The English Channel, called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is about 560 km long and varies in width from 240 km at its widest to 33.3 km in the Strait of Dover and it is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of some 75,000 km2. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the English Channel as follows, a line joining Isle Vierge to Lands End. The southwestern limit of the North Sea, the IHO defines the southwestern limit of the North Sea as a line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. The Walde Lighthouse is 6 km east of Calais, and Leathercoat Point is at the end of St Margarets Bay. The Strait of Dover, at the Channels eastern end, is its narrowest point and it is relatively shallow, with an average depth of about 120 m at its widest part, reducing to a depth of about 45 m between Dover and Calais.
Eastwards from there the adjoining North Sea reduces to about 26 m in the Broad Fourteens where it lies over the watershed of the land bridge between East Anglia and the Low Countries. It reaches a depth of 180 m in the submerged valley of Hurds Deep,48 km west-northwest of Guernsey. The eastern region along the French coast between Cherbourg and the mouth of the Seine river at Le Havre is frequently referred to as the Bay of the Seine. There are several islands in the Channel, the most notable being the Isle of Wight off the English coast. The coastline, particularly on the French shore, is indented, several small islands close to the coastline, including Chausey. The Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, whilst on the English side there is a parallel channel known as the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the mainland. The Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel, the time difference of about six hours between high water at the eastern and western limits of the Channel is indicative of the tidal range being amplified further by resonance.
It was never defined as a border and the names were more or less descriptive. It was not considered as the property of a nation, before the development of the modern nations, British scholars very often referred to it as Gaulish and the French one as British or English. The name English Channel has been used since the early 18th century. In modern Dutch, however, it is known as Het Kanaal, later, it has been known as the British Channel or the British Sea having been called the Oceanus Britannicus by the 2nd-century geographer Ptolemy. The same name is used on an Italian map of about 1450, the Anglo-Saxon texts often call it Sūð-sǣ as opposed to Norð-sǣ
Action of 22 September 1914
Approximately 1,450 sailors were killed and there was a public outcry in Britain at the losses. The sinkings eroded confidence in the British government and damaged the reputation of the Royal Navy, the force was assigned patrol duties in the North Sea, supporting destroyers and submarines of the Harwich Force to guard against incursions by the Kaiserliche Marine into the English Channel. The War Orders of 28 July 1914, which conformed to pre-war assumptions about attacks by destroyers rather than submarines, had not been modified. The orders required the ships to patrol the south of the 54th parallel clear of enemy torpedo craft and destroyers with the support of Cruiser Force C. The cruisers shifted area to the Broad Fourteens and reinforced the fourth cruiser there during troops movements from Britain to France, heading south meant sailing towards German bases and becoming more vulnerable to submarine attack. The U-boat was treated equally lightly by the Imperial German Navy, in the first six weeks of the war, on the morning of 22 September, U-9 passed through the Broad Fourteens on her way back to base.
Next day, the escorts had been forced to depart by heavy weather. The Admiralty ordered that the ships were to cancel the Dogger Patrol, on 20 September, Euryalus returned to port to re-fuel and by 22 September, Aboukir and Cressy were on patrol under the command of Captain J. E. Drummond of Aboukir. At 06,00 on 22 September, the weather had calmed, lookouts were posted for submarine periscopes or ships and one gun either side of each ship was manned. U-9 had been ordered to attack British transports at Ostend but had forced to dive. On surfacing, she spotted the British ships and moved to attack. At 06,20, the submarine fired a torpedo at the nearest ship from a range of 550 yd and struck Aboukir on the side, flooding the engine room. No submarines had been sighted, so Drummond assumed that the ship had hit a mine, after 25 minutes, Aboukir capsized and sank five minutes later. Only one boat could be launched, because of damage from the explosion, U-9 rose to periscope depth from her dive after firing the torpedo, to observe two British cruisers engaged in the rescue of men from the sinking ship.
Weddigen fired two torpedoes at Hogue, from 300 yd. As the torpedoes left the submarine, her bows rose out of the water and she was spotted by Hogue, which opened fire before the submarine dived. The two torpedoes struck Hogue, within five minutes, Captain Wilmot Nicholson gave the order to abandon ship, watchers on Cressy had seen the submarine, opened fire and made a failed attempt to ram, turned to pick up survivors. At 07,20, U-9 fired two torpedoes toward Cressy from her torpedo tubes at a range of 1,000 yd
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of around 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery, the North Sea was the centre of the Vikings rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, and the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus the access to the markets, as Germanys only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geological and geographical features, in the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south it consists primarily of sandy beaches and wide mudflats.
Due to the population, heavy industrialization, and intense use of the sea and area surrounding it. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean, in the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, and connects with the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland, the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea including water from the Baltic Sea, the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed.
Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some highly industrialized areas, for the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to a north of Bergen. It is between 20 and 30 kilometres wide and has a depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris and this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms. These great banks and others make the North Sea particularly hazardous to navigate, the Devils Hole lies 200 miles east of Dundee, Scotland. The feature is a series of trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long,1 and 2 kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Cleaver Bank, Fisher Bank, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows, On the Southwest
An oil tanker, known as a petroleum tanker, is a merchant ship designed for the bulk transport of oil. There are two types of oil tankers, crude tankers and product tankers. Crude tankers move large quantities of unrefined oil from its point of extraction to refineries. Product tankers, generally smaller, are designed to move refined products from refineries to points near consuming markets. Oil tankers are often classified by their size as well as their occupation, the size classes range from inland or coastal tankers of a few thousand metric tons of deadweight to the mammoth ultra large crude carriers of 550,000 DWT. Tankers move approximately 2,000,000,000 metric tons of oil every year, second only to pipelines in terms of efficiency, the average cost of oil transport by tanker amounts to only two or three United States cents per 1 US gallon. Some specialized types of oil tankers have evolved, one of these is the naval replenishment oiler, a tanker which can fuel a moving vessel. Combination ore-bulk-oil carriers and permanently moored floating storage units are two variations on the standard oil tanker design.
Oil tankers have been involved in a number of damaging and high-profile oil spills, as a result, they are subject to stringent design and operational regulations. The technology of oil transportation has evolved alongside the oil industry, although anthropogenic use of oil reaches to prehistory, the first modern commercial exploitation dates back to James Youngs manufacture of paraffin in 1850. In the early 1850s, oil began to be exported from Upper Burma, the oil was moved in earthenware vessels to the river bank where it was poured into boat holds for transportation to Britain. In the 1860s, Pennsylvania oil fields became a supplier of oil. Break-bulk boats and barges were used to transport Pennsylvania oil in 40-US-gallon wooden barrels. But transport by barrel had several problems, the first problem was weight, the standard empty barrel weighed 64 pounds, representing 20% of the total weight of a full barrel. Other problems with barrels were their expense, their tendency to leak, the expense was significant, for example, in the early years of the Russian oil industry, barrels accounted for half the cost of petroleum production.
In 1863, two tankers were built on Englands River Tyne. These were followed in 1873 by the first oil-tank steamer, the vessels use was curtailed by U. S. and Belgian authorities citing safety concerns. By 1871, the Pennsylvania oil fields were making limited use of oil tank barges, the modern oil tanker was developed in the period from 1877 to 1885
A nautical chart is a graphic representation of a maritime area and adjacent coastal regions. Nautical charts are essential tools for marine navigation, many countries require vessels, especially commercial ships, Nautical charting may take the form of charts printed on paper or computerized electronic navigational charts. With each daily download, critical data such as Local Notice to Mariners is added to the on-demand chart files so that these charts will be up to date at the time of printing, Nautical charts are based on hydrographic surveys. As surveying is laborious and time-consuming, hydrographic data for many areas of sea may be dated, depths are measured in a variety of ways. Historically the sounding line was used, in modern times, echo sounding is used for measuring the seabed in the open sea. When measuring the depth of water over an entire obstruction, such as a shipwreck. This ensures that difficult to find projections, such as masts, Nautical charts are issued by power of the national hydrographic offices in many countries.
These charts are considered official in contrast to those made by commercial publishers, many hydrographic offices provide regular, sometimes weekly, manual updates of their charts through their sales agents. Individual hydrographic offices produce national chart series and international chart series, there are commercially published charts, some of which may carry additional information of particular interest, e. g. for yacht skippers. The nature of a waterway depicted by a chart may change, old or uncorrected charts should never be used for navigation. Every producer of nautical charts provides a system to inform mariners of changes that affect the chart. In the U. S. NOAA has a partner who prints the POD NOAA charts. To give notice to mariners, radio broadcasts provide advance notice of urgent corrections, a good way to keep track of corrections is with a Chart and Publication Correction Record Card system. When the time comes to use the chart, he pulls the chart and charts card and this system ensures that every chart is properly corrected prior to use.
A prudent mariner should obtain a new chart if he has not kept track of corrections, various Digital Notices to Mariners systems are available on the market such as Digitrace, Voyager, or ChartCo, to correct British Admiralty charts as well as NOAA charts. These systems provide only vessel relevant corrections via e-mail or web downloads, tracings to assist corrections are provided at the same time. The Canadian Coast Guard produces the Notice to Mariners publication which informs mariners of important navigational safety matters affecting Canadian Waters and this electronic publication is published on a monthly basis and can be downloaded from the Notices to Mariners Web site. The information in the Notice to Mariners is formatted to simplify the correction of paper charts and diverse methods exist for the correction of electronic navigational charts
Draft determines the minimum depth of water a ship or boat can safely navigate. The draft can be used to determine the weight of the cargo on board by calculating the displacement of water. A table made by the shows the water displacement for each draft. The density of the water and the content of the bunkers has to be taken into account. The closely related term trim is defined as the difference between the forward and aft drafts, the draft aft is measured in the perpendicular of the stern. The draft forward is measured in the perpendicular of the bow, the scale may use traditional English units or metric units. If the English system is used, the bottom of each marking is the draft in feet, in metric marking schemes, the bottom of each draft mark is the draft in decimeters and each mark is one decimeter high. Larger ships try to maintain a water draft when they are light, in order to make a better sea crossing. In order to achieve this they use sailing ballasts to stabilize the ship, the water draft of a large ship has little direct link with its stability because stability depends solely on the respective positions of the metacenter of the hull and the center of gravity.
It is however, that a light ship has quite high stability which can lead to implying too much rolling of the ship. A fully laden ship can have either a strong or weak stability, the draft of ships can be increased when the ship is in motion in shallow water, a phenomenon known as squat. Draft is a significant factor limiting navigable waterways, especially for large vessels, of course this includes many shallow coastal waters and reefs, but some major shipping lanes. Panamax class ships—the largest ships able to transit the Panama Canal—do have a limit but are usually limited by beam, or sometimes length overall. However, in the much wider Suez Canal, the factor for Suezmax ships is draft. Some supertankers are able to transit the Suez Canal when unladen or partially laden, canals are not the only draft-limited shipping lanes. A Malaccamax ship has the deepest draft able to transit the very busy, there are only a few ships of this size. A small draft allows pleasure boats to navigate through shallower water and this makes it possible for these boats to access smaller ports, to travel along rivers and even to beach the boat. A large draft ensures a level of stability in strong wind
Dogger Bank is a large sandbank in a shallow area of the North Sea about 100 kilometres off the east coast of England. During the last ice age the bank was part of a large landmass connecting Europe and it has long been known by fishermen to be a productive fishing bank, it was named after the doggers, Old Dutch fishing boats especially used for catching cod. At the beginning of the 21st century the area was identified as a site for a UK round 3 wind farm. The bank extends over approximately 17,600 square kilometres, with its dimensions being about 260 by 97 kilometres long by broad, the water depth ranges from 15 to 36 metres, about 20 metres shallower than the surrounding sea. The bank is an important fishing area, with cod and herring being caught in large numbers and it gives its name to the Dogger sea area used in the BBC Radio 4 Shipping Forecast. Several shipwrecks lie on the bank, Dogger Bank has been identified as an oceanic environment that exhibits high primary productivity throughout the year in the form of phytoplankton.
As such, it has been proposed by various groups to designate the area a Marine Nature Reserve, the feature is most likely a moraine, formed during the Pleistocene. At differing times during the last last glacial period it was joined to the mainland or an island. The bank was part of a landmass, now known as Doggerland. Fishing trawlers working the area have dredged up large amounts of peat, remains of mammoth and rhinoceros. The 1931 Dogger Bank earthquake took place below the bank, measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale and was the largest earthquake recorded in the United Kingdom. Its hypocentre was 23 kilometres beneath the bank, and the quake was felt in all around the North Sea. South of Dogger Bank is the Cleaver Bank, Battle of Dogger Bank, during the Nine Years War on a French fleet under the command of Jean Bart was victorious over the ships of the Grand Alliance. Battle of Dogger Bank, during the War of American Independence, Dogger Bank incident, during the Russo-Japanese War, Russian naval ships opened fire on British fishing boats in the on 21 October 1904, mistaking them for Japanese torpedo boats.
Battle of Dogger Bank and Battle of Dogger Bank, during the First World War, saw battles in, in 1966, the German submarine U-Hai, a German Type XXIII submarine sank during a gale. 19 of 20 men died, one of the worst peacetime naval disasters in German history, in January 2010, a licence to develop a wind farm on Dogger Bank was granted to Forewind Ltd, a consortium of developers. Construction was scheduled to start around 2014 at the earliest, but has been repeatedly postponed. At the North Seas Energy Forum in Brussels on 23 March 2017, Energinet. dk will sign a contract to work with the German and Dutch branches of TenneT, thereafter a feasibility study will be produced