Henry the Green Engine
Henry lives on the fictitious Island of Sodor with many other locomotives, including Thomas the Tank Engine. He is engine number 3 on the North Western Railway, and was one of the first engines to be described, Henry is a little smaller than Gordon the Big Engine, who appeared in the first book. Henrys first adventure was in The Sad Story of Henry, the story in the Railway Series book The Three Railway Engines. In this story, he went into a tunnel and refused to come out due to fears that the rain would spoil his Lovely Green paint, and Red Stripes As punishment, the Fat Controller ordered that he was bricked up in the tunnel for eternity. Weeks later, he was let out to help Edward pull Gordons express train. Henry was originally a prototype engine who, as the result of a small firebox, was often ill. The Fat Controller gave him special Welsh coal, which helped and this prompted the Fat Controller to send Henry to the locomotive works at Crewe so hell be rebuilt with a new shape and no longer the need for special coal.
Henry has kept his new shape through today. Henry was given a new firebox which gave him a similar specification to an LMS Class 5MT Black Five locomotive, Henry now works on the main line. He can pull coaches and trucks equally well, and sometimes even hauls the Express when Gordon is not available and he is still the engine responsible for the Flying Kipper, and in the television series he brings the post from the Mainland. He has been in the series from the start, and in recent seasons has been identified as part of the Steam Team. There have been two Railway Series books devoted to him, namely Henry the Green Engine and Henry and the Express, although he is a hard worker by heart, Henry has shown to be rather vain and arrogant. Unlike Gordon and James, Henry does not frequently antagonize his fellow engines and he is prone to illness, and frequently complains about it, much to the annoyance of many engines, most notably Thomas, who even once told Henry that he is too fat and needs exercise.
Out of the bigger engines such as Gordon and James, Henry is the most likely to be respectful to engines such as Edward, behind the scenes, Rev. W. Awdry had a great deal of trouble with the illustrators depiction of Henry. He was unhappy with the way C, reginald Dalby had portrayed the character, as he looked almost identical to Gordon, especially when he was painted blue at the end of Book 1 and in Books 2-4. In one illustration in Tank Engine Thomas Again, he looks identical to Gordon, Awdrys original idea had been to write Henry out of the series, hence the characters illness. But by the book, Henry the Green Engine, he had decided against such a drastic measure. He instead decided to have the character involved in an accident, allowing him to be rebuilt into a Class 5MT which, being a real locomotive
Donald and Douglas
Donald and Douglas are two fictional steam locomotives from The Railway Series books by the Rev. W. Awdry. They appear in Thomas & Friends, the series based on the books. He could not tell which engine was which, and so decided to keep whichever one was the more useful, Douglas accidentally shunted Thomas Special Coach, full of Passengers, into a siding at Tidmouth, thus infuriating the Passengers. Things worsened when Donald managed to demolish a signal box, meanwhile, made the decision harder by helping James up a hill, succeeding in spite of James losing steam, but destroying a spiteful brake van in the process. However, the twins proved their worth to the railway in winter, the other engines appealed to the Fat Controller in The Deputation and he decided to keep both of them. In the Railway Series, they were painted blue shortly afterwards, the twins are almost identical, and some episodes of the television series have depicted them as being inseparable. The reason for their both arriving on Sodor was that Donald was bought and saved from scrap, but Douglas was not and was due to be cut up.
They could not bear the thought of one being saved and the not so they decided to go to Sodor together. As their crews were related, it was not difficult for both to stay on the island. To allow the engines to be apart, the Fat Controller ordered that numbers be painted on their tenders. Following an incident in which the engines swapped tenders, he decided that it would be wise to give them nameplates on their boilers as well and Douglas are popular among the other engines, not only for their versatility but their practical and friendly demeanour. They enjoy a good joke, as exemplified when Ducks driver slipped a duck into Donalds tank and they put their all into any job, no matter how difficult. And, because of their own brush with scrapping, they have the utmost sympathy for engines escaping the scrapyard and it was this sympathy that made Douglas a hero, when he rescued Oliver and Toad from scrap and brought them to Sodor. In the Railway Series, Toad became his brake van following this incident, the Twins are mainly used for goods work, but can be used for all sorts of jobs all over the railway.
They are very much the odd job engines of the line and they carry out track repair, collect engines from the Works, rescue engines that have broken down or crashed and, of course, clear snow in the winter. The railway would not be the same without them and they are, in the Fat Controllers words, Really Useful Engines. They first appeared in the book The Twin Engines, published in 1960 and their first appearance in the television series was in Season 2. and appeared in a deleted scene in Season 8s Edward the Great. They played a prominent role in Season 12s Saved You and they returned to the series in Sodors Legend of the Lost Treasure, where they played a supporting lead role and were both voiced by Joe Mills in both the UK and US versions
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Shining Time Station
Shining Time Station is an American childrens television series jointly created by British television producer Britt Allcroft and Rick Siggelkow. It incorporated sequences from the British television show Thomas & Friends, the series aired on PBS from January 29,1989 until June 11,1993, and continued in reruns until June 11,1998. It aired on Fox Family from 1998 to 1999 and it aired on Nick Jr. in 2000 and on Canadian television networks such as APTN and SCN. Elements from the show were incorporated into the Thomas and Friends film Thomas, the series starred Ringo Starr, George Carlin, Didi Conn, Brian OConnor, and The Flexitoon Puppets. He left the show and was replaced by George Carlin, Shining Time Station received critical acclaim. In a review for Entertainment Weekly, Ken Tucker states that, Shining Time Station wants to slow things down. Its an old-fashioned show that creates a gentle, lulling atmosphere to convince children that life is fun and it was a ratings success as well. In its first season, the show averaged a 0.9 Nielsen rating, translating to about 1.2 million viewers on average, at the peak of its popularity, the show brought in up to 7.5 million viewers per week.
The Shining Time Station is a station on the Indian Valley Railroad. It is managed by Stacy Jones and its workshop is run in the first season by Harry Cupper, and thereafter by Billy Twofeathers. A local named Horace Schemer runs the stations arcade and serves as the comic relief. The narrative is driven by regular and incidental visitors to the station, Mr. Conductor is a tiny man who lives in a signal house inside the stations mural and tells the stories taken from Thomas & Friends to the kids. Conductors Evil Twin George Carlin – Mr. J. B. King, Mr. Conductor, Ringo Starr Mr. Conductor, Ringo Starr Season 2 consists of 20 episodes. Jason Woliner and Nicole Leach reprise their Season 1 main roles for two episodes, Mr. Conductor, George Carlin Didi Conn has a haircut starting with this season. Starting with this season, Danielle Marcot was added to the opening credits and this season consisted of 25 episodes. It featured the Juke Box Band and was published by Quality Family Entertainment in 1994, Shining Time Station at the Internet Movie Database Shining Time Station at TV.
com Thomas the Tank Engine & Friends Thomas & Friends Mr. Conductors Thomas Tales Storytime with Thomas
The London Palladium is a 2, 286-seat Grade II* West End theatre located on Argyll Street in the City of Westminster. From the roster of stars who have played there and many televised performances, it is arguably the most famous theatre in London, the theatre has hosted the Royal Variety Performance a record 40 times, most recently in 2014. Walter Gibbons, an early manager, built the Palladium in 1910 to compete with Sir Edward Mosss London Hippodrome. The facade, dates back to the 19th century, formerly it was a temporary wooden building called Corinthian Bazaar, which featured an aviary and aimed to attract customers from the recently closed Pantheon Bazaar on Oxford Street. It became the National Skating Palace – a skating rink with real ice, however the rink failed and the Palladium was redesigned by Frank Matcham, a famous theatrical architect who designed the Coliseum, on the site that had previously housed Hengler’s Circus. The building now carries Heritage Foundation commemorative plaques honouring Lew Grade, the theatre retains many of its original features and was Grade II* listed in September 1960.
The Palladium had its own telephone system so the occupants of boxes could call one another and it had a revolving stage. The theatre started out as The Palladium, a venue for variety performances. In 1926, the pantomime starred Lennie Dean as Cinderella, footage of remains to this day. The theatre is especially linked to the Royal Variety Performances, where many were, in 1928, for three months the Palladium ran as a cinema. Following this Cine-Variety episode the theatre fell dark for a period in the autumn of 1928. From 3 September 1928, the Palladium reopened under the directorship of the impresario/producer George Black as part of the General Theatre Corporation, when Black took control the theatre was close to bankruptcy. Before too long, under Blacks management the Palladium was soon gaining praise again as The Worlds Leading Variety Theatre, in 1935, Black initiated the Crazy Gang revues at the Palladium with Life Begins at Oxford Circus. The revues continued at the Palladium as an event until they transferred to the Victoria Palace theatre in 1940.
Black managed the Palladium until his death in 1945, the climax of the 1935 Alfred Hitchcock spy thriller The 39 Steps was filmed at the Palladium. The theatre was hit by an unexploded German parachute mine on 11 May 1941, the device had fallen through the roof, becoming lodged over the stage. A Royal Navy bomb disposal team was sent to deal with it, after the mine was located, the fuze locking ring had to be turned to allow access to the fuze itself. Rather disconcertingly, the fuze began ticking as soon as it was touched and this caused a rapid evacuation of the immediate area, but the mine did not detonate
Wilbert Vere Awdry OBE was an English Anglican cleric, railway enthusiast, and childrens author. Better known as the Reverend W. Awdry, he was the creator of Thomas the Tank Engine, Awdry was born at Ampfield vicarage near Romsey, Hampshire on 15 June 1911. His father was the Reverend Vere Awdry, the Anglican vicar of Ampfield and his younger brother, was born on 10 August 1916 and died on 27 October 1994. All three of Awdrys older half-siblings from his fathers first marriage died young, journeys End was only 200 yards from the western end of Box Tunnel. There the Great Western Railway main line climbs at a gradient of 1 in 100 for two miles, a banking engine was kept there to assist freight trains up the hill. Awdry related, There was no doubt in my mind that steam engines all had definite personalities, I would hear them snorting up the grade and little imagination was needed to hear in the puffings and pantings of the two engines the conversation they were having with one another. Awdry was educated at Marlborough House School, Dauntseys School, West Lavington, Wiltshire, St Peters Hall and Wycliffe Hall and he taught for three years from 1933 to 1936 at St.
Georges School, Jerusalem. He was ordained to the Anglican priesthood in 1936, in 1938 he married Margaret Wale. Remembering the death of his brother in the First World War and his bishop told him to find another parish. In 1940 he took a curacy in St. Nicholas Church, Kings Norton and he subsequently moved to Cambridgeshire, serving as Rector of Elsworth with Knapwell and Vicar of Emneth. He retired from ministry in 1965 and moved to Stroud. The characters that would make Awdry famous and the first stories featuring them were invented in 1943 to amuse his son Christopher during a bout of measles. After Awdry wrote The Three Railway Engines, he built Christopher a model of Edward, Christopher wanted a model of Gordon, however, as that was too difficult Awdry made a model of a little 0-6-0 tank engine. Awdry said, The natural name was Thomas – Thomas the Tank Engine, Christopher requested stories about Thomas and these duly followed and were published in the famous book Thomas the Tank Engine, released in 1946.
The first book was published in 1945, and by the time Awdry stopped writing in 1972, Christopher subsequently added further books to the series. In 1952, Awdry volunteered as a guard on the Talyllyn Railway in Wales, the railway inspired Awdry to create the Skarloey Railway, based on the Talyllyn, with some of his exploits being written into the stories. Awdrys enthusiasm for railways did not stop at his publications and he was involved in railway preservation, and built model railways, which he took to exhibitions around the country. Awdry wrote other books besides those of The Railway Series, both fiction and non-fiction, the story Belinda the Beetle was about a red car
Toby the Tram Engine
Toby the Tram Engine is a fictional anthropomorphic tram engine in The Railway Series by the Rev. W. Awdry and his son, Christopher, he appears in the spin-off television series Thomas & Friends. Toby, an engine with cowcatchers and sideplates, carries the North Western Railway running number seven. Toby first appeared in the book in The Railway Series, Toby the Tram Engine in 1952. The second book focused on Toby was the sixth of Christopher Awdrys books, Trucks, Toby is based on a J70 tram engine from the Great Eastern Railway. His cowcatchers and sideplates allow him to run on roadside tramways, J70s were used for light duties, such as branch line work and dock shunting. Many J70s could be working on the Wisbech and Upwell Tramway in East Anglia only 28 miles from Rev. W. Awdrys parish at Elsworth in Cambridgeshire in the same diocese. Rev. W. Awdry wrote about Toby the Tram Engine in 1952, the Tramway ran from Wisbech, through Emneth – the next station on the line – through Outwell and Upwell.
This area and its line was known to Rev. W. Awdry who often visited Ely nearby. The Tramway was primarily used for the transportation of fruit and other produce to the main line at Wisbech. The line closed to passengers in 1927, but freight continued until lorries. In 1952, the tram engines were replaced by diesel Drewry Shunters. Inspiration for Toby came from the Awdrys watching a J70 – probably 68221, one of three J70s built in 1914 – at Great Yarmouth in 1951. Further inspiration was drawn soon after when the Rev. Teddy Boston, curate at Wisbech, fascinated by the unusual engines, Awdry sought a way to incorporate them in the stories. The story includes a description of Tobys final journeys on the line, People come to see Toby, Toby had few trucks, and fewer passengers. That day Henrietta had more passengers than she could manage. They rode in the trucks and crowded in the brake van and this was a common occurrence during the closing of real railway lines, demand decreased to an unprofitable amount, but services were often full for the last workings of steam.
On Awdrys model railway, Toby was represented by a Y6, in 1961, Awdry wrote an article for Railway Modeller magazine on the construction of this locomotive. Rev. W, Awdry served as parish priest in two parishes in Cambridgeshire, the county associated with Toby the Tram Engine. First, he was Rector of Elsworth with Knapwell from 1946 to 1953, he was Vicar of Emneth from 1953 until 1965 when he retired from full-time ministry and moved to Stroud, Toby is introduced in the seventh book in The Railway Series
Thomas & Friends (franchise)
Thomas & Friends was created by the Rev. W Awdry. The series has seen in one feature film released in 2000. HIT revealed that its theatrical division would be piloted by a Thomas film, originally targeted for late-2010 release, in September 2009 this was revised to Spring 2011. As of January 2011, the date had been pushed back further to 2012. On 8 June 2011, Deadline announced that 9 director Shane Acker will direct the adaptation of Thomas the Tank Engine. However, since 2011, no information has been released about the film. Day out with Thomas, is a name used by HiT Entertainment for special events held at heritage railways in the UK. The characteristic features of these events include locomotives wearing faces to resemble Thomas characters, the general idea is that the public have the chance to ride in a train pulled by Thomas or one of his friends. In the US the name refers to Come Ride the Rails with Thomas which is a US tour by real trains modelled after Thomas the Tank Engine. The Thomas engine visits various historic railroads across the United States allowing visitors to play games, meet Sir Topham Hatt, HIT Entertainment sponsors the event to promote the Thomas and Friends brand.
The Thomas locomotive is shipped from the UK, the South Limburg Railway Compagny has its own Diesel locomotive. In 2007, Drusillas Park near Alfriston, England opened a railway ride featuring Thomas, the track runs through the Zoo Park and features James, Diesel and the Fat Controller. Several of these attractions have since renamed and re-themed. On 15 March 2008, Drayton Manor in the UK opened their own Thomas Land just like Japans Amusement Park which attracts 1.7 million fans every year, Thomas Land at Drayton Manor is on the site of what was formerly Robinsons Land. For the 2008 &2009 Season, Dutch Wonderland in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA, featured a Thomas, a wide range of merchandise has been manufactured to cash in on the success of the series. The most popular and wide-ranging items of merchandise are the models of the characters, other popular products include videos and magazines, and computer games. With the popularity of the Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends TV series among children, merit Toys produced some larger scale battery-powered engines with carriages and wagons in the 1980s, which ran on red tracks.
Complementary videos, DVDs, games, stationery, clothing, in January 1987, a number of Thomas toys were recalled after test found lead content in the paint was up to 90 times the legally permitted level
In 1998 it became a subsidiary of Amazon Inc, who were able to use it as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. As of January 2017, IMDb has approximately 4.1 million titles and 7.7 million personalities in its database, the site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Although all data is checked before going live, the system has open to abuse. The site featured message boards which stimulate regular debates and dialogue among authenticated users, IMDb shutdown the message boards permanently on February 20,2017. Anyone with a connection can read the movie and talent pages of IMDb. A registration process is however, to contribute info to the site. A registered user chooses a name for themselves, and is given a profile page. These badges range from total contributions made, to independent categories such as photos, bios, if a registered user or visitor happens to be in the entertainment industry, and has an IMDb page, that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO.
Actors and industry executives can post their own resume and this fee enrolls them in a membership called IMDbPro. PRO can be accessed by anyone willing to pay the fee, which is $19.99 USD per month, or if paid annually, $149.99, which comes to approximately $12.50 per month USD. Membership enables a user to access the rank order of each industry personality, as well as agent contact information for any actor, director etc. that has an IMDb page. Enrolling in PRO for industry personnel, enables those members the ability to upload a head shot to open their page, as well as the ability to upload hundreds of photos to accompany their page. Anyone can register as a user, and contribute to the site as well as enjoy its content, however those users enrolled in PRO have greater access and privileges. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham entitled Those Eyes, others with similar interests soon responded with additions or different lists of their own.
Needham subsequently started an Actors List, while Dave Knight began a Directors List, and Andy Krieg took over THE LIST from Hank Driskill, which would be renamed the Actress List. Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, the goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible. By late 1990, the lists included almost 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17,1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, at the time, it was known as the rec. arts. movies movie database
Thomas & Friends
Thomas the Tank Engine & Friends is a British childrens television series. It had its first broadcast on the ITV network in Great Britain from 1984 to 1992 and it is based on The Railway Series of books by the Reverend Wilbert Awdry and his son, Christopher Awdry. These books follow the adventures of a group of anthropomorphised locomotives, the books were based on stories Wilbert told to entertain his son, during his recovery from measles. Many of the stories from the first four series are based on events from Awdrys personal experience, before the airing of the first episode of Thomas & Friends in 1984, previous attempts had been made to adapt Awdrys stories for television, but not all attempts were successful. The engines were portrayed by 00 gauge Hornby Dublo models and driven on authentic sets in the style of the original illustrations, the first episode, based on The Sad Story of Henry, was broadcast live on the evening of Sunday 14 June 1953 from Lime Grove Studios. The live broadcast did not fare well, models moved jerkily, and all effects and music had to be superimposed.
By 23 June, news of the broadcast hit the front pages of the Daily Telegraph, Awdry himself branded the episode as unprofessional, and the point-switching debacle as an elementary mistake. As a result, the episode scheduled for 28 June 1953 was put on hold. Nearly twenty years later, the BBC incorporated Awdrys stories once again, I saw a strong emotional content that would carry with little childrens experiences with life. Allcroft worked to convince Awdry that she could, with funding and her efforts were successful, and she purchased the television rights from the publishers of The Railway Series at a cost of what was £50,000. Allcroft still had to work to raise the money to finance production and, despite showing a keen interest, in the end, after several years of searching and having to place a second mortgage on her home, Allcroft raised sufficient funding from her local bank manager. The series started production in 1984 by Allcrofts production company, The Britt Allcroft Company, Clearwater Features Ltd.
the series was originally shot and produced with live action models at the Clearwater in house studio in Battersea, a suburb of London, for Series 1. It relocated to Shepperton Studios, southwest of London for subsequent series, the use of moving models was seen at the time of the series conception as an effective method of animating the stories. Locomotives and other vehicles were operated by radio, while humans, stop-motion was occasionally employed for instances in which a human or animal character would move. Hand-drawn animation was used in Series 3 to create bees, the first series used stories from the first eight books, along with one specially written by the Rev. W. Awdry, Thomass Christmas Party. The second series used stories from Book 9 to Book 30 and this book was unusual, as it was written specifically by Christopher Awdry to be adapted by the show. At that time, it was an obligation that the series could only adapt stories that appeared in print. The series used a story from a Thomas Annual and Trevor, and a specially written story, Thomas
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565