BRB (Residuary) Limited
BRB Limited was the successor to the British Railways Board. It was created in 2001 as a private company limited by shares, with 100% of the issued share capital owned by the Secretary of State for Transport; as part of the Public Bodies Act 2011, the company was abolished in 2013. Starting in 1994, as part of the Railways Act 1993, British Rail was privatised. By November 1997, British Rail had been divested of all its operating railway functions. However, the British Railways Board remained in existence to discharge residual functions relating to liabilities and responsibility for non-operational railway land which had not passed to Railtrack upon its formation in 1994, it had responsibility for the British Transport Police. In 1999, the United Kingdom Government decided to create the Strategic Rail Authority, which would incorporate the BRB and the Director of Passenger Rail Franchising. Both these bodies began acting together, under the trading name of the Shadow Strategic Rail Authority. In 2000, primary legislation, the Transport Act 2000, was enacted to place the SRA on a statutory basis.
In accordance with this Act, the BRB was abolished in 2001 and its remaining functions transferred to the SRA. Those functions which directly related to the old BR were placed in the charge of a wholly owned subsidiary of the SRA, BRB Limited, incorporated in January 2001. Responsibility for the BTP passed temporarily to the SRA itself pending the creation of the British Transport Police Authority in 2004. Upon the dissolution of the SRA under the Railways Act 2005, ownership of BRBR passed to the Department for Transport. In 2010 the government announced its intention to abolish BRBR as part of its plans to reduce the number of public bodies and it was included in the Public Bodies Act 2011. On 30 September 2013, the company's assets and responsibilities were split between the Department for Transport, Highways Agency and Continental Railways, Network Rail and the Rail Safety and Standards Board. Following these transfers, BRBR was abolished; as a residuary body, the company was responsible for discharging a variety of functions, including obligations in respect of liabilities acquired by British Rail as a major employer over nearly half a century and as a direct result of the privatisation process.
The company was responsible for the continuing disposal of non-operational railway land. Among its larger assets were Glasgow Eastfield depot, North Pole depot, the Old Dalby Test Track, the Railway Technical Centre and the closed Waterloo International station. At the time of its cessation, BRBR owned 3,800 assets including 74 listed structures. Many of these were bridges and viaducts on closed lines, it was responsible for the maintenance of memorials to railway disasters and wars on the network as well as some shipwrecks. BRB Ltd was abolished with effect from 30 September 2013, its continuing functions have been dispersed to various successor bodies: Highways Agency Historical Railways EstateThe Highways Agency Historical Railways Estate is now responsible for the historical railways estate. This includes legacy bridges, tunnels, cuttings and similar properties associated with closed railway lines, sales. London & Continental Railways LtdLondon & Continental Railways Ltd is now responsible for former BRBR properties with development potential, or which might be used for future railway projects, office buildings.
LCR is acting as the managing agent on behalf of DfT for Waterloo International Terminal, North Pole International Depot and Temple Mills Bus Depot. Network RailNetwork Rail is now responsible for a small number of properties associated with the operational railway that should have transferred during railway privatisation or which should be maintained by the owner of the operational railway, various memorials commemorating those killed in railway accidents or rail employees killed during the world wars, Old Dalby test track in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire; the full list of properties transferred to Network Rail is given in a schedule attached to the Statutory Instrument that abolished BRBR. Rail Safety and Standards BoardThe Rail Safety and Standards Board is now the owner and holder of the intellectual property rights of the ‘RDDS managed documentation’. Department for TransportThe Department for Transport is now responsible for ill health claims from former British Rail employees. Bundeseisenbahnvermögen, the entity formed when the former German Federal Railways were dissolved BRB Limited BRB Limited Transfer Scheme
InterCity (British Rail)
InterCity was introduced by British Rail in 1966 as a brand-name for its long-haul express passenger services. In 1986 the British Railways Board divided its operations into a number of sectors; the sector responsible for long-distance express trains assumed the brand-name InterCity, although many routes that were operated as InterCity services were assigned to other sectors. British Rail first used the term Inter-City in 1950 as the name of a train running between London Paddington and Wolverhampton Low Level; this was part of an overall policy of introducing new train names in the post World War II period. The name was applied to the business express which ran from London in the morning and returned in the afternoon, became part of the railway lore of the West Midlands. West Midlands residents always believed that it was the success of this one train that led to the adoption of the name as a British Rail brand in 1966; this belief was supported by the timeline: in 1966 The Inter-City was heading towards its ultimate demise in 1967, when the mainline London-West Midlands service was consolidated into the newly electrified route via Rugby.
Following sectorisation of British Rail, InterCity became profitable. InterCity became one of Britain’s top 150 companies, providing city centre to city centre travel across the nation from Aberdeen and Inverness in the north to Poole and Penzance in the south. InterCity had the following divisions: East Coast: Services on the East Coast Main Line from London King's Cross to Yorkshire, North East England and eastern Scotland. West Coast: Services on the West Coast Main Line from London Euston to the West Midlands, North Wales, North West England and southern Scotland, including overnight sleeper services to Scotland. Midland: Services on the Midland Main Line from London St Pancras to the East Midlands and South Yorkshire. Great Western: Services on the Great Western Main Line from London Paddington to South Wales and the West Country, including overnight sleeper services to the West Country. Great Eastern: Services on the Great Eastern Main Line from London Liverpool Street to Essex and East Anglia.
Cross-Country: Services between city pairs that used a combination of the various main lines, but avoided Greater London. Gatwick Express: Shuttle service between London Victoria and Gatwick Airport; the InterCity sector was responsible for Motorail services to and from London Kensington Olympia. InterCity operated High Speed Trains under the brand-name InterCity 125, as well as InterCity 225s for the electric high-speed trains operated on the East Coast route; the "125" referred to the trains' top speed in miles per hour, equivalent to 201 km/h, whereas "225" referred to the intended top speed in km/h and for signalling reasons their actual speed limit was the same 125 mph. InterCity 250 was the name given by InterCity to the proposed upgrade of the West Coast Main Line in the early 1990s; the existing trains operating on the West Coast were intended to be marketed under the brand InterCity 175, again referring to those trains' top operating speed of 110 mph equivalent to 175 km/h, although this idea was subsequently dropped.
All InterCity day services ran with a buffet car and the majority ran at speeds of 100 mph or above. If expresses on other sectors are included, there was a period in the early 1990s when British Rail operated more 100 mph services per day than any other country. Special discounted fares, including the Super Advance and the APEX, were available on InterCity if booked ahead. HST services were first introduced in 1976 on the Great Western Main Line from London Paddington to Bristol and Swansea. Formations consisted of 2 first-class, a Restaurant Buffet and 4 standard-class Mark 3 carriages with a Class 43 power car at each end. East Coast – InterCity 125 HST services started in 1977: Typically 2 first-class, a Restaurant Kitchen, Buffet Standard and 4 standard-class British Rail Mark 3 carriages with a Class 43 power car at each end; these progressively replaced Class 55 "Deltics" which were withdrawn in 1981. As catering needs changed, the Restaurant Kitchen was replaced by a fifth standard-class coach.
InterCity 225: a Class 91 electric locomotive, nine Mark 4 coaches and a Driving Van Trailer operating in push-pull mode. This saw most of the HSTs transferred to Great Western and Cross-Country routes but some remained for the runs to/from Aberdeen and Inverness. West Coast – London Euston to Wolverhampton used Class 86 electric locomotives hauling Mark 2 carriages and operated at 100 mph. Euston to Glasgow services used Class 87 and Class 90 locomotives hauling Mark 3 coaches and operated at 110 mph. Euston to Holyhead services used. From 1988, West Coast trains operated in push-pull mode with a DVT at the London end of the train. Before DVTs were introduced, larger fleets of Classes 81–87 were used to haul the trains conventionally. Class 50s operated in pairs north of Preston until electrification was completed in 1974. Great Western – Intercity 125s from new, which replaced Class 52s. Services were operated by Mark 2 carriages hauled by Class 47s and 50s. Anglia – Class 86 electrics hauling Mark 1 and Mark 2 carriages using Mark 2 Driving Brake Standard Opens in push-pull mode.
Class 47s were used before electrification in 1987. Some routes transferred to Network SouthEast, leaving London-Norwic
British Transport Police
The British Transport Police is a national special police force that polices railways and light-rail systems in England and Wales, for which it has entered into an agreement to provide such services. Seventy five percent of the force's funding comes from Britain's privatised train companies. British Transport Police officers do not have jurisdiction in Northern Ireland unless working under mutual aid arrangements for the Police Service of Northern Ireland, in which case any duties performed on a railway will be incidental to working as a constable in Northern Ireland; as well as having jurisdiction across the national rail network, the BTP is responsible for policing: Croydon Tramlink Docklands Light Railway Emirates Air Line Glasgow Subway London Underground Midland Metro Sunderland line of the Tyne and Wear Metro This amounts to around 10,000 miles of track and more than 3,000 railway stations and depots. There are more than 1 billion passenger journeys annually on the main lines alone. In addition, British Transport Police in conjunction with the French border police - Police aux Frontières - police the international services operated by Eurostar.
It is not responsible for policing the rest of the Tyne and Wear Metro or the Manchester Metrolink or any other railway with which it does not have a service agreement. A BTP constable can act as a police constable outside of their normal railway jurisdiction as described in the "Powers and status of officers" section; as of September 2017, BTP had a workforce of 3,028 police officers, 1,530 police staff, 230 police community support officers, 30 designated officers and 330 special constables. In terms of officer numbers it is the largest of the three special police forces and the 11th largest police force in the United Kingdom overall. Since March 2014, the Chief Constable has been Paul Crowther OBE. From 1 April 2014, the divisional structure changed from the previous seven division structure to a four division structure - according to BTP this new structure will'deliver a more efficient force, generating savings to reinvest in more police officers across the railway network'. Based in Camden Town, London.
This division retains overall control of the other divisions and houses central functions including forensics, CCTV and major investigations. As of 2015, 393 police officers, 10 special constables and 946 civilian staff are based at FHQ. Divisional Commander: Chief Superintendent Martin FryThis division covers London and the South East and southern areas of England; this division is further divided into the following sub-divisions: North - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Jenny Gilmer Central - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Chris Horton South - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Will Jordan As of 2015, B Division houses the largest number of personnel of any BTP division: 1444 police officers, 101 special constables, 191 PCSOs and 361 civilian staff. Divisional Commander: Chief Superintendent Allan GregoryThis division covers the North East, North West, the Midlands, South West areas of England and Wales; this division is further divided into the following sub-divisions: Pennine - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Eddie Wylie Midland - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Sandra England Wales - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Andy MorganAs of 2015, C Division houses the second largest number of personnel within BTP: 921 police officers, 127 special constables, 132 PCSOs and 180 civilian staff.
Divisional Commander: Chief Superintendent John McBrideThis division covers Scotland. There are no sub-divisions within D Division; as of 2015, D Division is the smallest in terms of personnel housing 214 police officers, 24 special constables and 46 civilian staff. Prior to April 2014, BTP was divided into seven geographical basic command units which it referred to as'Police Areas': Scotland North Eastern North Western London North London Underground London South Wales & Western Prior to 2007, there was an additional Midland Area and Wales and West Area; the first railway employees described as "police" can be traced back to 30 June 1826. A regulation of the Stockton and Darlington Railway refers to the police establishment of "One Superintendent, four officers and numerous gate-keepers"; this is the first mention of Railway Police anywhere and was three years before the Metropolitan Police Act was passed. They were not, described as "constables" and the description may refer to men controlling the trains not enforcing the law.
Specific reference to "constables" rather than mere "policemen" is made by the BTP website article "A History of Policing the Railway" which states "The London and Liverpool Railway Companion of 1838 reports "Each Constable, besides being in the employ of the company, is sworn as a County Constable". Further reference is made by the BTP to "an Act of 1838...which according to J. R. Whitbread in The Railway Policeman was the first legislation to provide for any form of policing of the railway whilst under construction, i.e. to protect the public from the navvies more or less." The modern British Transport Police was formed by the British Transport Commission Act 1949 which combined the already-existing police forces inherited from the pre-nationalisation railways by British Railways, those forces having been formed by powers available under common law to parishes and other bodies to ap
Sealink was a ferry company based in the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1984, operating services to France, the Netherlands, Channel Islands, Isle of Wight and Ireland. Ports served by the company included: Dover, Newhaven and Harwich for services to the European continent; the Isle of Wight was served from Portsmouth and Lymington. Sealink operated the Steamer passenger ferry services on Windermere in Cumbria until privatisation, when these were passed to the newly reformed Windermere Iron Steamboat Company. Sealink was the brand name for the ferry services of British Rail which ran shipping services in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Services to France and the Netherlands were run by Sealink UK as part of the Sealink consortium which used ferries owned by French national railways, the Belgian Maritime Transport Authority Regie voor Maritiem Transport/Regie des transports maritimes and the Dutch Stoomvaart Maatschappij Zeeland; the shipping services were an extension of the railways across the English Channel and the Irish Sea in order to provide through, integrated services to Europe and Ireland.
As international travel became more popular in the late 1960s and before air travel became affordable, the responsibility for shipping services was taken away from the British Rail Regions and in 1969 centralised in a new division – British Rail Shipping and International Services Division. With the advent of car ferry services, the old passenger-only ferries were replaced by roll-on-roll-off ships, catering both for motorists and rail passengers as well as road freight. However, given that there was now competition in the form of other ferry companies offering crossings to motorists, it became necessary to market the services in a normal business fashion. Thus, with the other partners mentioned above, the brand name Sealink was introduced for the consortium; as demand for international rail travel declined and the shipping business became exclusively dependent on passenger and freight vehicle traffic, the ferry business was incorporated as Sealink UK Limited in 1978, a wholly owned subsidiary of the British Railways Board, but still part of the Sealink consortium.
In 1979, Sealink acquired Manx Line. On 27 July 1984 the UK Government sold Sealink UK Limited to Sea Containers for £66m; the company was renamed Sealink British Ferries. In 1991, Sea Containers sold Sealink British Ferries to Stena Line; the sale excluded the operations of Hoverspeed, the Isle of Wight services and the share in the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company, as well as the Port of Heysham. The new owners rebranded the company name as Sealink Stena Line again a few years to Stena Sealink Line. In 1996, the Sealink name disappeared; the agreement with the SNCF on the Dover to Calais route ended at this time and the French run Sealink services were rebranded as SeaFrance. The livery from 1984 to 1995 was a distinctive blue-on-white; the British Rail double arrow logo had been used, with a BR corporate monastral blue hull, white upperworks and black-topped red funnel. From 1972/73 Sealink was displayed in white Rail Alphabet typeface on the side of the hull. Prior to 1964/65 the colours were white upperworks and black-topped buff funnel.
A reversed version of the BR symbol was used on one side of Sealink ship's flags. This was so that the'top' arrow was always pointing towards the bow of the ship on funnels, for flags towards the flag staff. British Rail owned. Elsewhere in Sealink the symbol was white on blue. In the 1960s, British Rail started hovercraft services from Dover to Calais and Boulogne-sur-Mer, across the Solent to the Isle of Wight. Rather than use the name Sealink, the services were marketed as Solent Seaspeed. Seaspeed merged with rival Hoverlloyd in 1981 to create Hoverspeed. Category:Ships of British Rail Media related to Sealink at Wikimedia Commons stenaline.com Sealink Holyhead.net a guide to the history of the sea route between Holyhead and Dún Laoghaire
London Midland Region of British Railways
The London Midland Region was one of the six regions created on the formation of the nationalised British Railways, consisted of ex-London and Scottish Railway lines in England and Wales. The region was managed first from buildings adjacent to Euston station, from Stanier House in Birmingham, it existed from the creation of BR in 1948, ceased to be an operating unit in its own right in the 1980s, was wound up at the end of 1992. At its inception, the LMR's territory consisted of ex-LMS lines in Wales. LMS lines in Scotland became part of the Scottish Region, whilst those of the Northern Counties Committee in Northern Ireland became part of the Ulster Transport Authority; the Mersey Railway, which had avoided being "Grouped" with the LMS in 1923 joined the LMR. The other regions formed at the same time were the Eastern Region, the North Eastern Region, the Southern Region, the Western Region and the Scottish Region; the LMR's territory principally consisted of the West Coast Main Line, the Midland Main Line south of Carlisle, the ex-Midland Cross Country route from Bristol to Leeds.
During the LMR's existence there were a number of transfers of territory to and from other regions. The major changes were: In 1949 the London and Southend Railway, wholly surrounded by Eastern lines and completely cut off from the rest of the LMR network, was transferred to the Eastern. In 1958 a major re-drawing of the regional boundaries took place. LMR lines in South Wales and south-west of Birmingham were transferred to the Western. In return the London Midland gained the lines of the former Great Central Railway that lay outside Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. In 1974, the Chiltern line from London Marylebone to Banbury and Birmingham Moor Street was transferred to the LMR from the Western Region; the LMR inherited ex-LMS types of steam locomotive. For a few months in early 1948, an M prefix was added to existing LMS locomotive numbers. From mid-1948, 40000 was added, giving numbers of ex-LMS types in the 5XXXX series; some elderly locomotive classes were renumbered in the 58XXX series to make way for new production of LMS designs.
The LMR continued building ex-LMS stock Black Fives, Ivatt 2MT, two Duchesses, rebuilds of Royal Scots and Patriots. Stanier "Period III" carriages continued to be built and were developed into a new style known as "Porthole" stock. Freight stock on order at Nationalisation was completed: some LMS designs were accepted as BR standard designs and continued to be built for the whole network through the 1950s and early 1960s. In 1968 it was the last region of BR to eliminate steam traction under the 1955 Modernisation Plan. In the 1960s, the West Coast Main Line was electrified between London Euston and Crewe, Liverpool and Birmingham; this was extended via Carlisle to Glasgow in the 1970s. Ball, MG. British Railways Atlas Ian Allan Publishing 2004
ScotRail (British Rail)
The ScotRail trading name was adopted on 22 September 1983, under manager Chris Green, British Railways Scottish Region to provide a distinctive brand for the British Rail network in Scotland. ScotRail was responsible for all passenger services, it operated services across the English border to Carlisle, from 5 March 1988, took over operation of the Caledonian Sleeper services to London Euston. Services from south of the border via the East Coast and West Coast Main Lines remained the responsibility of InterCity; the Ayrshire Coast Line was electrified in September 1986, as was the North Berwick Line in July 1991. During its tenure, much of Scotland’s locomotive hauled passenger carriage fleet was replaced by Class 150, Class 156 and Class 158 diesel multiple units, it introduced cascaded Class 305s as well as new Class 318 and Class 320 electric multiple units. When formed in 1983, customised versions of the existing British Rail liveries were adopted, with passenger locomotives and coaching stock painted in a modified version of the InterCity Executive livery.
The red stripe was replaced with a saltire blue stripe, the InterCity name was replaced with the ScotRail name. Most locomotives carried the standard InterCity Executive livery but with ScotRail branding. Diesel and Electric multiple units carried normal versions of the Regional Railways livery. In the SPT area, rolling stock was painted in Strathclyde Black. Perren, Brian. "Focus on ScotRail". RAIL. No. 81. EMAP National Publications. Supplement. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699
British Film Institute
The British Film Institute is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom. It was established by Royal Charter to: Encourage the development of the arts of film and the moving image throughout the United Kingdom, to promote their use as a record of contemporary life and manners, to promote education about film and the moving image and their impact on society, to promote access to and appreciation of the widest possible range of British and world cinema and to establish, care for and develop collections reflecting the moving image history and heritage of the United Kingdom; the BFI maintains the world's largest film archive, the BFI National Archive called National Film Library, National Film Archive, National Film and Television Archive. The archive contains more than 50,000 fiction films, over 100,000 non-fiction titles, around 625,000 television programmes; the majority of the collection is British material but it features internationally significant holdings from around the world.
The Archive collects films which feature key British actors and the work of British directors. The BFI runs the BFI Southbank and London IMAX cinema, both located on the south bank of the River Thames in London; the IMAX has the largest cinema screen in the UK and shows popular recent releases and short films showcasing its technology, which includes 3D screenings and 11,600 watts of digital surround sound. BFI Southbank shows films from all over the world critically acclaimed historical & specialised films that may not otherwise get a cinema showing; the BFI distributes archival and cultural cinema to other venues – each year to more than 800 venues all across the UK, as well as to a substantial number of overseas venues. The BFI offers a range of education initiatives, in particular to support the teaching of film and media studies in schools. In late 2012, the BFI received money from the Department For Education to create the BFI Film Academy Network; the BFI runs the annual London Film Festival along with BFI Flare: London LGBT Film Festival and the youth-orientated Future Film Festival.
The BFI publishes the monthly Sound magazine as well as films on Blu-ray, DVD and books. It runs the BFI National Library, maintains the BFI Film & TV Database and Summary of Information on Film and Television, which are databases of credits and other information about film and television productions. SIFT has a collection of about 7 million still frames from television; the BFI has co-produced a number of television series featuring footage from the BFI National Archive, in partnership with the BBC, including The Lost World of Mitchell & Kenyon, The Lost World of Friese-Greene, The Lost World of Tibet. The institute was founded in 1933. Despite its foundation resulting from a recommendation in a report on Film in National Life, at that time the institute was a private company, though it has received public money throughout its history—from the Privy Council and Treasury until 1965 and the various culture departments since then; the institute was restructured following the Radcliffe Report of 1948 which recommended that it should concentrate on developing the appreciation of filmic art, rather than creating film itself.
Thus control of educational film production passed to the National Committee for Visual Aids in Education and the British Film Academy assumed control for promoting production. From 1952–2000, the BFI provided funding for new and experimental filmmakers via the BFI Production Board; the institute received a Royal Charter in 1983. This was updated in 2000, in the same year the newly established UK Film Council took responsibility for providing the BFI's annual grant-in-aid; as an independent registered charity, the BFI is regulated by the Charity Commission and the Privy Council. In 1988, the BFI opened the London Museum of the Moving Image on the South Bank. MOMI was acclaimed internationally and set new standards for education through entertainment, but subsequently it did not receive the high levels of continuing investment that might have enabled it to keep pace with technological developments and ever-rising audience expectations; the Museum was "temporarily" closed in 1999. This did not happen, MOMI's closure became permanent in 2002 when it was decided to redevelop the South Bank site.
This redevelopment was itself further delayed. The BFI is managed on a day-to-day basis by its chief executive, Amanda Nevill. Supreme decision-making authority rests with a board of up to 14 governors; the current chair is Josh Berger, who took up the post in February 2016. He succeeded Greg Dyke, who took office on 1 March 2008. Dyke succeeded the late Anthony Minghella, chair from 2003 until 31 December 2007; the chair of the board is appointed by the BFI's own Board of Governors but requires the consent of the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. Other Governors are co-opted by existing board members; the BFI operates with three sources of income. The largest is public money allocated by the Department for Culture and Sport. In 2011–12, this funding amounted to £20m; the second largest source is commercial activity such as receipts from ticket sales at BFI Southbank or the BFI London IMAX theatre, sales of DVDs, etc. Thirdly and sponsorship of around £5m