British Rail Class 142
The British Rail Class 142 is a class of Pacer diesel multiple-unit passenger trains used in the United Kingdom. 96 units were built by British Rail Engineering Limited's Derby Litchurch Lane Works between 1985 and 1987. They were a development of the earlier Class 141 which were introduced in 1984; the unit's body is based on that of the original Leyland National bus, many fixtures and fittings of the bus can be found on the units. Each unit has a seating capacity of any number between 121 passengers per two-car set. In theory there should be 121 seats per unit. However, many units have had seats removed to provide additional space for wheelchair access; the same engines and mechanical transmissions were used as on Class 141, as the same double-folding external doors. Each car has a fuel capacity of 125 gallons. Excessive flange squeal on tight curves has been a problem on many routes operated by 142s, caused by the long wheelbase and lack of bogies; the rough ride which can result has led to the units being nicknamed Nodding Donkey.
The 142s were known as "Skippers" when they were allocated to Cornwall in the mid-1980s. They were transferred elsewhere when they proved unsuitable for the curved branch lines there; the class was upgraded in the early 1990s. All units carry a more powerful Cummins engine - 230 bhp per car, which equals 460 bhp per twin-car unit - and Voith two-stage hydraulic transmission, starting with a torque converter which switches to fluid coupling drive once the unit is up to 45 miles per hour; this has proven successful, although incidents have occurred, such as when a Northern Rail unit derailed en route from Blackpool to Liverpool in June 2009. From new, some units were painted according to the region. For example, the first 14 Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive sponsored units received GMPTE orange and brown the next 13 West Country based units were painted in a Great Western Railway inspired chocolate and cream livery and marketed as'Skippers'. Upon the privatisation of British Rail, the Class 142 Fleet was divided between North Western Trains in the North West and Northern Spirit in the North East.
Northern Spirit started its operations in 1997 and continued until 2000. At this point, parent company MTL ran into difficulties and the company was sold to Arriva, who renamed it as Arriva Trains Northern. In 1998 ATN swapped seven Class 142s for seven Class 150/2 units from Valley Lines. In October–December 2002 these were swapped for unrefurbished units 142072-77 and 080-3, as 142086-091 had only been refurbished by Northern Spirit and Valley Lines wished to start their own refurbishment from scratch. In 2004 First North Western and Arriva Trains Northern were merged into the Northern rail franchise, which inherited a combined fleet of 79 Class 142s. All 79 Class 142s are now painted in Northern Rail livery. Due to rising passenger numbers in the north of England, some units have been replaced by Sprinter trains. Five Class 142 Pacers, in service with First Great Western, were returned to Northern Rail in December 2008. Despite being built for branch-line stopping services, the Class 142s are used on urban commuter services in and out of cities like Liverpool, Sheffield and Newcastle and can be seen on longer-distance services of up to three hours including the 1632 Middlesbrough-Carlisle service.
All 79 passed with the Northern franchise to Arriva Rail North in April 2016. Class 142s have operated the following routes: Alderley Edge to Wigan North Western via Stockport Bishop Auckland to Saltburn Blackpool South to Colne Carlisle to Newcastle Carlisle to Lancaster via Barrow-in-Furness Crewe to Chester Crewe to Bolton Hexham to Middlesbrough Heysham Port to Lancaster Huddersfield to Knottingley Huddersfield to Manchester Victoria Huddersfield to Sheffield Huddersfield to Liverpool Lime Street Hull to York via Selby Hull to Bridlington Hull to Doncaster Leeds to Carlisle Leeds to Goole via Knottingley Leeds to Huddersfield Leeds to Morecambe Leeds to Sheffield via Penistone Leeds to Sheffield via Wakefield Westgate Leeds to York via Harrogate Lincoln Central to Sheffield Liverpool Lime Street to Manchester Oxford Road via Warrington Central Liverpool Lime Street to Manchester Victoria and Huddersfield Liverpool Lime Street to Warrington Bank Quay Manchester Piccadilly to Marple, Rose Hill Marple, New Mills Central Manchester Piccadilly to Hazel Grove Manchester Piccadilly to Sheffield via the Hope Valley line Manchester Piccadilly to Chester via Stockport and Knutsford Manchester Victoria to Kirkby and Southport Manchester Victoria to Leeds via Brighouse Manchester Victoria to Leeds via Halifax Manchester Victoria to Clitheroe via Bolton Manchester Victoria to Blackburn via Todmorden Manchester Victoria to Blackburn via Bolton Manchester Victoria to Rochdale via Oldham Manchester Victoria to Rochdale via Castleton Manchester Victoria to York MetroCentre and Newcastle to Morpeth and Chathill Middlesbrough to Whitby Preston to Ormskirk Sheffield to Cleethorpes via Gainsbrough Central Sheffield to Scunthorpe Stockport to Stalybridge Todmorden to Kirkby Wakefield Kirkgate to Selby via Huddersfield and Bradford Wrexham Central to Bidston (No longer used due to route now transferred to the
Diesel multiple unit
A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple-unit train powered by on-board diesel engines. A DMU requires no separate locomotive, as the engines are incorporated into one or more of the carriages. Diesel-powered single-unit railcars are generally classed as DMUs. Diesel-powered units may be further classified by their transmission type: diesel–electric, diesel–mechanical or diesel–hydraulic; the diesel engine may be located under the floor. Driving controls can be on one end, or in a separate car. DMUs are classified by the method of transmitting motive power to their wheels. In a diesel–mechanical multiple unit, the rotating energy of the engine is transmitted via a gearbox and driveshaft directly to the wheels of the train, like a car; the transmissions can be shifted manually by the driver, as in the great majority of first-generation British Rail DMUs, but in most applications, gears are changed automatically. In a diesel–hydraulic multiple unit, a hydraulic torque converter, a type of fluid coupling, acts as the transmission medium for the motive power of the diesel engine to turn the wheels.
Some units feature a hybrid mix of hydraulic and mechanical transmissions reverting to the latter at higher operating speeds as this decreases engine RPM and noise. In a diesel–electric multiple unit, a diesel engine drives an electrical generator or an alternator which produces electrical energy; the generated current is fed to electric traction motors on the wheels or bogies in the same way as a conventional diesel–electric locomotive. In modern DEMUs, such as the Bombardier Voyager family, each car is self-contained and has its own engine and electric motors. In older designs, such as the British Rail Class 207, some cars within the consist may be unpowered or only feature electric motors, obtaining electric current from other cars in the consist which have a generator and engine. A train composed of DMU cars scales well, as it allows extra passenger capacity to be added at the same time as motive power, it permits passenger capacity to be matched to demand, for trains to be split and joined en route.
It is not necessary to match the power available to the size and weight of the train, as each unit is capable of moving itself. As units are added, the power available to move the train increases by the necessary amount. DMUs may have better acceleration capabilities, with more power-driven axles, making them more suitable for routes with frequent spaced stops, as compared with conventional locomotive and unpowered carriage setups. Distribution of the propulsion among the cars results in a system, less vulnerable to single-point-of-failure outages. Many classes of DMU are capable of operating with faulty units still in the consist; because of the self-contained nature of diesel engines, there is no need to run overhead electric lines or electrified track, which can result in lower system construction costs. Such advantages must be weighed against the underfloor noise and vibration that may be an issue with this type of train. Diesel traction has several downsides compared to electric traction, namely higher fuel costs, more noise and exhaust as well as worse acceleration and top speed performance.
The power to weight ratio tends to be worse. DMUs have further disadvantages compared to diesel locomotives in that they cannot be swapped out when passing onto an electrified line, necessitating either passengers to change trains or Diesel operation on electrified lines; the lost investment once electrification reduces the demand for diesel rolling stock is higher than with locomotive hauled trains where only the locomotive has to be replaced. Diesel multiple units are in constant use in Croatia, operated by national operator Croatian Railways. On Croatian Railways, DMUs have important role since they cover local and distant lines across the country. Two largest towns in Croatia and Split, are daily connected with DMU tilting trains "RegioSwinger" that provide Inter City service between those two towns since 2004. In the early 1990s, luxury DMU series 7021 provided some of higher ranked lines across the country. DMU series HŽ series 7121, 7122 and Croatian-built series 7022 and 7023 are nowadays in high use covering country's local and regional services in country's interior on the tracks that are not electrified.
In the Republic of Ireland the Córas Iompair Éireann, which controlled the republic's railways between 1945 and 1986, introduced DMUs in the mid-1950s and they were the first diesel trains on many main lines. The first significant use of DMUs in the United Kingdom was by the Great Western Railway, which introduced its small but successful series of diesel–mechanical GWR railcars in 1934; the London and North Eastern Railway and London and Scottish Railway experimented with DMUs in the 1930s, the LMS both on its own system, on that of its Northern Irish subsidiary, but development was curtailed by World War II. After nationalisation, British Railways revived the concept in the early 1950s. At that time there was an urgent need to move away from expensive steam traction which led to many experimental designs using diesel propulsion and multiple units; the early DMUs proved successful, under BR's 1955 Modernisation Plan the building of a large fleet was authorised. These BR "First Generation" DMUs were built between 1956 and 1963.
BR required that contracts for the design and manufacture of new locomotives and rolling stock be split between n
Silverlink was a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by National Express that operated the North London Railways franchise from March 1997 until November 2007. At the end of 2007 Silverlink Metro services were taken over by London Overground and Silverlink County services were taken over by London Midland; the North London Railways franchise was awarded to National Express on 7 February 1997. National Express commenced operating the franchise on 3 March 1997. After trading as North London Railways, in September 1997 the franchise was rebranded as Silverlink; the franchise was due to finish on 15 October 2006, but on 11 August 2006 the Department for Transport granted an extension until 10 November 2007. Silverlink had two sub-brands: Silverlink Metro was used for services within Greater London: North Woolwich - Richmond Willesden Junction - Clapham Junction London Euston - Watford Junction via Willesden Junction Gospel Oak - Barking Silverlink County was used for services beyond Greater London: London Euston - Birmingham New Street Watford Junction - St Albans Abbey Bletchley - Bedford Silverlink Metro operated these services.
Note: Changes during the franchise period are noted but changes to the lines before and after the franchise are not. † At the end of service on Saturday 9 December 2006 the line between Stratford and North Woolwich closed, as much of the route was duplicated by the Docklands Light Railway and the Jubilee line, leaving Stratford as the eastern terminus of the North London Line. Shepherd's Bush on the West London Line was due to open under the franchise, but platform widening work meant that it opened in September 2008 under London Overground management, the signage being replaced with the London Overground roundels by that time. † = served by the Bakerloo line. Northampton Line services ran on the slow lines of the West Coast Main Line. † Services north of Northampton were taken over by Central Trains from 2005. The route shared rolling stock and parent company with Silverlink, some through services remained. Silverlink was categorised as a London and South East operator by the Office for Rail Regulation and was one of the best performing TOCs in this sector with a PPM of 90.8% for the last quarter of the financial year 2006/7.
This figure is for the whole of the day, as opposed to just peak services for which their performance is lower. The figures are down from the previous year, but remain above the sector level of 89.0%. Despite published performance figures the Silverlink Metro franchise on the North London Line was regarded by frequent travellers as offering a poor service, with congested trains and an unreliable service with some trains cancelled shortly before they are due to arrive. A London Assembly report described the service as "shabby, unreliable and overcrowded"; the recent transfer of the service to Transport for London has the potential to improve the quality of the service due to upgrade plans which coincide with the extension of the East London line. A report on the future of the line can be found on the London Assembly website. Silverlink inherited a fleet of Class 121, Class 313 and Class 321s from British Rail. To replace the Class 117 and 121s, seven Class 150s were transferred from Central Trains in summer 1999, with an eighth following in 2006.
Pending their arrival Silverlink hired Class 31s from Fragonset to top and tail Mark 2 carriages on Bletchley - Bedford services in 1998/99. In 2003 three Class 508s were transferred from Merseyrail for use on the Watford DC Line; the Strategic Rail Authority decided to divert thirty four-carriage Siemens Desiro carriages from an order made by South West Trains to provide stock with faster acceleration for the West Coast Main Line operators. They were not allocated to a specific operator but a shared fleet used by both Silverlink and Central Trains, both being National Express train operating companies. On 16 July 2004, Virgin Trains announced that it was withdrawing most of its stops at Milton Keynes Central, which were used by up to 6,000 passengers a day. Commuters became unhappy at the prospect of switching to older Silverlink trains, a longer journey. Silverlink countered this with the temporary usage of ex-Virgin stock, still in Virgin colours. While awaiting these to arrive, from September 2004 Silverlink introduced two former Virgin Trains Mark 3 sets hauled by Virgin Trains Class 87s and EWS Class 90s on peak hour Northampton services as well as hiring five Class 321s from National Express sister fleet One.
Metro services were operated by Class 313s on the electrified routes, with the Class 508s used on the Euston - Watford Junction service from 2003. County services to Northampton and Birmingham were operated by Class 321s joined in 2005 by Class 350s; the St Albans Abbey line was operated for many years by Class 313s, but were operated by Class 321s with Silverlink Metro drivers and Silverlink County guards. The non-electrified Bletchley - Bedford and Gospel Oak - Barking services used Class 117 and Class 121s before Class 150s took over in 1999. Silverlink's fleet was maintained at Bletchley Depot. Following Virgin Trains ceasing to operate electric locomotives, Silverlink's Metro fleet moved to Willesden Depot. In 2006 Alstom proposed closing Willesden. Closure would have left the Class 508s homeless and the Class 313s having to return to Bletchley Depot, due to close. On 12 May 2007 Silverlink took over direct running of the depot and its staff for the final six months of its franchise; as part of a wider redrawing of the rail franchise map by the Department of Tr
Heating and air conditioning is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide acceptable indoor air quality. HVAC system design is a subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. "Refrigeration" is sometimes added to the field's abbreviation, as HVAC&R or HVACR or "ventilation" is dropped, as in HACR. HVAC is an important part of residential structures such as single family homes, apartment buildings and senior living facilities, medium to large industrial and office buildings such as skyscrapers and hospitals, vehicles such as cars, airplanes and submarines, in marine environments, where safe and healthy building conditions are regulated with respect to temperature and humidity, using fresh air from outdoors. Ventilating or ventilation is the process of exchanging or replacing air in any space to provide high indoor air quality which involves temperature control, oxygen replenishment, removal of moisture, smoke, dust, airborne bacteria, carbon dioxide, other gases.
Ventilation removes unpleasant smells and excessive moisture, introduces outside air, keeps interior building air circulating, prevents stagnation of the interior air. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as circulation of air within the building, it is one of the most important factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. Methods for ventilating a building may be divided into natural types; the three major functions of heating and air conditioning are interrelated with the need to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality within reasonable installation and maintenance costs. HVAC systems can be used in both commercial environments. HVAC systems can provide ventilation, maintain pressure relationships between spaces; the means of air delivery and removal from spaces is known as room air distribution. In modern buildings, the design and control systems of these functions are integrated into one or more HVAC systems. For small buildings, contractors estimate the capacity and type of system needed and design the system, selecting the appropriate refrigerant and various components needed.
For larger buildings, building service designers, mechanical engineers, or building services engineers analyze and specify the HVAC systems. Specialty mechanical contractors fabricate and commission the systems. Building permits and code-compliance inspections of the installations are required for all sizes of building. Although HVAC is executed in individual buildings or other enclosed spaces, the equipment involved is in some cases an extension of a larger district heating or district cooling network, or a combined DHC network. In such cases, the operating and maintenance aspects are simplified and metering becomes necessary to bill for the energy, consumed, in some cases energy, returned to the larger system. For example, at a given time one building may be utilizing chilled water for air conditioning and the warm water it returns may be used in another building for heating, or for the overall heating-portion of the DHC network. Basing HVAC on a larger network helps provide an economy of scale, not possible for individual buildings, for utilizing renewable energy sources such as solar heat, winter's cold, the cooling potential in some places of lakes or seawater for free cooling, the enabling function of seasonal thermal energy storage.
HVAC is based on inventions and discoveries made by Nikolay Lvov, Michael Faraday, Willis Carrier, Edwin Ruud, Reuben Trane, James Joule, William Rankine, Sadi Carnot, many others. Multiple inventions within this time frame preceded the beginnings of first comfort air conditioning system, designed in 1902 by Alfred Wolff for the New York Stock Exchange, while Willis Carrier equipped the Sacketts-Wilhems Printing Company with the process AC unit the same year. Coyne College was the first school to offer HVAC training in 1899; the invention of the components of HVAC systems went hand-in-hand with the industrial revolution, new methods of modernization, higher efficiency, system control are being introduced by companies and inventors worldwide. Heaters are appliances; this can be done via central heating. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to heat water, steam, or air in a central location such as a furnace room in a home, or a mechanical room in a large building; the heat can be transferred by conduction, or radiation.
Heaters exist for various types of fuel, including solid fuels and gases. Another type of heat source is electricity heating ribbons composed of high resistance wire; this principle is used for baseboard heaters and portable heaters. Electrical heaters are used as backup or supplemental heat for heat pump systems; the heat pump gained popularity in the 1950s in the United States. Heat pumps can extract heat from various sources, such as environmental air, exhaust air from a building, or from the ground. Heat pump HVAC systems were only used in moderate climates, but with improvements in low temperature operation and reduced loads due to more efficient homes, they are increasing in popularity in cooler climates. In the case of heated water or steam, piping is used to transport the heat
Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC since 1963. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lord called "the Doctor", an extraterrestrial being, to all appearances human, from the planet Gallifrey; the Doctor explores the universe in a time-travelling space ship called the TARDIS. Its exterior appears as a blue British police box, a common sight in Britain in 1963 when the series first aired. Accompanied by a number of companions, the Doctor combats a variety of foes while working to save civilisations and help people in need; the show is a significant part of British popular culture, elsewhere it has gained a cult following. It has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series; the programme ran from 1963 to 1989. There was an unsuccessful attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with a backdoor pilot, in the form of a television film titled Doctor Who; the programme was relaunched in 2005, since has been produced in-house by BBC Wales in Cardiff.
Doctor Who has spawned numerous spin-offs, including comic books, novels, audio dramas, the television series Torchwood, The Sarah Jane Adventures, K-9, Class, has been the subject of many parodies and references in popular culture. Thirteen actors have headlined the series as the Doctor; the transition from one actor to another is written into the plot of the show with the concept of regeneration into a new incarnation, a plot device in which a Time Lord "transforms" into a new body when the current one is too badly harmed to heal normally. Each actor's portrayal is unique. Together, they form a single lifetime with a single narrative; the time-travelling feature of the plot means that different incarnations of the Doctor meet. The Doctor is portrayed by Jodie Whittaker, who took on the role after Peter Capaldi's exit in the 2017 Christmas special "Twice Upon a Time". Doctor Who follows the adventures of the title character, a rogue Time Lord from the planet Gallifrey who goes by the name "the Doctor".
The Doctor fled Gallifrey in a stolen TARDIS, a time machine that travels by materialising into and dematerialising out of the time vortex. The TARDIS has a vast interior but appears smaller on the outside, is equipped with a "chameleon circuit" intended to make the machine take on the appearance of local objects as a disguise. Across time and space, the Doctor's many incarnations find events that pique their curiosity and try to prevent evil forces from harming innocent people or changing history, using only ingenuity and minimal resources, such as the versatile sonic screwdriver; the Doctor travels alone and brings one or more companions to share these adventures. These companions are humans, owing to the Doctor's fascination with planet Earth, which leads to frequent collaborations with the international military task force UNIT when the Earth is threatened; the Doctor is centuries old and, as a Time Lord, has the ability to regenerate in case of mortal damage to the body, taking on a new appearance and personality.
The Doctor has gained numerous reoccurring enemies during their travels, including the Daleks, the Cybermen, the Master, another renegade Time Lord. Doctor Who first appeared on BBC TV at 17:16:20 GMT on Saturday, 23 November 1963, it was to be each episode 25 minutes of transmission length. Discussions and plans for the programme had been in progress for a year; the head of drama Sydney Newman was responsible for developing the programme, with the first format document for the series being written by Newman along with the head of the script department Donald Wilson and staff writer C. E. Webber. Writer Anthony Coburn, story editor David Whitaker and initial producer Verity Lambert heavily contributed to the development of the series; the programme was intended to appeal to a family audience as an educational programme using time travel as a means to explore scientific ideas and famous moments in history. On 31 July 1963, Whitaker commissioned Terry Nation to write a story under the title The Mutants.
As written, the Daleks and Thals were the victims of an alien neutron bomb attack but Nation dropped the aliens and made the Daleks the aggressors. When the script was presented to Newman and Wilson it was rejected as the programme was not permitted to contain any "bug-eyed monsters". According to producer Verity Lambert. We had a bit of a crisis of confidence. Had we had anything else ready we would have made that." Nation's script became the second Doctor. The serial introduced the eponymous aliens that would become the series' most popular monsters, was responsible for the BBC's first merchandising boom; the BBC drama department's serials division produced the programme for 26 seasons, broadcast on BBC 1. Falling viewing numbers, a decline in the public perception of the show and a less-prominent transmission slot saw production suspended in 1989 by Jonathan Powell, controller of BBC 1. Although it was cancelled with the decision not to commission a planned 27th season, which would have been broadcast in 1990, the BBC affirmed, over several ye
Network SouthEast was one of the three passenger sectors of British Rail formed in 1982. NSE principally operated commuter trains in the London area and inter-urban services in densely populated South East England, although the network reached as far west as Exeter. Before 1986, the sector was known as South Eastern. During the privatisation of British Rail it was broken into a number of franchises. Before the sectorisation of British Rail in 1982 the system was split into autonomous regional operations: those operating around London were the London Midland Region, Southern Region, Western Region and Eastern Region. Sectorisation of BR altered this setup by instead organising by the traffic type: commuter services in the south-east of England, long distance intercity services, local services in the UK regions and freight; the aim was to introduce greater budgetary efficiency and managerial accountability by building a more market-focused and responsive business, rather than privatising BR outright.
It was expected that the London and South East sector would cover most of its operating costs from revenues, in contrast to subsidised rural services. Upon sectorisation, the London & South Eastern sector took over responsibility for passenger services in the south-east of England, working with the existing BR business units of Regions and Functions to deliver the overall service. Day-to-day operation and timetabling continued to be delivered by the Regions – and the sector came into existence with thirty staff based at Waterloo. On 10 June 1986, L&SE was relaunched as Network SouthEast, along with a new red and blue livery; the relaunch was intended to be more than a superficial rebranding and was underpinned by considerable investment in the presentation of stations and trains, as well as efforts to improve service standards. This approach was brought about by a new director, Chris Green, who had presided over similar transformation and rebranding of ScotRail. Although NSE did not own or maintain infrastructure, it exercised control over all carrier core functions.
NSE set its own goals and service standards in consultation with BR, created its own management structure and oversight. BR allowed NSE to decide about scheduling, infrastructure enhancements, rolling stock specifications on NSE-assigned lines and services. In April 1990, British Rail Chairman Bob Reid announced that sectorisation would be made complete, with regions disbanded by 1991/92 and the individual sectors becoming directly responsible for all operations other than a few core long-term planning and standards functions. Network SouthEast thus went from a business unit of around 300 staff to a major business operation with 38,000 staff and a £4.7bn asset value – large enough to be ranked as the 15th-biggest business in the UK. Network SouthEast, like each other sector, was given primary responsibility for various assets, control resided with the primary user. Other sectors could negotiate access rights and rent facilities. NSE was able to exert much greater control and accountability over both its operating budget and service quality than BR could under its Regions.
Relations were good between NSE and other sectors, although operating pressures sometimes forced staff to use equipment and assets belonging to other sectors to meet immediate needs. On 1 April 1994, Network SouthEast was disbanded with its operations transferred to train operating units ready for privatisation. Although NSE ceased to exist in 1994, the grouping of services that it defined before privatisation remain grouped by the Network Railcard, which can be bought for £30 and which offers a 34% discount for adults and 60% discount for accompanying children after 10:00 on weekdays and all day at weekends. Holders of annual season tickets for journeys within the Network area, including on London Underground, are issued with a "Gold Card" which gives them similar privileges to the Network Railcard. NSE was broken down into various sub-divisions. Soon after conception, Network SouthEast started to modernise parts of the network, which had become run down after years of under-investment; the most extreme example was the Chiltern Lines.
The Chiltern Line ran on two railway lines from London Marylebone to Banbury. These lines were former GWR and GCR intercity lines to Nottingham respectively. After the Beeching Axe in the 1960s, these lines became run down with a lack of investment and a reduction of services. By the late 1980s, the 25-year-old Class 115s needed replacement. NSE realised. Numerous plans for the lines were proposed. One serious plan was to close the line between Marylebone and South Ruislip/Harrow-on-the-Hill, convert Marylebone into a coach station. Metropolitan line trains would be extended to Aylesbury and BR services from Aylesbury would be routed to London Paddington via High Wycombe; the line north of Princes Risborough would close. However, this did not happen as Baker Street and London Paddington would not have been able to cope with the extra trains and passengers. What did happen was total route modernisation; this was an ambitious plan to bring the lines into the modern era of rail travel. Class 115s were replaced by new Class 165s.
Semaphore signals were replaced by standard colour light signals and ATP was fitted on the line and trains. Speed limits
The Wensleydale Railway is a heritage railway in Wensleydale and Lower Swaledale in North Yorkshire, England. The line runs 22 miles between Northallerton West station, about a fifteen-minute walk from Northallerton station on the East Coast Main Line, Redmire. Regular passenger services operate between Leeming Bar and Redmire, while occasional freight services and excursions travel the full length of the line; the line ran from Northallerton to Garsdale on the Settle-Carlisle Railway, but the track between Redmire and Garsdale has been lifted and several bridges and viaducts demolished. On 26 June 1846, an Act of Parliament authorised the Great North of England Railway and its successor the York and Berwick Railway to build a line between Northallerton and Bedale; the 5 1⁄2-mile section between Northallerton and Leeming Lane opened on 6 March 1848. The section between Leeming Bar and Bedale, authorised by the Act was not built; the Bedale and Leyburn Railway, financed by local landowners, was an 11 1⁄2-mile extension between Leeming Bar and Leyburn, authorised on 4 August 1853.
The York and Berwick had become a founder member of the North Eastern Railway on 31 July 1854, the Bedale and Leyburn was absorbed into this larger company in 1859. The Liverpool and Newcastle upon Tyne Junction Railway had been proposed in the mid-1840s railway mania to link Settle and Askrigg, in 1846 the Liverpool and Newcastle upon Tyne Junction Railway was given permission for a main line from Elslack, on the Leeds and Bradford Railway, to Scorton on the Richmond branch of the Great North of England Railway, a branch line to Hawes, but this scheme failed. In the late 1860s, several competing railways proposed to serve the agricultural land around Hawes. An Act of Parliament raised by the Midland Railway that related to the Settle and Carlisle line but included a branch off this line between Garsdale and Hawes was authorised on 16 July 1866. An Act of Parliament raised by the North Eastern Railway for a railway between Leyburn and Hawes was authorised on 4 July 1870; the section of this railway between Leyburn and Askrigg opened on 1 February 1877.
At this point, there was a through route between Garsdale. The line remained a single track branch line transporting stone. One passenger train each way was operated between Garsdale and Hawes until 14 March 1959 at which point this part of the line closed to all traffic. On 27 April 1964, the line between Hawes closed completely; the track west of Redmire was lifted and many bridges on this section of the line were demolished in 1965. With the exception of goods trains serving the quarry near Redmire until 1992, freight traffic on the line ceased in 1982; some excursion tours ran to Redmire in the 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s the Dalesrail services in 1977 which prompted interest in a renewed passenger service on the line. The Wensleydale Railway Association was formed in 1990 with the main aim of restoring passenger services; when British Rail decided to try to sell the line between Northallerton and Redmire following cessation of the quarry trains to Redmire, the WRA decided to take a more proactive role and aimed to operate passenger services itself.
The Ministry of Defence had an interest in using the line between Northallerton and Redmire to transport armoured vehicles to/from Catterick Garrison. The MoD paid for repairs and restoration of the line and the installation of loading facilities at Redmire, did not object to WRC taking over the line. A trial train ran in November 1993 and full MoD operations started in July 1996; these military transport trains continue to this day. In 2000 WRA formed a separate operating company, the Wensleydale Railway plc, issued a share offer to raise funds. £1.2 million was raised through this method. Railtrack agreed to lease the line between Northallerton and Redmire to WRC and a 99-year lease was signed in 2003. Passenger services restarted on 4 July 2003 with the stations at Leeming Bar and Leyburn being reopened. In 2004, the stations at Bedale and Redmire were reopened. In 2010 a passing loop was opened at the site of the former Constable Burton station, which enabled the railway to introduce a 2-train service when required.
In 2014, Scruton station was reopened and a new station built at Northallerton West, enabling passenger services to be extended east of Leeming Bar, but this section was closed to passengers again in August 2016 following a collision between a train and a car at a level crossing near Yafforth. It is hoped to recommence services at a future date once work to upgrade level crossing equipment is complete. In 2016 it was reported that the railway carries over 50,000 people a year and that for every £1 spent on the railway, £4 is spent at one of the towns or villages on the route; the company's longer-term aim is to reopen the 18 miles of line west from Redmire via Castle Bolton, Askrigg, Bainbridge and Mossdale to join up with the Settle-Carlisle Railway Route at Garsdale. A study commissioned by the railway indicated that an initial extension to Aysgarth from Redmire, would generate an extra income of £3.1 m