British passport (Bermuda)
Bermudian passports are issued to British Overseas Territories Citizens connected to Bermuda. Adult applicants can apply for a standard Bermudian ePassport at a cost of US$160; the cost of the application for child applicants is US$80. Since 2015, all Bermudian passports are printed in the United Kingdom, rather than Bermuda. British Overseas Territories citizens with a connection to Bermuda can enter the United States visa-free under most circumstances. To qualify, they must present a Bermudian passport which fulfils the following criteria: The front cover has printed on it "Government of Bermuda" The holder's nationality must be stated as either "British Overseas Territories Citizen" or "British Dependent Territories Citizen" The passport must contain one of the following endorsement stamps: "Holder is registered as a Bermudian", "Holder Possesses Bermudian Status" or "Holder is deemed to possess Bermudian status"Alternatively, if Bermudians use their British Citizen passports, when entering the US on the Visa Waiver Program, they can only stay visa-free for up to 90 days and must obtain pre-arrival online authorisation.
Visa requirements for British Overseas Territories Citizens Government of Bermuda: Get a British Overseas Territory passport
The Guernsey passport is a British passport issued by the Passport Office of the Customs and Immigration Department in St Peter Port to British citizens. The Guernsey Customs and Immigration Department issues British passports to British citizens who are in Guernsey at the time of application and will be there when the passport is issued. Application forms are available from the Passport Office at White Rock, the States Office in Alderney, or the Greffe in Sark. British passports issued by the Guernsey Government to people who are regarded as'Channel Islanders or Manxmen' under Protocol 3 of the Treaty of Rome will have an endorsement included to the following effect: Although British citizens who have only a connection to Guernsey are European Union citizens, they do not have EU Freedom of Movement Rights. However, if an applicant for a passport at Guernsey is regarded as "having a close connection to the United Kingdom", their passports will not include such an endorsement and they will be eligible to benefit from European Union Freedom of Movement rights.
GGY - Guernsey passport Details information Official Guernsey Government Passport Office website
A travel document is an identity document issued by a government or international treaty organization to facilitate the movement of individuals or small groups of persons across international boundaries, following international agreements. Travel documents assure other governments that the bearer may return to the issuing country, are issued in booklet form to allow other governments to place visas as well as entry and exit stamps into them; the most common travel document is a passport, which gives the bearer more privileges like visa-free access to certain countries. However, the term is sometimes used only for those documents which do not bear proof of nationality, such as a refugee travel document. In general, a passport is a travel document that serves as proof of nationality from the issuing country. Although accepted by the majority of countries in the world, some issuing countries expressly exclude the validity of passports from nations that are not recognized by their governments. Non-citizens in the now independent Republics of Latvia and Estonia are individuals of Russian or Ukrainian ethnicity, who are not citizens of Latvia or Estonia but whose families have resided in the area since the Soviet era of forcible annexation, thus have the right to a non-citizen passport issued by the Latvian government as well as other specific rights.
Two thirds of them are ethnic Russians, followed by ethnic Belarussians, ethnic Ukrainians, ethnic Poles and ethnic Lithuanians. Non-citizens in the two countries are issued special non-citizen passports as opposed to regular passports issued by the Estonian and Latvian authorities to citizens; this form of legal discrimination is labelled as xenophobic. Although all U. S. citizens are U. S. nationals, the reverse is not true. As specified in 8 U. S. C. § 1408, a person whose only connection to the U. S. is through birth in an outlying possession, or through descent from a person so born, acquires U. S. nationality but not U. S. citizenship. This was the case in only four other current or former U. S. overseas possessions. The U. S. passport issued to non-citizen nationals contains the endorsement code 9 which states: "THE BEARER IS A UNITED STATES NATIONAL AND NOT A UNITED STATES CITIZEN." on the annotations page. Non-citizen U. S. nationals may reside and work in the United States without restrictions, but must apply for citizenship under the same rules as resident aliens.
Like resident aliens, they are not presently allowed by any U. S. state to vote in federal or state elections, although, as with resident aliens, there is no constitutional prohibition against their doing so. A laissez-passer is a travel document issued by a national government or certain international organizations, such as the United Nations, European Union and the International Committee of the Red Cross. A laissez-passer is for one-way travel to the issuing country for humanitarian reasons only such as Restoring Family Links; some national governments issue laissez-passers to their own nationals as emergency passports. Others issue them to people who are stateless, or who are unable to obtain a passport from their own government, or whose government is not recognized by the issuing country. One such example is the People's Republic of China, which issues the non-passport Chinese Travel Document to its nationals under certain circumstances. One such circumstance stems from a reported loss of passport while living abroad.
China issues a temporary two-year validity Travel Document in lieu of a passport to allow said citizen to complete their travels and return to China to apply for a replacement Chinese passport. Under other circumstances such as a Chinese citizen studying or working abroad, the Chinese embassies or consulates will issue passports if requested; this Travel Document is a blue-covered passport-sized booklet denoted "TRAVEL DOCUMENT" as opposed to the usual red-covered passport. Laissez-passers were issued during wartime and at other periods acting as a pass to allow travel to specific areas, or out of war zones or countries for various officials, diplomatic agents, other representatives or citizens of third countries. In these contexts, a laissez-passer would include quite specific and limited freedom of movement; the form and issuing authority would be less standardized, depending on the circumstances. An example is when in the early 1950s, the Iraqi government granted permission to its 120,000 Jewish citizens to leave, conditional on their renouncing their citizenship and leaving behind all their properties and assets.
The travel document, issued was the laissez-passer, since an Iraqi passport was no longer possible. Laissez-passer documents may be issued to goods or other non-living objects to facilitate their transport across international borders. For instance, the Agreement on the Transfer of Corpses sets out rules whereby human corpses may be issued laissez-passer documents in order for a body to be buried or cremated in a country different from the one in which the person died. In 2008, the United States Department of Homeland Security denied entry to an Ethiopian asylum seeker carrying a laissez-passer on the basis of a Wikipedia entry describing the document; the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit overturned a ruling by the Board of Immigration Appeals which had upheld the deportation, as there is no guarantee that information in a Wikipedia article is accurate. The Israeli authorities maintain a unique system of travel documents issued to non-Israeli permanent resident
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
Passports of the European Union
The European Union itself does not issue ordinary passports, but ordinary passport booklets issued by its 28 member states share a common format. This common format features a coloured cover emblazoned—in the official language of the issuing country —with the title "European Union", followed by the name of the member state, its coat of arms, the word "PASSPORT", together with the biometric passport symbol at the bottom centre of the front cover; some EU member states issue non-EU passports to certain people who have a nationality which does not render them citizens of the European Union. In addition, the European Commission issues European Union Laissez-Passers to the members and certain civil servants of its institutions. With a valid passport, EU citizens are entitled to exercise the right of free movement in the European Economic Area and Switzerland; when going through border controls to enter an EEA country, EU citizens possessing valid biometric passports are sometimes able to use automated gates instead of immigration counters.
For example, when entering the United Kingdom, at major airports, holders of EU biometric passports that are twelve years of age or older can use ePassport gates, whilst all other EU citizens and non-EEA citizens must use an immigration counter. Anyone travelling with children must use an immigration counter; as an alternative to holding a passport, EU citizens can use a valid national identity card to exercise their right of free movement within the EEA and Switzerland. Speaking, it is not necessary for an EU citizen to possess a valid passport or national identity card to enter the EEA or Switzerland. In theory, if an EU citizen outside of both the EEA and Switzerland can prove their nationality by any other means, they must be permitted to enter the EEA or Switzerland. An EU citizen, unable to demonstrate their nationality satisfactorily must nonetheless be given'every reasonable opportunity' to obtain the necessary documents or to have them delivered within a reasonable period of time. While considerable progress has been made in harmonising some features, the data page can be at the front or at the back of an EU passport booklet and there are significant design differences throughout to indicate which member state is the issuer.
Only British and Irish passports are not obliged by EU law to contain fingerprint information in their chip. With the exception of passports issued by Denmark and the United Kingdom, all EU citizens applying for a new ordinary passport or passport renewal by 28 August 2006 and 28 June 28 2009 should have been biometrically enrolled; this is a consequence of Regulation 2252/2004 in combination with two follow-up decisions by the European Commission. Non-standard types of passports, such as passport cards, diplomatic and emergency passports have not yet been harmonised but, since the 1980s, European Union member states have started to harmonise aspects of the designs of their ordinary passport booklets. Most passports issued by EU member states have the common recommended layout. However, the newest EU member state Croatia refused to comply with the EU common recommended layout though the Croatian passport has been changed in design due to the recent accession into the EU. From 3 August 2015, the new Croatian passport retained its dark blue passport cover and is the odd one out among the 28 European Union member states' passports.
On the other hand, the UK Government announced plans in December 2017 to return to the dark blue cover passport after Brexit, which in 1988 the UK Government voluntarily changed the colour of the passport to burgundy red, in line with all EU passports. Paper size B7 32 pages Colour of cover: burgundy red Information on the cover, in this order, in the language of the issuing state: The words "EUROPEAN UNION" Name of the issuing state Emblem of the state The word "PASSPORT" The Biometric Passport symbol Information on the first page, in one or more of the languages of the European Union: The words "EUROPEAN UNION" Name of the issuing state The word "PASSPORT" Serial number Information on the identification page, in the languages of the issuing state plus English and French, accompanied by numbers that refer to an index that lists the meaning of these fields in all official EU languages: On the top of the identification page there is the code "P" for passport, the code for the issuing country, the passport number.
On the left side there is the photo. On other places there might optionally be a national identification number, the height and security features. Like all biometric passports, the newer EU passports contain a Machine-readable zone, which contains the name, n
Citizenship of the European Union
Citizenship of the European Union is afforded to qualifying citizens of European Union member states. It was given to the citizens of member states by the 1992 Maastricht Treaty, at the same time as the European Community was gaining its own legal identity; the treaty established a direct legal relationship between that new legal identity and its citizens by establishing a directly elected European Parliament and the ability for citizens to bring cases directly to the ECJ, has been in force since 1993. European Union citizenship is additional to national citizenship. EU citizenship affords rights and legal protections to all of its citizens. European Union citizens have the right to free movement and employment across the EU. EU citizens are free to trade and transport goods and capital through EU borders, as in a national market, with no restrictions on capital movements or fees. Citizens have the right to vote in and run as a candidate in local elections in the country where they live, European elections and European Citizens' Initiative.
Citizenship of the EU confers the right to consular protection by embassies of other EU member states when a person's country of citizenship is not represented by an embassy or consulate in the country in which they require protection. EU citizens have the right to address the European Parliament, European Ombudsman, EU agencies directly in their own language, provided the issue raised is within that institution's competence. EU citizens enjoy the legal protections of EU law, including the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and acts and directives regarding, for example, protection of personal data, rights of victims of crime and combating trafficking in human beings, equal pay, protection from discrimination in employment on grounds of religion or belief, sexual orientation and age; the EU has an office of European Ombudsman whom EU citizens can approach directly. Given the substantial number of Europeans who left Europe for other continents in the 1800s and 1900s, the extension of citizenship by descent, or jus sanguinis, by some European countries to an unlimited number of generations of those emigrants' descendants, there are many tens of millions or hundreds of millions of persons outside Europe who have a claim to citizenship in an EU member state and, by extension, to EU citizenship.
If these individuals were to overcome the bureaucratic hurdles of certifying their citizenship, they would have freedom of movement to live anywhere in the EU, under the 1992 European Court of Justice decision Micheletti v Cantabria. EU citizenship was first introduced by the Maastricht Treaty, was extended by the Treaty of Amsterdam. Prior to the 1992 Maastricht Treaty, the European Communities treaties provided guarantees for the free movement of economically active persons, but not for others; the 1951 Treaty of Paris establishing the European Coal and Steel Community established a right to free movement for workers in these industries and the 1957 Treaty of Rome provided for the free movement of workers and services. However, the treaty provisions were interpreted by the European Court of Justice not as having a narrow economic purpose, but rather a wider social and economic purpose. In Levin, the Court found that the "freedom to take up employment was important, not just as a means towards the creation of a single market for the benefit of the member state economies, but as a right for the worker to raise her or his standard of living".
Under the ECJ caselaw, the rights of free movement of workers applies regardless of the worker's purpose in taking up employment abroad, to both part-time and full-time work, whether or not the worker required additional financial assistance from the member state into which he moves. Since the ECJ has held that a recipient of service has free movement rights under the treaty and this criterion is fulfilled every national of an EU country within another member state, whether economically active or not, had a right under Article 12 of the European Community Treaty to non-discrimination prior to the Maastricht Treaty. In the case of Martinez Sala, the European Court of Justice held that the citizenship provisions provided substantive equal treatment rights alongside those granted by union law; the case of Baumbast established that the right to equal treatment applies to both economically active and inactive citizens. Despite these broad interpretations, the landmark case of Dano combined the criteria of freedom to move and equal treatment, citing them as inter-dependant, subsequently limiting the scope of Martinez Sala.
The main benefit of being a citizen of an EU country has been that of free movement. The free movement applies to the citizens of European Economic Area countries and Switzerland. However, with the creation of EU citizenship, certain political rights came into being; the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union provides for citizens to be "directly represented at Union level in the European Parliament" and "to participate in the democratic life of the Union". The following rights are afforded: Political rightsVoting in European elections: a right to vote and stand in elections to the European Parliament, in any EU member state Voting in municipal elections: a right to vote and stand in local elections in an EU state other than their own, under the same conditions as the nationals of that state Accessing European government documents: a right to access to European Parliament and Commission documents. Petitioning Parliament and the Ombudsman: the right to petition the European Pa
British passport (Cayman Islands)
Caymanian passports are issued to British Overseas Territories Citizens connected to the Cayman Islands. Since 2016, all Caymanian passports are issued in the United Kingdom by Her Majesty's Passport Office. Visa requirements for British Overseas Territories Citizens Official website of the Cayman Islands Passport Office