The annexed territories were designated the minor province, British Burma, of British India in 1862. After the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1885, Upper Burma was annexed, and the following year and this arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma began to be administered separately by the Burma Office under the Secretary of State for India and Burma. British rule was disrupted during the Japanese occupation of much of the country during the Second World War, Burma achieved independence from British rule on 4 January 1948. They were administered separately by the British with a Burma Frontier Service, the Frontier Areas were inhabited by ethnic minorities such as the Chin, the Shan, the Kachin and the Karenni. By 1931 Burma had 8 divisions, split into a number of districts, in Danuphyu, south of Ava, the Burmese general Maha Bandula was killed and his armies routed. The 1826 Treaty of Yandabo formally ended the First Anglo-Burmese War, the longest, fifteen thousand European and Indian soldiers died, together with an unknown number of Burmese army and civilian casualties. The campaign cost the British five million sterling to 13 million pounds sterling that led to a severe economic crisis in British India in 1833. After 25 years of peace, the British and Burmese fighting started afresh, King Mindon tried to readjust to the thrust of imperialism. He enacted administrative reforms and made Burma more receptive to foreign interests, but the British effected the Third Anglo-Burmese War, which lasted less than two weeks during November 1885. British troops entered Mandalay on 28 November 1885 and Burma was attached to the British Empire on 1 January 1886, Burmese armed resistance continued sporadically for several years, and the British commander had to coerce the High Court of Justice to continue to function. The British decided to all of Upper Burma as a colony. The new colony of Upper Burma was attached to the Burma Province on 26 February 1886, Rangoon, having been the capital of British Lower Burma, became the capital of the province. It was also one of the first Southeast Asian countries to receive Buddhism, before the British conquest and colonisation, the ruling Konbaung Dynasty practised a tightly centralised form of government. The king was the executive, with the final say on all matters. The country had two codes of law, the Rajathat and Dammathat, and the Hluttaw, the centre of government, was divided into three branches—fiscal, executive, and judicial. In theory the king was in charge of all of the Hluttaw but none of his orders got put into place until the Hluttaw approved them, thus checking his power. Further dividing the country, provinces were ruled by governors who were all appointed by the Hluttaw, conflict began between Myanmar and the British when the Konbaung Dynasty decided to expand into Arakan in the state of Assam, close to the British possessions in India. This close contact led to the first Anglo-Burmese War, which the British won with the aid of the Siamese, Myanmar was forced to cede Assam and other northern provinces
British naval force entered the harbour of Rangoon in May 1824
Photograph of the arrival of British forces in Mandalay on 28 November 1885 at the end of the Third Anglo-Burmese War. Photographer: Hooper, Willoughby Wallace (1837–1912)
District Courts and Public Offices, Strand Road, Rangoon, 1868. Photographer J. Jackson.
In this rendering, British officers take King Thibaw onto a steamship en route to exile in India. He will never see Burma again.