 research institutes and research centres, spread across three Faculties: the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences.
The university offers around 175 full-time undergraduate degree programmes in a wide range of subject areas spanning arts, sciences and medicine, together with 340 postgraduate taught and research programmes across a range of disciplines. The university has its origins in the School of Medicine and Surgery, established in Newcastle upon Tyne in October 1834, when it provided basic lectures and practical demonstrations to around 26 students. In June 1851, following a dispute among the teaching staff, the School split into two rival institutions; the majority formed the Newcastle College of Medicine, the others established themselves as the Newcastle upon Tyne College of Medicine and Practical Science. By 1852, the majority college was formally linked to the University of Durham, it awarded its first'Licence in Medicine' in 1856, its teaching certificates were recognised by the University of London for graduation in medicine. The two colleges amalgamated in 1857 and were renamed the University of Durham College of Medicine in 1870.
Attempts to realise a place for the teaching of sciences in the city were met with the foundation of the College of Physical Science in 1871. The college offered instruction in mathematics, physics and geology to meet the growing needs of the mining industry, becoming the Durham College of Physical Science in 1883 and renamed after William George Armstrong as Armstrong College in 1904. Both these separate and independent institutions became part of the University of Durham, whose 1908 Act formally recognised that the university consisted of two Divisions and Newcastle, on two different sites. By 1908, the Newcastle Division was teaching a full range of subjects in the Faculties of Medicine and Science, which included agriculture and engineering. Throughout the early 20th century, the medical and science colleges vastly outpaced the growth of their Durham counterparts and a Royal Commission in 1934 recommended the merger of the two colleges to form King's College, Durham. Growth of the Newcastle Division of the federal Durham University led to tensions within the structure and on 1 August 1963 an Act of Parliament separated the two, creating the University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
As the successor of King's College, the university at its founding in 1963, adopted the coat of arms granted to the Council of King's College in 1937. In the Letters Patent authorising the transfer, the arms are blazoned Azure, a Cross of St Cuthbert Argent and in chief of the last a lion passant guardant Gules. Above the portico of the Students' Union building are bas-relief carvings of the arms and mottoes of the University of Durham, Armstrong College and Durham University College of Medicine, the predecessor parts of Newcastle University. While a Latin motto, "mens agitat molem" appears in the Students' Union building, the university itself does not have an official motto; the university occupies a campus site close to Haymarket in central Newcastle upon Tyne. It is located to the northwest of the city centre between the open spaces of Leazes Park and the Town Moor; the Armstrong building is the oldest building on the campus and is the site of the original Armstrong College. The building was constructed in three stages.
The south-east wing, which includes the Jubilee Tower, south-west wings were opened in 1894. The Jubilee Tower was built with surplus funds raised from an Exhibition to mark Queen Victoria's Jubilee in 1887; the north-west front, forming the main entrance, was completed in 1906 and features two stone figures to represent science and the arts. Much of the construction work was financed by Sir Isaac Lowthian Bell, the metallurgist and former Lord Mayor of Newcastle, after whom the main tower is named. In 1906 it was opened by King Edward VII; the building contains the King's Hall, which serves as the university's chief hall for ceremonial purposes where Congregation ceremonies are held. It can contain 500 seats. King Edward VII gave permission to call King's Hall; the building was used as a hospital during the First World War. Graduation photographs are taken in the University Quadrangle, next to the Armstrong building