GCR Class 8
The Great Central Railway Class 8 - London North Eastern Railway Class B5 - was a class of 4-6-0 steam locomotives. They were nicknamed "Fish Engines" on delivery, due to their use on the fast fish deliveries from Grimsby to places like London, the duty they were designed for; the last was withdrawn in 1950. A 1/5 scale, 10.25 in gauge model of number 181 has been made by Andrew Simkins. This model is externally faithful to Robinson's design but cleverly uses a footwell to conceal most of the driver in the tender, it was showcased and won an award at the Model engineering exhibition in 2003. It has since been seen on several of the 10.25 in gauge railways around Britain. Boddy, M. G.. A.. V.. N. T.. B.. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 2B: Tender Engines - Classes B1 to B19. Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-73-8. OCLC 655688865. Casserley, H. C.. W. Johnson. Locomotives at the Grouping 2: London and North Eastern Railway. Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan Limited. Pp. 12, 107, 111. ISBN 0-7110-0553-2. LNER Encyclopedia
GCR Class 11E
The GCR Class 11E was a type of 4-4-0 steam locomotive used by the Great Central Railway for express passenger services. Ten were built in the railway's own workshops at Gorton, Manchester during 1913. In the early part of the 20th century, the Great Central Railway had favoured the 4-4-0 wheel arrangement for express passenger services, they had bought 40 such locomotives to the design of their Locomotive Engineer, John G. Robinson, between 1901 and 1904, these formed class 11B; these were found to be too small, subsequently several classes of 4-4-2 and 4-6-0 locomotive were introduced for express passenger trains, with the 4-4-2 type predominating. After the class 1 4-6-0, which were larger than any of the others, proved disappointing, Robinson decided to reduce the size of these and designed a 4-4-0 which became Class 11E. Ten were built in 1913, were successful. Compared to the class 1 4-6-0, the omission of one coupled axle allowed a longer wheelbase between two adjacent axles of a 4-4-0 than with the 4-6-0, so the firebox could be positioned between the axles instead of on top of one of them.
The shorter overall length meant that the boiler tubes were shorter, which improved draughting. Unusually, outside admission was used for the piston valves of the cylinders. Conventionally, piston valve locomotives had inside admission, whereas outside admission was used with slide valve locomotives. Outside admission gives a shorter exhaust passage, with the consequent advantages of a lower back pressure and sharper blast, but with the disadvantage that the valve spindle glands must be made to withstand much higher pressures and temperatures. Robinson had used outside admission for his class 11D rebuilds from class 11B, the new class 11E used the same cylinder casting as those rebuilds; when further 4-4-0s of similar capability to class 11E were required after World War I, these were given normal cylinders with inside admission for the piston valves, so were placed in class 11F. Withdrawal occurred between March 1953 and November 1955. On 27 February 1927, locomotive No. 5437 Prince George was hauling an express passenger train, involved in a collision with a light engine at Penistone Yorkshire.
The original names were those of directors of the GCR. At the time, there were twelve members of the GCR Board. However, the latter's name was used on class 11E no. 429, so one director was not honoured at this stage. Two locomotives had their names altered subsequently, one of them twice. Sir Alexander Henderson was created Baron Faringdon in 1916, but his new name was used on a class 9P 4-6-0, so in 1917 no. 429 was renamed Sir Douglas Haig after the Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force. In turn, Sir Douglas was created Earl Haig in 1919 and his new name used on another class 9P 4-6-0, so no. 429 was renamed a second time, becoming Prince Henry c. 1920 after the fourth child of King George V. When Charles Stuart-Wortley was raised to the peerage as Baron Stuart of Wortley in 1917, his name was used on a further class 9P, so no. 437 was renamed Prince George c. 1920 after the fifth child of King George V. After the 1923 Grouping, the LNER increased the GCR numbers by 5000, this occurring in 1924–5.
Under the 1946 renumbering, they became 2650–9 in the same order. During 1948–50, British Railways increased these numbers by 60000. Boddy, M. G.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 2B: Tender Engines—Classes B1 to B19. Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-73-8. Boddy, M. G.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 3B: Tender Engines—Classes D1 to D12. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-46-0. Hoole, Ken. Trains in Trouble: Vol. 3. Redruth: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-05-2
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
GCR Class 8F
The GCR Class 8F was a class of ten 4-6-0 locomotives built for the Great Central Railway in 1906 by Beyer and Company to the design of John G. Robinson for working fast goods and fish trains, they passed to the London and North Eastern Railway at the 1923 grouping and received the classification'B4'. The new design was similar to 4-6-0 the two locomotives of the except that they had smaller driving wheels, they were built with a saturated boiler, inside slide valves and Stephenson valve gear, two outside cylinders connected to 6-foot-7-inch diameter driving wheels. The ten locomotives were renumbered by the LNER by adding 5000 to their GCR numbers. Between 1925 and 1928 the whole class received superheated boilers, but six received 10-inch piston valves and 21-inch cylinders giving rise to two LNER sub-classes B4/1 and B4/2; the LNER had designed a new type of superheated boiler based on the old design. These were used on the B4 class locomotives; the class were used on fish trains between the port of Grimsby and London and Manchester although they were found to be successful passenger locomotives.
The first locomotive No. 1095 was chosen to haul the special train at the inauguration ceremony for the new port of Immingham in 1906, was named ‘Immingham’ thereafter. After grouping the class was transferred to Ardsley, South Yorkshire and did much useful work in the West Riding of Yorkshire Boddy, M. G.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 2B: Tender Engines—Classes B1 to B19. Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-73-8
GCR Class 9F
The Great Central Railway Class 9F was a class of 0-6-2T steam locomotive built between 1891 and 1901. From 1923 the locomotives were redesignated Class N5. Designed by Thomas Parker for the Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway, the prototype 9F was built in 1891. A total of 12 batches were constructed up with 131 locos being completed; the MS&LR changed its name to the GCR in 1897. The GCR 9F locos were reclassified as N5 under the LNER locomotive numbering and classification system when the GCR was absorbed into the London & North Eastern Railway after the 1923 grouping, it was the first design for a British railway to use the Belpaire firebox. The 9F N5, locos were utilised for a variety of purposes including goods shunting, short goods train trips and local passenger train duties; some locos acted as station pilots at larger termini. The N5 class was spread over the ex-GCR rail system and elsewhere. During July 1952, there were N5s based at Neasden, Lincoln, Darnall and Northwich, Chester and Wrexham, plus several other loco depots.
The GCR locos had 5000 added to their original numbers when the line was absorbed by the LNER in 1923, resulting in numbers ranging between 5021 and 5946. As part of the LNER's numbering rationalisation scheme introduced in 1946, the surviving 121 N5s were renumbered between 9250 and 9370 with the earliest built receiving the lowest number, so on. British Railways, formed on 1 January 1948, added 60000 to all LNER loco numbers. All 131 9F locos survived to be absorbed by the LNER in 1923. 121 N5 locos remained in service at the creation of British Railways in 1948. 117 survived at 24 April 1954, reducing to 46 at 8 March 1958 as diesel-electric shunters were delivered. The last N5 was withdrawn for scrapping in 1961. Notes Bibliography LNER encyclopedia
GCR Class 11B
Although overshadowed by the and more famous steam locomotives that John G. Robinson would go on to design, the Great Central Railway Class 11B 4-4-0 Express Passenger engines were a successful class which totalled 40. Built from 1901–1903, in rebuilt form as 11D, some 11Bs would last in service until 1950. Railwaymen continued to refer to the class as "11B" after all were rebuilt to 11D. Being contemporary with and to some extent the 4-4-0 version of Robinson's much more numerous 0-6-0 goods class 9J, which were known as "Pom-Poms", the 11Bs acquired the nickname "Pom-Pom Bogies"; the London & North Eastern Railway classified the 11Bs, along with their 11C and 11D rebuilds, as Class D9. When John G. Robinson took up the reins at Gorton there was a serious and immediate shortage of suitable locomotives. Part of the requirement was for express passenger engines for the newly completed London Extension. Pollitt's locomotives of class 11 were performing satisfactorily but the piston-valved 11A 4-4-0s, intended for use on Marylebone expresses had been problematic.
There were some ordered 4-2-2'singles' being delivered, but Robinson decided that more powerful locomotives were required. The 11Bs therefore emerged as a robust and enlarged evolution of GCR Class 11, with the then-conventional slide valves. Gorton was busy at the time and the engines were needed urgently, so outside builders were used. Delivery was rapid and 25 were in service by May 1902, 30 by March 1903 and all 40 by June 1904; as intended the 11Bs displaced Pollitt's 11As on the London Extension services, with engines shedded at Leicester and Neasden. The 11Bs were displaced in their turn by the arrival of Robinson's "Atlantics", a process completed by the arrival of the "Director" 4-4-0s. 11Bs found uses on the older parts of the Great Central Railway network, based in Sheffield and Annesley, with others scattered elsewhere. By the Grouping, increasing numbers of the engines had been rebuilt with larger superheated boilers and piston valves becoming GCR Class 11D; the last conversion was completed in 1927.
On 23 December 1904, locomotive No. 1040 was hauling an express passenger train, derailed at Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire due to excessive speed on a curve. Four people were killed; the performance of these engines was much overshadowed by Robinson engines such as classes 8B, 11E, 11F. They must have been at least reasonably satisfactory from the start to merit the additional order of 10 in 1904. Hancox records them capable of working nine bogie coaches. London Extension schedules from 1905, at which time the 11Bs were still working some of the best trains, needed average speeds of nearly 60 mph and to keep these times much faster running must have been required. With light loads this implies at the least a free-running locomotive, their long lives suggest trouble-free construction. However effective they were, Robinson identified a need for larger express passenger locomotives, with the 8B "Jersey Lilies" appearing in 1903 soon after the 11Bs were delivered. There were three distinct attempts to improve the 11Bs through rebuilding, creating GCR Class 11C and 11D.
Four of the class were given names, although speaking only one - 1014 - carried a name when still class 11B: The nature of these titles demonstrates the high status that the engines enjoyed at the time they were named. As built, all 40 had cylinders incorporating slide valves; these locomotives formed GCR Class 11B. The 11Bs were little changed from introduction until rebuilding as the superheated 11D starting with No. 1021 in 1913, except for two prior attempts to upgrade the class. The first was fitting of larger saturated boilers and modified pistons to Nos. 104 and 110 creating GCR Class 11C in 1907 without significant success. Two locomotives, nos. 104 and 110, were rebuilt in 1907 with larger boilers: these were 5 feet 0 inches diameter, with fireboxes 8 feet 6 inches long. No. 110 lost its large boiler in August 1918. The large boiler, removed was fitted to no. 113 in October 1918, given piston valves at the same time. Nos. 104 & 113 were rebuilt to class 11D in 1923. In 1909, no. 1026 was given a boiler of the same diameter as the 11C rebuilds, but with the same firebox length as the 11B class.
It received new cylinders, incorporating piston valves. This boiler was saturated, but from 1913 further boilers of this size, which incorporated superheaters, were fitted to the 11B class, each of, reclassified 11D. No. 1026 was so rebuilt in 1914, its previous boiler being transferred to no. 105. All the rebuilds were given piston valves at the same time as the large boilers, apart from five locomotives, which had received piston valves anything from two to six years beforehand. 105, which retained slide valves when first given a large boiler, receiving piston valves when fitted with a superheated boiler in 1923. The process of rebuilding to class 11D was completed in January 1927, by which time the GCR had become part of the LNER, which placed all 40 in class D9; the first D9 was withdrawn by the LNER in 1939 and 26 remained in service on nationalization of the railways in 194
GCR Class 9K
The Great Central Railway 9K and 9L classes were two related classes of 4-4-2T Atlantic steam locomotives. They were both intended for suburban passenger services. After the 1923 Grouping, they served the LNER as classes C13 and C14, their designer was John G. Robinson; the design was based on the earlier Pollitt Class 9G 2-4-2T locomotives, but with a lengthened boiler and a leading bogie to carry it. This extension of running gear resembled an early Robinson design for the Irish Waterford and Western Railway. All passed into British Railways service and the first was not withdrawn until 1952. Most were withdrawn between 1955 and 1959; the last examples of each class, 9K 67417 and 9L 67450, were scrapped in 1960. None were preserved. Forty locomotives were built to the 9K class, in four batches between 1903 and 1905; the GCR installed water troughs around the same time. They were fitted with water scoops. In 1933, six locomotives were fitted according to the GCR mechanical system; these were converted to the LNER vacuum system and in 1941, two others were converted.
One example, No. 18 was experimentally superheated in 1915. From 1926 to 1935 the entire class was superheated. During this time, the original saturated locomotives were classified as C13/1 and the superheated rebuilds as C13/2; some locomotives were rebuilt further as C13/3, with shortened chimneys and domes to fit within the LNER loading gauge. By 1938, all locomotives had been rebuilt to the C13/3 standard and so the distinguishing sub-classes were abandoned; the 9K class was built for the London suburban services. Within a few years, the timing of these suburban trains was facing competition from electric services. Competing with these required faster acceleration and the more powerful 4-6-2T Class 9N was introduced. From 1922 they were dispersed away from London through the GCR network, to South Yorkshire between Manchester and Mexborough. Most notably, many of them went to Wrexham where they were based until the 1950s; the South Yorkshire engines moved to Gorton locomotive shed, from where they were used on Manchester suburban services, destinations as far as Hayfield and Macclesfield joined by the 9Ls, until they were both replaced by DMUs after post-1955 dieselisation.
All passed into British Railways service and survived until at least 1952. But were withdrawn between 1955 and 1959; the last No 67417 was scrapped in 1960. None were preserved; the class was successful throughout its working life and is considered to be one of Robinson's best designs. A further twelve locomotives were built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1907. These were of the same design, but had enlarged water and coal capacity, they were designated 9L by the GCR and C14 by the LNER. The side tanks were enlarged by widening their side plates. Overall width across the tanks increased from 8' 6" to 8' 9"; this gives rise to a visible recognition feature in photographs: the 9K have tank and cab sides in a flat plane, the 9L tank sides project slightly. Coal capacity was increased by raising the rear wall of the bunker with a semicircular extension; the boilers were the same as for the 9K. All were built with saturated boilers and, as for the 9Ks, were rebuilt with superheating as their boilers were replaced.
The first to be superheated was Nº 1122 in 1914, although this was not a new boiler and only lasted until 1923 when it was replaced by a saturated boiler. All were converted under LNER ownership, from 1926 to 1935. Water pick-up gear and shortened chimneys to fit the LNER loading gauge were removed and changed as for the 9K class; the 9L class was built for the London suburban services from Marylebone and they were based at Neasden shed. With the introduction of the Class 9Ns, the 9Ls were moved to stopping services on the Great Central Main Line and by 1922 they were based around Nottingham, with one of the twelve stabled at Woodford and some occasional allocations to Hitchin and Hatfield. From 1934, they were some to East Anglia and others to the West Riding and Manchester. After Nationalisation, they were once again working suburban passenger services with the 9Ks, out of Manchester. Nearly all were scrapped following the introduction of DMUs for the suburban services; the last Nº 67450 survived until 1960.
None were preserved. On 8 June 1939, locomotive No. 5020 was hauling a passenger train which departed from Manchester Central station, Lancashire against a danger signal. It was derailed. Several people were injured. "GCR/LNER Robinson "C13" Class 4-4-2T". BRDatabase. Archived from the original on 21 June 2016. "GCR/LNER Robinson "C14" Class 4-4-2T". BRDatabase. Archived from the original on 21 June 2016