British Rail Class 373

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British Rail Class 373
Eurostar "e300"
TGV TMST
Eurostar livrée bleue, Chambéry 2016.JPG
373218 leaving Chambéry in Savoie, France
Eurostar Leisure Select Seats.jpg
The orginal interior of the Class 373s
In service 1993 - present (Test)
14 November 1994 - present (Passenger Services)
Manufacturer GEC-Alsthom, BN
Family name TGV
Constructed 1992 - 1996
Number built 31 trainsets (Three Capitals)
7 trainsets (North of London)
Number scrapped 10 trainsets
Formation 20 cars (Three Capitals):
DM+MS+TS+TS+TS+TS+TBK+TF+TF+TBF + TBF+TF+TF+TBK+TS+TS+TS+TS+MS+DM
16 cars (North of London):
DM+MS+TS+TS+TS+TBK+TF+TBF + TBF+TF+TBK+TS+TS+TS+MS+DM[1]
Capacity 750 seats (Three Capitals)
558 seats (North of London)
Operator(s) Eurostar
Depot(s) Temple Mills
North Pole International (former)[2]
Specifications
Car body construction Steel
Train length 387 m
Car length 18.7 m (61 ft 4 in) (middle)[3]
22.15 m (72 ft 8 in) (driving)
21.84 m (71 ft 8 in) (powered middle)
Width 2.81 m (9 ft 3 in)
Maximum speed 300 km/h (186 mph) (Service)
334.7 km/h (208.0 mph) (Record)
Weight 752 t (740 long tons; 829 short tons) (Three Capitals, empty)
815 t (802 long tons; 898 short tons) (Three Capitals, loaded)
665 t (654 long tons; 733 short tons) (North of London)
Power output 12.2 MW (16,400 hp) (25 kV)
5.7 MW (7,600 hp) (3000 V)[4]
3.4 MW (4,600 hp) (750 V)[4]
Tractive Effort:
410 kN (92,000 lbf) Starting @ 25 kV
350 kN (79,000 lbf) Starting @ 1.5 kV & 750 V
220 kN (49,000 lbf) Continuous @200 km/h (124 mph) & 25 kV[4]
Electric system(s) Overhead lines
25 kV 50 Hz AC
3000 V DC, 1500 V DC
Third rail
750 V DC (No longer used)
Current collection method Pantograph
Contact shoe (removed)
UIC classification Bo'Bo'+Bo'2'2'2'2'2'2'2'2'2'+2'2'2'2'2'2'2'2'2'Bo'+Bo'Bo'
Bo'Bo'+Bo'2'2'2'2'2'2'2'+2'2'2'2'2'2'2'Bo'+Bo'Bo'
Coupling system Scharfenberg
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge

The British Rail Class 373 or TGV TMST train is an electric multiple unit that operates Eurostar's inter-city high-speed rail service between Britain, France and Belgium via the Channel Tunnel. Part of the TGV family, it has a smaller cross-section to fit the smaller loading gauge in Britain, was originally able to operate on the UK third rail network, and it has extensive fireproofing in case of fire in the tunnel. It is both the second longest—387 metres (1,270 ft)—and second fastest train in regular UK passenger service, operating at speeds of up to 300 kilometres per hour (186 mph). It is beaten in both aspects by the Class 374 (e320) which is 400 metres (1,300 ft) long and has a top speed of 320 kilometres per hour (199 mph),[5] though this is never achieved on HS1 in Britain.

Known as the TransManche Super Train (TMST) or Cross-channel Super Train before entering service in 1993, the train is designated Class 373 under the British TOPS classification system and series 373000 TGV in France, it was built by the French company GEC-Alsthom at its sites in La Rochelle (France), Belfort (France) and Washwood Heath (Britain) and by Brugeoise et Nivelles (BN, now part of Bombardier Transportation)[6] in Bruges (Belgium).

Since the delivery of the new Class 374 e320 units from Siemens in 2014, refurbished examples of the Class 373 or TGV-TMST sets have been officially dubbed as e300s by Eurostar to distinguish them from the new Velaro fleet.[7]

Types[edit]

Two types were constructed:

  • 31 "Three Capitals" sets consisting of 2 power cars and 18 carriages, They are 387 metres (1,270 ft) long[citation needed] and have 750 seats: 206 in first class, 544 in standard class.[8] The length of a complete set is dictated by safety regulations in the Channel Tunnel; as the distance between consecutive cross passages is 375 m, this ensures that were a Eurostar train to have to stop in the Tunnel, it would always be next to a cross passage.
  • 7 "North of London" sets (known as "Regional" Eurostars) with 14 carriages and 2 power cars, They are 312.36 metres (1,024.8 ft) in length and have 558 seats: (114 in first class, 444 in standard class).

The North of London sets were intended to provide Regional Eurostar services from continental Europe to and from north of London, using the West Coast and East Coast Main Lines, these services never came to fruition because of long proposed journey times and the proliferation of budget airlines offering lower fares; there were also issues with the relatively crude design of British Rail overhead lines and with finding routes across London.

Construction[edit]

The sets were ordered by the railway companies involved: 16 by SNCF, four by NMBS/SNCB, and 18 by British Rail, of which seven were the North of London sets. Upon the privatisation of British Rail, the BR sets were bought by London and Continental Railways, which named its subsidiary Eurostar (UK) Limited,[9] now managed by SNCF (55%), LCR (40%) and SNCB (5%).[10]

The first set was built at Belfort in 1992.[11] Identified as "PS1" (Pre-Series 1), it was formed of two power cars and seven coaches, and was delivered for test running in January 1993, its first powered runs were between Strasbourg and Mulhouse, and it was transferred to the UK for third-rail DC tests in June 1993. Full-length pre-series train PS2 was completed in May 1993.

To test the third rail shoes needed on the Southern Region lines in Great Britain, an eight-vehicle locomotive-hauled train was used in early 1994, consisting of a Class 73 locomotive (73205), a converted Class 33 locomotive acting as a Driving Brake Van (33115, reclassified as NZ under TOPS), and six carriages from Class 438 (4TC) multiple units 8007, 8023 and 8028.

An extra power car, numbered 3999, was built as a spare, this was required for a couple of years, when 3999 was renumbered and replaced another power car whilst it underwent rebuilding at Le Landy. It was overhauled and renumbered 3204 in 2016.[12]

Mid-life update[edit]

The 22 sets still operating for Eurostar were refurbished in 2004/05 with a new interior, designed by Philippe Starck,[13][14] the grey-yellow look in Standard class and the grey-red look in First class were replaced with a more grey-brown scheme in Standard, and a grey-burnt orange in First class.

In 2008, Eurostar announced that it was beginning the process to institute a mid-life update, which would not include the 373 sets being used by SNCF in France. [15] As a part of the update process, the Italian company Pininfarina was contracted to redesign the interiors;[16] the first refurbished Eurostar was not originally due in service until 2012.[17] The refurbishment could also include an engine maintenance and a new livery. Eurostar later planned for the process to be complete by 2014, allowing the fleet to remain in service beyond 2020,[18] but following additional delays the first refurbished train was not completed until July 2015.[19][20]

Maintenance[edit]

When Eurostar services ran from Waterloo International, maintenance was carried out at North Pole Depot in West London next to the GWML. Today Eurostar maintain their 373 fleets at Temple Mills Depot in East London, in France the trains are maintained at Le Landy depot (Paris) and Brussels Forest/Vorst depot.

Current operators[edit]

Eurostar[edit]

A pair of Class 373s in the standard Eurostar livery at the former Waterloo International

Eurostar formerly ran their services from Waterloo International until moving to St Pancras International in November 2007. Today Eurostar use their fleet of Class 373s on routes from London St Pancras International to Paris (Gare Du Nord), Brussels Midi and Marseille St Charles with a "Ski" service in the winter to Bourg-Saint-Maurice.

In October 2010, Eurostar ordered 10 Class 374 "Eurostar e320" trains from Siemens to run on their existing routes from London to Paris and Brussels as well as their new route to Amsterdam alongside there Class 373 fleet; in 2016, Eurostar announced that it would retain 8 373s once the full fleet of 374s were in service with the rest of the Class 373 sets to be scrapped. The 373 sets that Eurostar would retain would be fully refurbished and repainted to match the livery of their new Class 374 E320 trains. [21]

Former operators[edit]

GNER[edit]

"Regional" Eurostar set 373301 + 373302 at King's Cross in 2004

In 2000, 373303 + 373304, 373309 +373310, 373305 +373306, 373301 +373302, were leased to GNER to operate "The White Rose" services from London King's Cross to York and Leeds.[22] 373303 +373304, 373305 + 373306 and 373301 + 373302 were all applied with GNER livery while 373309 +373310 carried Eurostar livery with no logos. The lease concluded in December 2005 and they were returned to Eurostar then later went on to work high speed services with SNCF, on GNER services the doors of the first and last coach were locked out of use at some stations as the units were too long for the platforms; .[23]

Due to limitations in the power supply on the Hertford Loop Line, only one set was permitted to operate there at a time,[24] they were restricted to run between King's Cross, York and Leeds because of gauging on the bridges approaching Newcastle. They were not permitted to operate to Bradford Forster Square because the electrical infrastructure past Leeds was insufficient. Manually locked selective door opening was used at shorter platforms, at the following locations on the East Coast Main Line they are restricted to 110 mph (177 km/h), shown by blue "TGV" signs next to the tracks, or required to only use a single pantograph:
(i) The Down Fast line between 59m 10ch and 59m 30ch (Huntingdon North Jn)
(ii) between Grantham (105m 77ch) and Shaftholme Jn (160m 00ch Down/160m 20ch Up)
(iii) between Colton Jn (182m 75ch) and York.

SNCF[edit]

Ex Eurostar Class 373 working for SNCF passing Haute-Picardie station

Three of the Three Capitals sets owned by SNCF were in French domestic use on the TGV network, mainly between Paris and Lille in a variation on the standard silver and blue TGV livery. This saw them initially used on Eurostar international services as well as French high speed and domestic services. .[25] In 2007, SNCF added to their Class 373 fleet by leasing 6 of the seven redundant North of London sets. SNCF's lease of the sets was scheduled to last until 2011 with the option to keep the sets running for a further two years.[26]

In October 2014, the three Three Capitals sets were removed from service and stored, having been replaced on the Paris to Lille services by TGV Duplex sets. Eventually they were scrapped as they had not been refurbished since they entered service and with TGV Duplex sets now in service there was no work for SNCFs 373 sets. .[27] [28]

Fleet details[edit]

A Thalys PBKA TGV and Eurostar set 373304 + 373305 at Paris Gare du Nord
Eurostar 373 sets under the recently refurbished and reopened St Pancras International
373215 + 373216 entering Chambéry, in the French Alps, during winter

Each power car has a four-digit number starting with "3" (3xxx), this designates the train as a Mark 3 TGV (Mark 1 being SNCF TGV Sud-Est; and Mark 2 being SNCF TGV Atlantique). The second digit denotes the country of ownership:

  • 3730xx: UK
  • 3731xx: Belgium
  • 3732xx: France
  • 3733xx: "Regional" Eurostar

Each half-set is numbered separately.

Class No. built Unit numbers Cars per half-set[e 1] Description Operators Current units Services operated
Class 373/1 22 3001–3022 10 BR sets Eurostar 3001–3002 3007–3018 3021-3022 London to Paris (Gare du Nord),
London to Brussels,
London to Marne-la-Vallée (For Disneyland Paris),
London to Marseille Saint-Charles,[e 2]
London to Bourg St Maurice[e 2]
8 3101–3108 10 NMBS sets 3101–3108
32 3201–3232 10 SNCF sets 3201/02/05-24/29–32
SNCF 3203/04/25/26/27/28
Class 373/2 14 3301–3314 8 BR's NoL sets Eurostar 3301–7, 9-14 Power car 373308 on display at the National Railway Museum, York.[29] Others on hire to SNCF [30]
Spare 1 3999 1 Eurostar 373999 Has been refurbshed by Eurostar and is currently in traffic [12]
  1. ^ including power car.
  2. ^ a b Avignon and Alps ski-train services are worked by SNCF quad-voltage sets.

Train formation[edit]

Each set is formed of two power cars and 18 coaches:

Vehicle numbers Coach Description Seating
1st 2nd Toilets Baby changing
Power car
1 Standard class - 48 1 1
2 Standard class - 56 1 -
3 Standard class - 56 2 -
4 Standard class - 56 1 -
5 Standard class - 56 2 -
6 Bar-Buffet - - - -
7 Standard Premier/Business Premier 39 - 1 -
8 Standard Premier/Business Premier 39 - 1 -
9 Standard Premier/Business Premier 25 - 1(D) -
10 Standard Premier/Business Premier 25 - 1(D) -
11 Standard Premier/Business Premier 39 - 1 -
12 Standard Premier/Business Premier 39 - 1 -
13 Bar-Buffet - - - -
14 Standard class - 56 2 -
15 Standard class - 56 1 -
16 Standard class - 56 2 -
17 Standard class - 56 1 -
18 Standard class - 48 1 1
Power car

North of London sets are formed of two power cars and 14 coaches:

Vehicle numbers Coach Description Seating
1st 2nd Toilets Baby changing
Power car
1 Standard class - 48 1 1
2 Standard class - 58 1 -
3 Standard class - 58 2 -
4 Standard class - 58 1 -
5 Bar-Buffet - - - -
6 Standard Premier/Business Premier 39 - 1 -
7 Standard Premier/Business Premier 26 - 1(D) -
8 Standard Premier/Business Premier 26 - 1(D) -
9 Standard Premier/Business Premier 39 - 1 -
10 Bar-Buffet - - - -
11 Standard class - 58 2 -
12 Standard class - 58 1 -
13 Standard class - 58 2 -
14 Standard class - 48 1 1
Power car


Fleet status[edit]

Class 373 power cars 373101 and 373102 in storage at the Quinton Rail Technology Centre, Long Marston before their restoration
Key: In Service Refurbished and In Service Stored Preserved Scrapped
Powercar Number Operator Disposal Location Disposal Date
373001 Eurostar
373002 Eurostar
373003 Eurostar EMR Kingsbury 15 December 2016
373004 Eurostar EMR Kingsbury 15 December 2016
373005 Eurostar EMR Kingsbury 27 October 2016
373006 Eurostar EMR Kingsbury 27 October 2016
373007 Eurostar
373008 Eurostar
373009 Eurostar
373010 Eurostar
373011 Eurostar
373012 Eurostar
373013 Eurostar EMR Kingsbury 17 March 2017
373014 Eurostar EMR Kingsbury 17 March 2017
373015 Eurostar
373016 Eurostar
373017 Eurostar
373018 Eurostar
373019 Eurostar EMR Kingsbury 2 December 2016
373020 Eurostar EMR Kingsbury 2 December 2016
373021 Eurostar
373022 Eurostar
373101 Eurostar National College for High-Speed Rail (Doncaster) [pc 1] 8 August 2017
373102 Eurostar National College for High-Speed Rail (Birmingham) [pc 1] 17 August 2017
373103 Eurostar
373104 Eurostar
373105 Eurostar
373106 Eurostar
373107 Eurostar EMR Kingsbury 1 February 2017
373108 Eurostar EMR Kingsbury 1 February 2017
373201 Eurostar
373202 Eurostar
373203 Eurostar
373204 Eurostar
373205 Eurostar
373206 Eurostar
373207 Eurostar
373208 Eurostar
373209 Eurostar
373210 Eurostar
373211 Eurostar
373212 Eurostar
373213 Eurostar
373214 Eurostar
373215 Eurostar
373216 Eurostar
373217 Eurostar
373218 Eurostar
373219 Eurostar
373219 Eurostar
373220 Eurostar
373221 Eurostar
373222 Eurostar
373223 Eurostar
373224 Eurostar
373225 SNCF Culoz (France) unknown date
373226 SNCF Culoz (France) unknown date
373227 SNCF Romilly (technicentre) 17 May 2017
373228 SNCF Romilly (technicentre) 17 May 2017
373229 Eurostar
373230 Eurostar
373231 Eurostar EMR Kingsbury 22 September 2017
373232 Eurostar EMR Kingsbury 22 September 2017
373301 SNCF
373302 SNCF
373303 SNCF
373304 SNCF
373305 SNCF
373306 SNCF
373307 SNCF
373308 Eurostar National Railway Museum[pc 1] 7 August 2015
373309 SNCF Ambérieu (France) 16 December 2014
373310 SNCF Ambérieu (France) 16 December 2014
373311 SNCF
373312 SNCF
373313 SNCF Ambérieu (France) 17 December 2014
373314 SNCF Ambérieu (France) 17 December 2014
373999 Eurostar [pc 1]
  1. ^ a b c d Power car only

Technical details[edit]

Power[edit]

All train sets were built as tri-voltage, able to operate on 25 kV 50 Hz AC (LGVs, Eurotunnel, High Speed 1, UK overhead electrified lines) and 3 kV DC (Belgian classic lines) using pantographs, and 750 V DC (UK third rail network) using third-rail pickup shoes. The shoes were retracted when operating from overhead power,[31] after the opening of High Speed 1, overhead electrification is used throughout and the third rail shoes were removed. Five of the SNCF-owned sets are quadri-voltage, able to operate from 1,500 V DC (French lignes classiques) in the south of France, used on London–Avignon and ski services.

A Class 373 passes through Herne Hill; until 2007, Eurostar ran its services to London Waterloo, necessitating the use of the third rail network in Southern England

British-designed asynchronous traction motors are used. There are four powered axles in each power car and two powered axles in the outer bogie of the adjacent passenger carriage (a layout used on the original SNCF TGV Sud-Est (PSE) sets) giving 12 powered axles, each set draws up to 16MW with 12 MW (16,000 hp) of traction power, but the lowest power-to-weight ratio in the TGV family.

The class uses five different standards of overhead: domestic catenary in each of Belgium, France and the United Kingdom; fixed-height catenary on LGV lines; and taller catenary in the Channel Tunnel, designed to accommodate double-deck car-carrying trains and roll-on roll-off heavy goods vehicle trains. The driver must lower and then raise the pantograph during the transition between catenary systems.

Signalling systems[edit]

The class have multiple signalling systems, leading to a cluttered control desk, these include

At high speed, the driver cannot see lineside signals reliably, with the TVM signalling used on the high-speed lines, the target speed for the end of the current block is displayed with a flashing indication for the next block if it is a different speed. Auxiliary signalling information, including the location of neutral sections in the overhead supply and pantograph adjustment zones, is displayed in cab and by the lineside, the operation of circuit breakers over neutral sections is handled automatically on TVM-signalled lines only, and pantograph adjustments must always be performed by the driver.

Bogies and couplings[edit]

The class was designed to meet Channel Tunnel safety regulations, and consists of two independent half-sets, each with its own power car. Most of the trailers rest on Jacobs bogies shared between adjacent carriages, supporting both of them, with the cars next to the power cars and the two central cars (coaches 9 and 10 in a full-length set) not articulated. Non-shared bogies are coupled with Scharfenberg couplers, providing three points for separation in the event of an emergency in the Channel Tunnel, the electrical supply cables between a power car and the first carriage are designed to break apart during an emergency separation. In the event of a serious fire in the Tunnel the passengers would be transferred into the undamaged half of the train, which would then be uncoupled from the damaged half and driven out of the tunnel.[32] If the undamaged part is the rear half of the train, this would be driven by the Chef du Train who is a fully authorised driver and occupies the rear driving cab in the tunnel for this purpose.[33] Due to limitations on driving hours, the driver and Chef du Train exchange roles for the return journey.

The articulated design is advantageous during a derailment as the carriages will tend to stay aligned, on non-articulated trains couplings may break and the carriages may jackknife. A disadvantage of articulation is that it is difficult to remove individual carriages for maintenance. While the power cars can be uncoupled, specialised depot equipment is needed to split carriages by lifting the entire train at once. Once uncoupled, one of the carriage ends is left without a bogie at the split, so a bogie frame is required to support it.

Braking systems[edit]

The class has three braking systems:

  • The 12 motors can provide rheostatic braking.
  • All non-powered axles have four disc brakes.
  • All powered axles have clasp brakes operating on the wheel tread.

A train travelling at 300 kilometres per hour (186 mph) can be brought to stand in 65 seconds, during which time it covers about 2.7 km (1.7 miles)

Miscellaneous[edit]

To combat the hypnotic effect of driving through a tunnel at speed for 20 minutes, the power cars have a very small windscreen when compared to other high-speed trains and TGVs.[34][35][36]

Significant events[edit]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

On 5 June 2000, 373101 + 373102 on a service from Paris to London derailed on the LGV Nord near Arras in France at 290 km/h (180 mph). Fourteen people were treated for light injuries or shock, with no major injures or fatalities, the articulated design was credited with maintaining stability during the incident and the train stayed upright.[37][38] After investigation, the incident was blamed on a component of the transmission between the motors and axles coming loose. To reduce the unsprung mass, TGV trains have the motors attached to the train rather than the bogies; in order for the train to be able to go around curves a sliding "tripod" assembly is used, which became dislodged.

There have been several minor incidents; in October 1994, there were teething problems relating to the start of operations. The first preview train, carrying 400 members of the press and media, was delayed for two hours by technical issues.[39][38][40][41] On 29 May 2002 a set was sent towards Victoria instead of London Waterloo, causing it to arrive 25 minutes late. The signalling error that led to the incorrect routeing was stated to have caused "no risk" as a result.[42]

During the night of 18–19 December 2009, there was heavy snow causing widespread disruption to roads, railways and airports across northern Europe. Five trains (one of which was 373217 + 373218) failed in the Channel Tunnel because snow in the engine compartment was melted by warmer temperatures in the tunnel, the resulting water causing electrical and control system faults. Eurostar commissioned an independent report to evaluate what went wrong and how future events could be prevented or better managed,[43] the report's recommendations included:

  • Increased number of diesel rescue locomotives with exhaust filtration to be on standby at each end of the tunnel.
  • Major changes to the power cars to prevent snow ingress into electrical compartments.
  • Better staff training.
  • Improved communication internally and with other stakeholders (Eurotunnel and emergency services).
  • Better information provision to passengers.

The majority of the recommendations were implemented by 23 October 2012.

Record runs[edit]

On 30 July 2003, on the opening press run of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link Section 1, 373313 + 373314 established a new British rail speed record of 334.7 kilometres per hour (208.0 mph), breaking the previous record of 261.0 kilometres per hour (162.2 mph) set by an Advanced Passenger Train on 20 December 1979.[44][45][13]

On 16 May 2006 set 3209/10 created a record for the longest non-stop high-speed journey when it made the 1,421-kilometre (883 mi) journey from London to Cannes in 7 hours 25 minutes.[46] This was a publicity event for the Da Vinci Code film; the train carried actors Tom Hanks and Audrey Tautou and director Ron Howard, who had jointly named the train The Da Vinci Code prior to departing for the film premiere at the Cannes Film Festival.

On 4 September 2007 the first revenue train to use High Speed 1 to St Pancras set a new speed record:[47] it left Paris at 09:44 BST and arrived at St Pancras two hours three minutes and 39 seconds later. Officials aboard recorded speeds of up to 325 kilometres per hour (202 mph) in France and 314 kilometres per hour (195 mph) in Britain.[48][49]

Exhibitions[edit]

On several occasions sets appeared at special events and displays, such as at Lille Flandres in 1995,[ex 1] Rotterdam Centraal Station on 6 April 1996,[ex 2] Berlin-Grunewald station for Eurailspeed 1998,[ex 3] Madrid Chamartín railway station for Eurailspeed 2002[ex 4] and at the York National Railway Museum for the Railfest 200 celebrations in 2004.[ex 5]

To celebrate ten years of Eurostar service, a barge was floated down the River Thames in London on 16 November 2004,[ex 6] with a power car on board, specially painted by Ben Langlands and Nikki Bell. Named "Language of Places on Eurostar" by Langlands and Bell, it consisted of the three-letter "destination codes for all the places Eurostar goes to or connects to".[61] The barge went under Tower Bridge,[62] past the Houses of Parliament and moored beside the museum-warship HMS Belfast.[63]

At the beginning of August 2015, a ex North of London power car (373308) was added to the national collection and transported to the National Railway Museum in York.[29]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Eurailspeed '95: half-set 3201[50]:55
  2. ^ Rotterdam CS open day: full-set 3309/3310[51][52][53][54]
  3. ^ Berlin Eurailspeed '98: full-set 3303/3304[55]
  4. ^ Madrid Eurailspeed 2002: power car 3212 + coaches, transported using Iberian gauge transporter trailers via Portbou–Barcelona–Valencia–Alcazar[56] on 12 October 2002[57]
  5. ^ York Railfest 200: power car 3313 only[58]
  6. ^ London floating installation: power car 3307 only[59][60]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Marsden 2011, p. 216
  2. ^ Milner, Chris (October 2008). "Eurostar's new home". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 154 no. 1,290. pp. 23–26. ISSN 0033-8923. 
  3. ^ "therailwaycentre.com: EMU_373". Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c Spec Sheet; French
  5. ^ https://www.mobility.siemens.com/mobility/global/SiteCollectionDocuments/en/rail-solutions/high-speed-and-intercity-trains/velaro/velaro-e320-en.pdf
  6. ^ BN history Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (in Dutch)
  7. ^ Passenger volumes up at Eurostar - Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  8. ^ "Eurostar seating plan" (PDF). RailEurope.com. Retrieved 30 April 2007. 
  9. ^ "Ownership & Structure". Eurostar. Retrieved 11 May 2009. 
  10. ^ "Information about Eurostar". Eurostar International Limited. 
  11. ^ "GEC Alsthom: a marriage a la Jack Sprat". Management Today. Retrieved 25 August 2009. 
  12. ^ a b "GBRF to haul Eurostars for scrap" Railways Illustrated November 2016 page 6
  13. ^ a b "Eurostar history". Eurotunnel. Retrieved 10 May 2009. 
  14. ^ "Multi-million facelift for Eurostar". BBC News. 27 May 2003. Retrieved 27 December 2007. 
  15. ^ "Eurostar to tender for refurbishment". Railnews.co.uk. 8 September 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2009. 
  16. ^ "Eurostar refurbishment design contract awarded". Railway Gazette International. 8 April 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2010. 
  17. ^ Smithers, Rebecca (9 April 2009). "Eurostar interiors to get makeover by Italian luxury car designer". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 April 2009. 
  18. ^ "Eurostar invites bidders to undertake major interior refurbishment of fleet" (PDF). Rail Management. Dunstable, Beds. 8 September 2008. p. 5. [dead link]
  19. ^ Prentice, Paul (19 November 2014). "Eurostar refurbishment behind schedule". Rail magazine. Retrieved 1 May 2015. 
  20. ^ Briginshaw, David (21 July 2015). "Eurostar unveils refurbished high-speed train". International Railway Journal. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  21. ^ Clinnick, Richard (20 September 2016). "Eurostar prepares to scrap 186mph Class 373s". Rail Magazine. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  22. ^ Harper, Keith (29 July 1999). "Eurostar trains come to aid of east coast passengers". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 August 2009. 
  23. ^ RAIL (pages 14–15, issue 527, 23 November 2005 – 6 December 2005), Class 91s to replace GNER's Eurostars
  24. ^ Harper, Keith (16 June 2000). "Lack of power cuts rail service". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 August 2009. 
  25. ^ Class 373: Trans Manche Super Train - Kent Rail
  26. ^ Webster, Ben (6 July 2007). "Trains for high-speed link handed over to the French". The Times. London. Retrieved 9 April 2009. 
  27. ^ "First Eurostars go for scrap". Today's Railways Europe. No. 227. Platform 5. November 2014. p. 9. 
  28. ^ Prentice, Paul (19 November 2014). "Eurostar refurbishment behind schedule". Rail. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 
  29. ^ a b Eurostar Power Car to join railway hall of fame - National Railway Museum. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  30. ^ EMU Formations - abrail.co.uk Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  31. ^ "High-speed third rail shoegear". Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Retrieved 6 May 2009. 
  32. ^ Wolmar, Christian (23 November 2007). "Who is going to use the new high speed line?". Rail Magazine. No. 579. Retrieved 11 May 2009. 
  33. ^ Millward, David (27 November 2008). "Eurostar services could be disrupted by strike in run up to Christmas". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 11 May 2009. 
  34. ^ Keating, Oliver. "Features of the Eurostar: The Windscreen". High Speed Rail (HSR). Retrieved 29 September 2010. it was found that going down a tunnel at a fast rate for several minutes induced a hypnotic affect on the driver 
  35. ^ Rogers, Robert. "Eurostar Depot". The Newham Story. Newham Council. if a normal size window and side windows were used, it causes Hypnotic effect on the driver when travelling through the Tunnel. 
  36. ^ Poole, Bob. "Class 373 Eurostar high speed electric multiple units". The Gravesend Railway Enthusiasts Society. Retrieved 27 September 2010. the small size of the drivers window is deliberate, to avoid hypnotic effects while in tunnel. 
  37. ^ "Eurostar train derails in France". BBC News. 5 June 2000. Retrieved 10 May 2009. 
  38. ^ a b "TGVweb TGV Accidents article". trainweb.org. Retrieved 10 May 2009. 
  39. ^ Wolmar, Christian (21 October 1994). "Channel train opens with a breakdown". The Independent. London. Retrieved 10 May 2009. 
  40. ^ Midgley, Simon (22 October 1994). "Channel train's new breakdown". The Independent. London. Retrieved 23 May 2009. 
  41. ^ Rogers, Richard (July 1995). "Managing British Public Opinion of the Channel Tunnel". Technology and Culture. Society for the History of Technology. 36 (3): 636–640. JSTOR 3107245. doi:10.2307/3107245. 
  42. ^ Clark, Andrew (29 May 2002). "Eurostar sent down wrong track". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 May 2009. 
  43. ^ "Eurostar Independent Review February 12, 2010" (PDF). London. Retrieved 23 October 2012. 
  44. ^ "Train smashes speed record". BBC News. 30 July 2003. Retrieved 2 June 2010. 
  45. ^ Eurostar breaks UK high speed record. Eurostar. Retrieved 6 July 2009. 
  46. ^ "Eurostar sets new Guinness World Record with cast and filmmakers of Columbia Pictures’ The Da Vinci Code". Eurostar. 17 June 2006. Retrieved 27 May 2009. 
  47. ^ "Eurostar breaks UK high speed record". Erik's Rail News. 30 July 2003. Retrieved 12 April 2007. 
  48. ^ "Eurostar sets Paris-London record". BBC News. 4 September 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2007. 
  49. ^ highspeedeurostar (20 December 2007). "Waterloo Sunset" – via YouTube. 
  50. ^ Semmens, Peter (December 1995). "Eurailspeed 95". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 141 no. 1136. pp. 54–55. 
  51. ^ tramlijn30 (7 April 1996). "Open dag NS" (photograph). Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  52. ^ Smit, Johannes J. (7 April 1996). "NS D0132" (photograph). Retrieved 15 February 2012. 6511 met Eurostar 3309 in Rotterdam CS 
  53. ^ Vliet, Gerard van (7 April 1996). "960407 Rotterdam CS". Eurostar 3309 
  54. ^ Spilt, Nico. "Rotterdam CS (deel 2)". Langs de rails (in Dutch). 
  55. ^ Perkins, Justin D. "East meets West in Berlin" (photograph). The 373 was in Berlin for Eurailspeed '98 
  56. ^ Tito Mario. "Adivina adivinanza…". Flickr. Retrieved 10 January 2012. 
  57. ^ Theißen, Johannes (20 January 2003). "Eurostar im "Rollbockbetrieb"". Eisenbahn-Kurier (in German). Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  58. ^ "Record-breaking Eurostar features at Railfest 2004". Association of Train Operating Companies. Retrieved 25 August 2009. power car 3313 will be there to take its place among other historic record-breaking locomotives. 
  59. ^ "Eurostar floats!". Eurostar. 15 November 2004. Retrieved 3 August 2009. 
  60. ^ "Eurostar pushes the boat out for its tenth birthday". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 151 no. 1245. January 2005. p. 11. 3307 was craned onto barge Tarra Marique, then moored alongside HMS Belfast … delayed … those killed or injured in the Ufton derailment  |chapter= ignored (help)
  61. ^ 2007-08-10, Private email reply from Ben Langlands and Nikki Bell
  62. ^ "Photograph of Eurostar in front of Tower Bridge". livettslaunches.co.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2009. 
  63. ^ "Short write-up of the journey". goeurope.com. Retrieved 3 August 2009. 

Sources[edit]

  • Marsden, Colin J. (2011). Traction Recognition (2nd ed.). Ian Allan. ISBN 9780711034945. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Perren, Brian (25 January – 7 February 1990). "BR's New European Trains". RAIL. No. 114. EMAP National Publications. pp. 6–7. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699.