Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull abbreviated to Hull, is a port city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It lies upon the River Hull at its confluence with the Humber Estuary, 25 miles inland from the North Sea, with a population of 260,700. Hull lies east southeast of York and northeast of Sheffield; the town of Wyke on Hull was founded late in the 12th century by the monks of Meaux Abbey as a port from which to export their wool. Renamed Kings-town upon Hull in 1299, Hull has been a market town, military supply port, trading hub and whaling centre and industrial metropolis. Hull was an early theatre of battle in the English Civil Wars, its 18th-century Member of Parliament, William Wilberforce, took a prominent part in the abolition of the slave trade in Britain. After suffering heavy damage in the Second World War, Hull weathered a period of post-industrial decline, gaining unfavourable results on measures of social deprivation and policing. In the early 21st century spending boom before the late 2000s recession the city saw large amounts of new retail, commercial and public service construction spending.
Tourist attractions include The Hull People's Memorial, the historic Old Town and Museum Quarter, Hull Marina and The Deep aquarium. Sports teams include Championship League football club Hull City and rugby league clubs Hull F. C. & Hull Kingston Rovers. The University of Hull now enrols more than 16,000 students, it is ranked among the best in the Humber region. Hull was the 2017 UK City of Culture and in the same year the city's Ferens Art Gallery hosted the prestigious Turner Prize. Kingston upon Hull stands on the north bank of the Humber Estuary at the mouth of its tributary, the River Hull; the valley of the River Hull has been inhabited since the early Neolithic period but there is little evidence of a substantial settlement in the area of the present city. The area was attractive to people because it gave access to a prosperous hinterland and navigable rivers but the site was poor, being remote, low-lying and with no fresh water, it was an outlying part of the hamlet of Myton, named Wyke.
The name is thought to originate either from a Scandinavian word Vik meaning inlet or from the Saxon Wic meaning dwelling place or refuge. The River Hull was a good haven for shipping, whose trade included the export of wool from Meaux Abbey, which owned Myton. In 1293 the town of Wyke was acquired from the abbey by King Edward I, who on 1 April 1299 granted it a royal charter that renamed the settlement King's town upon Hull or Kingston upon Hull; the charter is preserved in the archives of the Guildhall. In 1440, a further charter incorporated the town and instituted local government consisting of a mayor, a sheriff and twelve aldermen. In his Guide to Hull, J. C. Craggs provides a colourful background to Edward's naming of the town, he writes that the King and a hunting party started a hare which "led them along the delightful banks of the River Hull to the hamlet of Wyke …, charmed with the scene before him, viewed with delight the advantageous situation of this hitherto neglected and obscure corner.
He foresaw it might become subservient both to render the kingdom more secure against foreign invasion, at the same time to enforce its commerce". Pursuant to these thoughts, Craggs continues, Edward purchased the land from the Abbot of Meaux, had a manor hall built for himself, issued proclamations encouraging development within the town, bestowed upon it the royal appellation, King's Town; the port served as a base for Edward I during the First War of Scottish Independence and developed into the foremost port on the east coast of England. It prospered by exporting wool and woollen cloth, importing wine and timber. Hull established a flourishing commerce with the Baltic ports as part of the Hanseatic League. From its medieval beginnings, Hull's main trading links were with northern Europe. Scandinavia, the Baltic and the Low Countries were all key trading areas for Hull's merchants. In addition, there was trade with France and Portugal; as sail power gave way to steam, Hull's trading links extended throughout the world.
Docks were opened to serve the frozen meat trade of New Zealand and South America. Hull was the centre of a thriving inland and coastal trading network, serving the whole of the United Kingdom. Sir William de la Pole was the town's first mayor. A prosperous merchant, de la Pole founded a family. Another successful son of a Hull trading family was bishop John Alcock, who founded Jesus College and was a patron of the grammar school in Hull; the increase in trade after the discovery of the Americas and the town's maritime connections are thought to have played a part in the introduction of a virulent strain of syphilis through Hull and on into Europe from the New World. The town prospered during the 16th and early 17th centuries, Hull's affluence at this time is preserved in the form of several well-maintained buildings from the period, including Wilberforce House, now a museum documenting the life of William Wilberforce. During the English Civil War, Hull became strategically important because of the large arsenal located there.
Early in the war, on 11 January 1642, the king named the Earl of Newcastle governor of Hull while Parliament nominated Sir John Hotham and asked his son, Captain John Hotham, to secure the town at once. Sir John Hotham and Hull corporation declared support for Parliament and denied Charles I entry into the town. Charles I responded to these events by besieging the town; this siege helped precipitate open conflict between the forces of Parliament a
William Grenfell, 1st Baron Desborough
William Henry Grenfell, 1st Baron Desborough, was a British athlete, public servant and politician. He sat in the House of Commons first for the Liberal Party and for the Conservatives between 1880 and 1905 when he was raised to the peerage, he was President of the Thames Conservancy Board for thirty-two years. Grenfell was the son of Charles William Grenfell, former MP for Sandwich, Georgiana Lascelles, daughter of William Saunders Lascelles, MP, he was the nephew of Henry Riversdale Grenfell, the banker and politician, the first cousin of Edward Grenfell, 1st Baron St Just. Grenfell was educated at Balliol College, Oxford. Grenfell rowed for Oxford in the Boat Race, in the only dead heat race, in 1877, Oxford's win of 1878, he was President of the Oxford University Boat Club in 1879. He won the silver medal for fencing in the event of team épée at the 1906 Intercalated Games, having been the first person to carry the flag for Great Britain in the parade of nations. In 1908, he was president of the Olympic games held in London.
He served as the president of the Oxford University Boat Club, the Athletic Club and of the Bartitsu Club. He enjoyed mountaineering, swimming and big-game hunting, he swam the Niagara rapids twice, climbed the Matterhorn three times, rowed across the English Channel and was amateur punting champion of the Upper Thames. He was President of the Amateur Fencing Association, Marylebone Cricket Club based at Lords, the Lawn Tennis Association based at Wimbledon. A registered tennis players golf tournament survives in his name since 1912 with its top prize being The Desborough Cup. In the 1880 general election, Grenfell was elected the Member of Parliament for Salisbury, he was elected MP for Hereford in 1892. Politically he was a Gladstonian Liberal who resigned in 1893 rather than support Gladstone's Second Irish Home Rule Bill, he returned to the House of Commons in 1900 as a Conservative. In 1905, Grenfell was raised to the peerage as Baron Desborough, of Taplow in the County of Buckinghamshire, a title that combined the defunct hundred of Desborough and the riverside village in which he lived in Buckinghamshire.
During a long career dedicated to public service, he was President of the Thames Conservancy Board from 1904 to 1937, the London Chamber of Commerce, the Royal Agricultural Society, amongst many others. He was High Steward of Maidenhead, the nearest town to his home at Taplow, his good deeds for Maidenhead included the donation of an old chalk pit, converted for use as a park, to celebrate the diamond jubilee of Queen Victoria: this park, Grenfell Park, contains many unusual trees, the seeds of which were collected by Lord Desborough as he travelled the world. He was an active Freemason, he became a steward of Henley Royal Regatta. He was a J. P. for Buckinghamshire and a Deputy Lieutenant for Tower Hamlets. He was appointed High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire in 1889. On 3 Jun 1915, he was appointed a deputy lieutenant of Buckinghamshire. Desborough was appointed CVO in 1907 and advanced to KCVO in 1908 and GCVO in 1925, he was a Major of the 1st Battalion, Buckinghamshire Rifle Volunteers from February 1900.
In November 1914, he was appointed President of the Central Association of Volunteer Training Corps, a voluntary home defence militia, until it was disbanded in 1920. From 1924 to 1929 he was Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard. Between 1919 and 1929 he was chairman of the Pilgrims of Great Britain, he planned and oversaw the construction the Desborough Cut a navigation channel between nearby stretches of the Thames at Walton-on-Thames and Weybridge, opened in 1935. The large island created thereby was named Desborough Island. Desborough had the unfortunate distinction of having an obituary prematurely published on 2 December 1920 by The Times which confused the event with the death of Lord Bessborough – Desborough died 25 years at the age of 89, he was a founder member of Maidenhead Golf Club in Berkshire, formed in 1896. It was the friendship of one local founder member, Dr G E Moore, with Grenfell which got the project off the ground. Grenfell was the Mayor of Maidenhead in 1895 and 1896 and an wealthy and competent businessman who owned more than 10,000 acres of land around the town.
It was that Mr Grenfell offered to lease some of his acreage near to Maidenhead Railway Station, to become Maidenhead Golf Club and remains so well into a second century. Grenfell became one of the earliest 63 members of the club, its first president and agreed to present “a challenge cup for competition”; this was the Grenfell Cup, still in yearly competition. Lord Desborough married Ethel Fane, daughter of Julian Fane and granddaughter of John Fane, 11th Earl of Westmorland, in 1887, they had two daughters. His eldest son was the poet Julian Grenfell, killed in action in 1915, his second son, Gerald William Grenfell, was killed about two months after his elder brother. His third son, Ivo George Grenfell, died in 1926 as the result of a car accident; as all his sons predeceased him, the barony became extinct. They lived at Taplow Court where he and his wife hosted gatherings of the elite and aristocratic group, the'Souls', adjacent on the riverside to Cliveden, a grander country estate, but which saw its social heyday after, from 1920 to 1965.
Lady Desborough was a well-known celebrity in her day. Margot Asquith, whose husband would be politically aligned against Desborough, said of her, She tells enough white lies to ice
The Red Summer refers to the late winter, spring and early autumn of 1919, which were marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the United States, as a result of racial riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities and one rural county. In most instances, whites attacked African Americans. In some cases many black people fought back, notably in Chicago and Washington, D. C; the highest number of fatalities occurred in the rural area around Elaine, where an estimated 100–240 black people, five white people, were killed. C. had 38 and 15 deaths and many more injured, with extensive property damage in Chicago. The racial riots against blacks resulted from a variety of postwar social tensions related to the demobilization of veterans of World War I, both black and white, competition for jobs and housing among ethnic white people and black people. In addition, it was a time of labor unrest in which some industrialists used black people as strikebreakers, increasing resentment.
The riots were extensively documented in the press, along with the federal government, feared Socialist and communist influence on the black civil rights movement following the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. They feared foreign anarchists, who had bombed homes and businesses of prominent business and government leaders. Civil rights activist and author James Weldon Johnson coined the term "Red Summer". In 1919, he organized peaceful protests against the racial violence of that summer. With the manpower mobilization of World War I and immigration from Europe cut off, the industrial cities of the Northeast and Midwest experienced severe labor shortages. Northern manufacturers recruited throughout the South and an exodus of workers ensued. By 1919, an estimated 500,000 African Americans had emigrated from the Southern United States to the industrial cities in the Northeast and Midwest in the first wave of the Great Migration, which continued until 1940. African-American workers filled new positions in expanding industries, such as the railroads, as well as many jobs held by whites.
In some cities, they were hired as strikebreakers during the strikes of 1917. This increased resentment against blacks among many working-class whites, immigrants or first-generation Americans. In the summer of 1917, violent racial riots against blacks, due to labor tensions, broke out in East St. Louis and Houston, Texas. Following the war, rapid demobilization of the military without a plan for absorbing veterans into the job market, the removal of price controls, led to unemployment and inflation that increased competition for jobs. During the First Red Scare of 1919–20, following the Russian Revolution, anti-Bolshevik sentiment in the United States followed on the anti-German sentiment arising in the war years. Many politicians and government officials, together with much of the press and the public, feared an imminent attempt to overthrow the U. S. government to create a new regime modeled on that of the Soviets. Authorities viewed with alarm African-Americans' advocacy of racial equality, labor rights, the rights of victims of mobs to defend themselves.
In a private conversation in March 1919, President Woodrow Wilson said that "the American Negro returning from abroad would be our greatest medium in conveying Bolshevism to America." Other whites expressed a wide range of opinions, some anticipating unsettled times and others seeing no signs of tension. Early in 1919, Dr. George Edmund Haynes, an educator employed as director of Negro Economics for the U. S. Department of Labor, wrote: "The return of the Negro soldier to civil life is one of the most delicate and difficult questions confronting the Nation and south." One black veteran wrote a letter to the editor of the Chicago Daily News saying the returning black veterans "are now new men and world men, if you please. They have awakened, but they have not yet the complete conception of what they have awakened to." W. E. B. Du Bois, an official of the NAACP and editor of its monthly magazine, saw an opportunity: "By the God of Heaven, we are cowards and jackasses if now that the war is over, we do not marshal every ounce of our brain and brawn to fight a sterner, more unbending battle against the forces of hell in our own land."In May 1919, following the first serious racial incidents, he published his essay "Returning Soldiers": We return from the slavery of uniform which the world's madness demanded us to don to the freedom of civil garb.
We stand again to call a spade a spade. We sing: This country of ours, despite all its better souls have done and dreamed, is yet a shameful land... We return. We return from fighting. We return fighting. Following the violence-filled summer, in the autumn of 1919, Haynes reported on the events as a prelude to an investigation by the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, he identified 38 separate racial riots against blacks in scattered cities, in which whites attacked black people. Unlike earlier racial riots against blacks in U. S. history, the 1919 events were among the first in which black people in number resisted white attacks and fought back. A. Philip Randolph, a civil rights activist and leader of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, publicly defended the right of black people to self-defense. In addition, Haynes reported that between January 1 and September 14, 1919, white mobs lynched at least forty-three African Americans, with sixteen hanged and others s
Police ranks of the United Kingdom
Most of the police forces of the United Kingdom use a standardised set of ranks, with a slight variation in the most senior ranks for the Metropolitan Police Service and City of London Police. Most of the British police ranks that exist today were chosen by Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the Metropolitan Police, enacted under the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829; the ranks at that time were deliberately chosen so that they did not correspond with military ranking, because of fears of a paramilitary force. In short, the ranks are from bottom to top: Constable and sergeant Inspector and chief inspector Superintendent and chief superintendent Assistant chief constable, deputy chief constable and chief constable. See the variations section below for the ranks in London, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man. Badges of rank are worn on the epaulettes. However, when in their formal uniform sergeants wear their rank insignia on their upper sleeves; when police tunics had closed collars and sergeants did not wear epaulettes but had their divisional call number on their collar.
Sergeants wore their stripes on their upper sleeve. Inspectors and more senior ranks wore epaulettes at a much earlier stage, although they once wore their rank insignia on their collars. Most forces no longer use divisional call numbers, retain only the collar number and rank insignia. Senior officers wear distinguishing marks around the outer edge of the peaks of their caps; this is a raised black band for inspectors and chief inspectors, a silver band for superintendents and chief superintendents, a row of silver oakleaves for chief officers. Chief constables, the Commissioner of the City of London Police, all commissioner ranks of the Metropolitan Police wear oakleaves on both the outer and inner edges of their peaks. In Scotland, the mark is a silver band for inspectors and chief inspectors, a silver band and silver oakleaves on the outer and inner edges of the peak for superintendents and chief superintendents, silver oakleaves on the outer and inner edges of the peak for all chief officers.
Additionally, officers at or above the rank of commander or assistant chief constable wear gorget patches on the collars of their tunics. The gorget patches are patterned after those worn by general officers of the British Army and Royal Marines; the above ranks are used by all territorial forces in the United Kingdom, the specialist national forces: the British Transport Police, Ministry of Defence Police, Civil Nuclear Constabulary. Other specialist forces, those outside of the United Kingdom use the same general system, but have fewer senior ranks. Chief Constable is the title of the head of each United Kingdom territorial police force except the Metropolitan Police and City of London Police, which are headed by commissioners. Ranks above chief superintendent are non-operational management roles, are referred to as "chief officer" ranks but the longer phrase "chief police officer" or similar in legislation is a commissioner or chief constable, a "senior police officer" being their immediate deputy.
The Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police is considered to be the highest police rank within the United Kingdom, although in reality every chief constable and the two commissioners are supreme over their own forces and are not answerable to any other officer. Epaulettes are black with white sewn on or silver metal insignia, although high-visibility uniforms are yellow with black insignia; the rank of an officer can be found in varying details of the uniform such as headgear, sleeve patches and tunic collar details, although these details do not vary for every rank. The City of London Police has different ranks above chief superintendent: Commander Assistant commissioner CommissionerCity of London Police insignia is gold where that of other forces is silver. For example, rank insignia and collar numbers on epaulettes are gold, as are the bands and oakleaves on the caps of senior officers, officers of or above the rank of commander wear gold-on-black gorget patches on the collars of their tunics.
The City of London Police previously had variations for some acting ranks such as sergeant and inspector: acting sergeants wore their chevrons above their divisional letters, whereas substantive sergeants wear them below their collar number. Acting inspectors were denoted by a crown in the place of their divisional letters, whilst keeping their collar number and chevrons; the Royal Ulster Constabulary was headed by an Inspector-General and had a different rank structure until 1 June 1970, when it adopted the rank system used elsewhere in the United Kingdom. The RUC has now been succeeded by the Police Service of Northern Ireland, which uses the same ranks, but has a differ
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation; the local authority is Manchester City Council. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell, it was a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.
Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles to the west, its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration. In 2014, the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city after London and Edinburgh, it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station. Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games; the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- or from mamma.
Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement; the Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in. Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix and Eboracum were protected from the Brigantes. Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield; the Roman habitation of Manchester ended around the 3rd century. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after 1066. Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.
Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282. Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry. Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded and most populous town of all Lancashire." The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester. During the English Civil War Manchester favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was appointed Major General for Lancashire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals.
He was a diligent puritan, banning the celebration of Christmas. Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance; the Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester; the canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved th
Newport is a city and unitary authority area in south east Wales, on the River Usk close to its confluence with the Severn Estuary, 12 miles northeast of Cardiff. At the 2011 census, it was the third largest city in Wales, with a population of 145,700; the city forms part of the Cardiff-Newport metropolitan area, with a population of 1,097,000. Newport has been a port since medieval times, when the first Newport Castle was built by the Normans; the town outgrew the earlier Roman town of Caerleon upstream, gained its first charter in 1314. It grew in the 19th century, when its port became the focus of coal exports from the eastern South Wales Valleys; until the rise of Cardiff from the 1850s, Newport was Wales' largest coal-exporting port. Newport was the site of the last large-scale armed insurrection in Britain, the Newport Rising of 1839 led by the Chartists. In the 20th century, the docks declined in importance, but Newport remained an important manufacturing and engineering centre, it was granted city status in 2002.
Newport was the venue for the 2014 NATO summit. Bronze Age fishermen settled around the fertile estuary of the River Usk and the Celtic Silures built hillforts overlooking it. In AD 75, on the edge of their empire, the Roman legions built a Roman fort at Caerleon to defend the river crossing. According to legend, in the late 5th century Saint Gwynllyw, the patron saint of Newport and King of Gwynllwg founded the church which would become Newport Cathedral; the church was in existence by the 9th century and today has become the seat of the Bishop of Monmouth. The Normans arrived from around 1088–1093 to build the first Newport Castle and river crossing downstream from Caerleon and the first Norman Lord of Newport was Robert Fitzhamon; the settlement of'Newport' is first mentioned as novo burgus established by Robert, Earl of Gloucester in 1126. The name was derived from the original Latin name Novus Burgus, meaning new town; the city can sometimes be found labelled as Newport-on-Usk on old maps.
The original Welsh language name for the city, Casnewydd-ar-Wysg means'New castle-on-Usk' and this refers to the twelfth-century castle ruins near Newport city centre. The original Newport Castle was a small motte-and-bailey castle in the park opposite Newport Cathedral, it was buried in rubble excavated from the Hillfield railway tunnels that were dug under Stow Hill in the 1840s and no part of it is visible. Around the settlement, the new town grew to become Newport, obtaining its first charter in 1314 and was granted a second one, by Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford in 1385. In the 14th century friars came to Newport where they built an isolation hospital for infectious diseases. After its closure the hospital lived on in the place name "Spitty Fields". "Austin Friars" remains a street name in the city. During the Welsh Revolt in 1402 Rhys Gethin, General for Owain Glyndŵr, forcibly took Newport Castle together with those at Cardiff, Abergavenny, Caerphilly and Usk. During the raid the town of Newport was badly burned and Saint Woolos church destroyed.
A third charter, establishing the right of the town to run its own market and commerce came from Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham in 1426. By 1521, Newport was described as having "....a good haven coming into it, well occupied with small crays where a great ship may resort and have good harbour." Trade was thriving with the nearby ports of Bristol and Bridgwater and industries included leather tanning, soap making and starch making. The town's craftsmen included bakers, brewers and blacksmiths. A further charter was granted by James I in 1623. During the English Civil War in 1648 Oliver Cromwell's troops camped overnight on Christchurch Hill overlooking the town before their attack on the castle the next day. A cannonball dug up from a garden in nearby Summerhill Avenue, dating from this time, now rests in Newport Museum; as the Industrial Revolution took off in Britain in the 19th century, the South Wales Valleys became key suppliers of coal from the South Wales Coalfield, iron. These were transported down local rivers and the new canals to ports such as Newport, Newport Docks grew as a result.
Newport became one of the largest towns in Wales and the focus for the new industrial eastern valleys of South Wales. By 1830 Newport was Wales' leading coal port, until the 1850s it was larger than Cardiff; the Newport Rising in 1839 was the last large-scale armed rebellion against authority in mainland Britain. John Frost and 3,000 other Chartists marched on the Westgate Hotel at the centre of the town; the march was met with an attack by militia, called to the town by the Mayor, Thomas Phillips: at least 20 marchers were killed and were buried in Saint Woolos churchyard. John Frost was sentenced to death for treason, but this was commuted to transportation to Australia, he returned to Britain in his life. John Frost Square, in the centre of the city, is named in his honour. Newport had a Welsh-speaking majority until the 1830s, but with a large influx of migrants from England and Ireland over the following decades, the town and the rest of Monmouthshire came to be seen as "un-Welsh", a view compounded by ambiguity about the status of Monmouthshire.
In the 19th century, the St George Society of Newport asserted. It was at a meeting in Newport, attended by future Prime Minister David Lloyd Geor
Sir Edward Richard Henry, 1st Baronet, was the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis from 1903 to 1918. His commission saw the introduction of police dogs to the force, but he is best remembered today for his championship of the method of fingerprinting to identify criminals. Henry was born at London to Irish parents, he studied at St Edmund's College, Hertfordshire, at sixteen he joined Lloyd's of London as a clerk. He meanwhile took evening classes at University College, London to prepare for the entrance examination of the Indian Civil Service. On 9 July 1873, he passed the Indian Civil Service Examinations and was'appointed by the said Secretary of State to be a member of the Civil Service at the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal'. On 28 July 1873 he married Mary Lister at the Parish Church of Kensington, London. Mary's father, Tom Lister, was the Estate Manager for the Earl of Stamford. In September 1873 Edward Henry set sail for India, he arrived in Bombay and travelled across India arriving at Allahabad on 22 October 1873 to take up the position of Assistant Magistrate Collector within the Bengal Taxation Service.
He became fluent in Hindi. In 1888, he was promoted to Magistrate-Collector. In 1890, he became aide-de-camp and secretary to the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal and Joint Secretary to the Board of Revenue of Bengal. On 24 November 1890, as a widower, he remarried, by marrying Louisa Langrishe Moore. On 2 April 1891, Henry was appointed Inspector-General of Police of Bengal, he had been exchanging letters with Francis Galton regarding the use of fingerprinting to identify criminals, either instead of or in addition to the anthropometric method of Alphonse Bertillon, which Henry introduced into the Bengal police department. The taking of fingerprints and palm prints had been common among officialdom in Bengal as a means of identification for forty years, having been introduced by Sir William Herschel, but it was not used by the police and there was no system of simple sorting to allow rapid identification of an individual print. Between July 1896 and February 1897, with the assistance of Sub-Inspectors Azizul Haque and Hemchandra Bose, Henry developed a system of fingerprint classification enabling fingerprint records to be organised and searched with relative ease.
It was Haque, responsible for developing a mathematical formula to supplement Henry's idea of sorting in 1,024 pigeon holes based on fingerprint patterns. Years both Haque and Bose, on Henry's recommendation, received recognition by the British Government for their contribution to the development of fingerprint classification. In 1897, the Government of India published Henry's monograph and Uses of Fingerprints; the Henry Classification System caught on with other police forces, in July 1897 Victor Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin, the Governor-General of India, decreed that fingerprinting should be made an official policy of the British Raj. This classification system was developed to facilitate orderly storage and faster search of fingerprint cards, called ten print cards, it was used when the ten print cards searched manually and not digitally. Each ten print card was tagged with attributes that can vary from 1/1 to 32/32. In 1899, the use of fingerprint experts in court was recognised by the Indian Evidence Act.
In 1898, he was made a Companion of the Star of India. In 1900, Henry was seconded to South Africa to organise the civil police in Pretoria and Johannesburg. In the same year, while on leave in London, Henry spoke before the Home Office Belper Committee on the identification of criminals on the merits of Bertillonage and fingerprinting. In 1901, Henry was recalled to Britain to take up the office of Assistant Commissioner at Scotland Yard, in charge of the Criminal Investigation Department. On 1 July 1901, Henry established Britain's first, its primary purpose was not to assist in identifying criminals, but to prevent criminals from concealing previous convictions from the police and prisons. However, it was used to ensure the conviction of burglar Harry Jackson in 1902 and soon caught on with CID; this usage was cemented when fingerprint evidence was used to secure the convictions of Alfred and Albert Stratton for murder in 1905. Henry introduced other innovations as well, he bought the first typewriters to be used in Scotland Yard outside the Registry, replacing the laborious hand copying of the clerks.
In 1902, he ran a private telegraph line from Paddington Green Police Station to his home, replaced it with a telephone in 1904. On Sir Edward Bradford's retirement in 1903, Henry was appointed Commissioner, which had always been the Home Office's plan. Henry is regarded as one of the great Commissioners, he was responsible for dragging the Metropolitan Police into the modern day, away from the class-ridden Victorian era. However, as Commissioner, he began to lose touch with his men, as others, he continued with his technological innovations, installing telephones in all divisional stations and standardising the use of police boxes, which Bradford had introduced as an experiment but never expanded upon. He soon increased the strength of the force by 1,600 men and introduced the first proper training for new constables. In 1905, Henry was made a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order and the following year was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. In