In the 1980s, the telecommunications industry expected that digital services would follow much the same pattern as voice services did on the public switched telephone network, conceived an end-to-end circuit switched service, known as Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network. Before B-ISDN, the original ISDN attempted to substitute the analog telephone system with a digital system, appropriate for both voice and non-voice traffic. Obtaining worldwide agreement on the basic rate interface standard was expected to lead to a large user demand for ISDN equipment, hence leading to mass production and inexpensive ISDN chips. However, the standardization process took years. Once the ISDN standard was agreed upon and products were available, it was obsolete. For home use the largest demand for new services was video and voice transfer, but the ISDN basic rate lacks the necessary channel capacity; this led by adding the word broadband. Although the term had a meaning in physics and engineering, the CCITT defined it as: "Qualifying a service or system requiring transmission channels capable of supporting rates greater than the primary rate" referring to the primary rate which ranged from about 1.5 to 2 Mbit/s.
Services envisioned included video video conferencing. Technical papers were published in early 1988. Standards were issued by the Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique, called "Recommendations", they included G.707 to G.709, I.121 which defined the principal aspects of B-ISDN, with many others following through the 1990s. The designated technology for B-ISDN was Asynchronous Transfer Mode, intended to carry both synchronous voice and asynchronous data services on the same transport; the B-ISDN vision has been overtaken by other disruptive technologies used in the Internet. The ATM technology survived as a low-level layer in most digital subscriber line technologies, as a payload type in some wireless technologies such as WiMAX; the term "broadband" became a marketing term for any digital Internet access service. Broadband networks Dynamic synchronous transfer mode, a revival of circuit switching technology for broadband traffic Ender Ayanoglu. "B-ISDN". Center for Pervasive Communications and Computing, UC Irvine.
Retrieved 19 June 2011
The Hundred Year Lie: How Food And Medicine Are Destroying Your Health is a book by investigative journalist Randall Fitzgerald that examines the rise of the local and global influence of the United States food and chemical industries, argues that they have, over the last century, altered and damaged the lives of millions of people in the United States by introducing synthetic chemicals into the mainstream food chain. The book covers a wide range of topics related to the central issue, it starts by describing the myths that the public believes, that toxicity health issues are'someone else's problem', goes on to talk about what is known to the scientific and chemical communities, charts the history of the cover-up of chemicals in relation to human health, the level of business made from this by the chemical companies. The book goes on in detail about the dangers of food additives, the toxic threats of the processed food humans and animals eat, how this chemical contamination has now affected the water that people drink, how this has brought on increased biological changes, genetic mutations and newly discovered and increasing illnesses and diseases, in both human and animals.
The book ends with a discussion on Western and Eastern medical approaches and philosophies, a focus on alternative medicine and eating healthily, avoiding synthetic foods, a practical guide on how to detoxify one's body. ISBN 0-525-94951-8 Super Size Me — a 2004 documentary by Morgan Spurlock on a similar topic; the Corporation — a 2003 Canadian documentary film critical of the modern-day corporation and its behavior towards society. The Jungle — a 1906 novel by Upton Sinclair on the meatpacking industry. Fast Food Nation makes various references to it. Reefer Madness — a 2003 book by Eric Schlosser examining migrant labor and the pornography and marijuana businesses in America. Jennifer Government — a 2003 novel by Max Barry set in a hyper-corporate world, where schools, health care and everything else are run by major corporations. Fast Food Nation — a 2001 book by Eric Schlosser examining fast food businesses in America; the Hundred Year Lie official website
Grachyovka is the name of several rural localities in Russia. As of 2010, one rural locality in the Republic of Bashkortostan bears this name: Grachyovka, Republic of Bashkortostan, a village in Shaymuratovsky Selsoviet of Karmaskalinsky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Belgorod Oblast bears this name: Grachyovka, Belgorod Oblast, a selo in Novooskolsky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Kaliningrad Oblast bears this name: Grachyovka, Kaliningrad Oblast, a settlement in Krasnotorovsky Rural Okrug of Zelenogradsky District As of 2010, two rural localities in Kaluga Oblast bear this name: Grachyovka, Mosalsky District, Kaluga Oblast, a village in Mosalsky District Grachyovka, Zhukovsky District, Kaluga Oblast, a village in Zhukovsky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Krasnodar Krai bears this name: Grachyovka, Krasnodar Krai, a settlement in Umansky Rural Okrug of Leningradsky District As of 2010, two rural localities in Kursk Oblast bear this name: Grachyovka, Fatezhsky District, Kursk Oblast, a village in Glebovsky Selsoviet of Fatezhsky District Grachyovka, Manturovsky District, Kursk Oblast, a village in 2-y Zaseymsky Selsoviet of Manturovsky District As of 2010, two rural localities in Lipetsk Oblast bear this name: Grachyovka, Usmansky District, Lipetsk Oblast, a selo in Grachyovsky Selsoviet of Usmansky District Grachyovka, Volovsky District, Lipetsk Oblast, a village in Naberezhansky Selsoviet of Volovsky District As of 2010, four rural localities in Orenburg Oblast bear this name: Grachyovka, Grachyovsky District, Orenburg Oblast, a selo in Grachyovsky Selsoviet of Grachyovsky District Grachyovka, Krasnogvardeysky District, Orenburg Oblast, a selo in Yashkinsky Selsoviet of Krasnogvardeysky District Grachyovka, Kurmanayevsky District, Orenburg Oblast, a selo in Grachyovsky Selsoviet of Kurmanayevsky District Grachyovka, Ponomaryovsky District, Orenburg Oblast, a settlement in Maksimovsky Selsoviet of Ponomaryovsky District As of 2010, nine rural localities in Oryol Oblast bear this name: Grachyovka, Dolzhansky District, Oryol Oblast, a village in Uspensky Selsoviet of Dolzhansky District Grachyovka, Khotynetsky District, Oryol Oblast, a village in Studenovsky Selsoviet of Khotynetsky District Grachyovka, Orlovsky District, Oryol Oblast, a village in Bolshekulikovsky Selsoviet of Orlovsky District Grachyovka, Ivanovsky Selsoviet, Pokrovsky District, Oryol Oblast, a village in Ivanovsky Selsoviet of Pokrovsky District Grachyovka, Stolbetsky Selsoviet, Pokrovsky District, Oryol Oblast, a village in Stolbetsky Selsoviet of Pokrovsky District Grachyovka, Uritsky District, Oryol Oblast, a village in Arkhangelsky Selsoviet of Uritsky District Grachyovka, Verkhovsky District, Oryol Oblast, a settlement in Vasilyevsky Selsoviet of Verkhovsky District Grachyovka, Bortnovsky Selsoviet, Zalegoshchensky District, Oryol Oblast, a khutor in Bortnovsky Selsoviet of Zalegoshchensky District Grachyovka, Grachyovsky Selsoviet, Zalegoshchensky District, Oryol Oblast, a selo in Grachyovsky Selsoviet of Zalegoshchensky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Penza Oblast bears this name: Grachyovka, Penza Oblast, a village in Potodeyevsky Selsoviet of Narovchatsky District As of 2010, three rural localities in Ryazan Oblast bear this name: Grachyovka, Korablinsky District, Ryazan Oblast, a village in Kovalinsky Rural Okrug of Korablinsky District Grachyovka, Sasovsky District, Ryazan Oblast, a settlement in Pridorozhny Rural Okrug of Sasovsky District Grachyovka, Zakharovsky District, Ryazan Oblast, a village in Dobro-Pchelsky Rural Okrug of Zakharovsky District As of 2010, three rural localities in Samara Oblast bear this name: Grachyovka, Kinelsky District, Samara Oblast, a selo in Kinelsky District Grachyovka, Koshkinsky District, Samara Oblast, a selo in Koshkinsky District Grachyovka, Krasnoyarsky District, Samara Oblast, a settlement in Krasnoyarsky District As of 2010, two rural localities in Saratov Oblast bear this name: Grachyovka, Arkadaksky District, Saratov Oblast, a selo in Arkadaksky District Grachyovka, Petrovsky District, Saratov Oblast, a selo in Petrovsky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Stavropol Krai bears this name: Grachyovka, Stavropol Krai, a selo in Grachyovsky Selsoviet of Grachyovsky District As of 2010, two rural localities in Tambov Oblast bear this name: Grachyovka, Mordovsky District, Tambov Oblast, a selo in Lavrovsky Selsoviet of Mordovsky District Grachyovka, Pichayevsky District, Tambov Oblast, a settlement in Yegorovsky Selsoviet of Pichayevsky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Tula Oblast bears this name: Grachyovka, Tula Oblast, a village in Mikhaylovskaya Volost of Kurkinsky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Ulyanovsk Oblast bears this name: Grachyovka, Ulyanovsk Oblast, a village in Yermolovsky Rural Okrug of Veshkaymsky District As of 2010, one rural locality in Vladimir Oblast bears this name: Grachyovka, Vladimir Oblast, a village in Vyaznikovsky District
Haathi Mere Saathi is a 1971 Indian Hindi-language film, directed by M. A. Thirumugam, with screenplay written by Salim-Javed and dialogues by Inder Raj Anand; the movie has a Disneyesque appeal with an Indian twist. Haathi Mere Saathi was the biggest hit of 1971 going by box office collections, was critically acclaimed; the film stars Tanuja. The film at that point in time was the biggest hit made by a South Indian producer in Hindi; the story was written by producer Sandow M. M. A. Chinnappa Thevar, of Tamil origin and owned Devar Films in Tamil Nadu. Thevar played a small cameo in the film. Directed and edited by Thevar's brother M. A. Thirumugham, it had music by lyrics by Anand Bakshi; the film was the first collaboration of Salim-Javed, who were credited as screenplay writers. The film was based on Sandow M. M. A. Chinnappa Thevar's 1967 Tamil movie Deiva Cheyal. After the success of this movie, Thevar remade it in Tamil again in 1972 as Nalla Neram; this film is counted among the 17 consecutive hit films of Rajesh Khanna between 1969 and 1971, by adding the two-hero films Marayada and Andaz to the 15 consecutive solo hits he gave from 1969 to 1971.
Orphaned Raju, in the company of four elephants, has to perform with them at street corners, in order to survive. The back-story is. In time, he makes it big, starts Pyar Ki Duniya, a zoo in which various wild animals reside along with his elephants, among whom Ramu is closest to him, he amasses a fortune, is able to build his own private zoo, housing tigers, bears, of course the four elephants. He treats all the animals as his friends, he meets with Tanu, both fall in love. Tanu's rich dad, Ratanlal, is opposed to this alliance, but subsequently relents, permits the young couple to get married. However, trouble looms. Things worsen when their child is born, Tanu, fearing physical harm to her child from the elephants, tells Raju to choose between the elephants and his family; when Raju chooses his lifelong friends over wife and son, Ramu decides to bring the estranged couple together, but thanks to the villainous Sarwan Kumar, he has to sacrifice his life. Rajesh Khanna as Raj "Raju" Kumar Tanuja as Tanuja David as Johnny Chacha Sujit Kumar as Gangu K. N. Singh as Sarvan Kumar Madan Puri as Ratanlal Mehmood Junior as Chhote / Jhamurey Abhi Bhattacharya as Mr. Kumar Kumari Naaz as Paro Jayakumari Udhayakumari Prathiba Chinnappa Thevar in a cameo appearance Javed Akhtar on being questioned as to how the film came about, said "One day, he Rajesh Khanna went to Salimsaab and said that Mr. Devar had given him a huge signing amount with which he could complete the payment for his bungalow Aashirwad.
But the film was a remake and the script of the original was far from being satisfactory. He told us that if we could set right the script, he would make sure we got both credit. "I can't do such a terrible script," he said. "And I can't leave it because I need the money!'". Haathi Mere Saathi was the highest-grossing Indian film of 1971. In India, its net income was ₹35 million and its total domestic gross was ₹70 million, equivalent to US$59 million with inflation; the film was an overseas blockbuster in the Soviet Union, where it sold 34.8 million tickets in 1974. The film's overseas Soviet gross was 8.7 million руб, equivalent to US$60 million with inflation. The film's total worldwide gross was ₹16.35 crore, equivalent to US$113 million in 2017. Earlier titled Pyar Ki Duniya, the film won a special award from the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for lyricist Anand Bakshi, its music on HMV won a Silver Disc for its sales, making it the first-ever Indian gramophone record to do so.
Times of India noted that 40 years down the line, Haathi Mere Saathi remains unmatched in its enduring magic, Hindi cinema has yet to make another children's feature to match its stature and success. Tanuja said in an interview, "I showed them the film when Kajol was six and Tanishaa around three years old, for two weeks Kajol did not speak to me!! "Mummy, you killed the elephant! Because of you, he had to die!" Screamed Kajol! "And Tanishaa was annoyed too!" Tanuja loved working with the elephants after some initial apprehensions. "They began to like me the she-elephant who played Ramu. There is a sequence where he had to push me through a door and fight a snake, about to bite the baby, but the elephant had got so fond of me that he refused to do so! They had to shoot separate close-ups of the elephant and my back and of me falling down!"On its 40th anniversary on 5 May 2011, Pyarelal recalled: "Laxmi and Devar got along fabulously well! Devar had an innate music sense and a feel for rhythm, he loved our title-track.
But the tussle came up over the sad song, "Nafrat Ki Duniya", the only song sung by Rafisaab in the film. I recall voicing my doubts, but Laxmi, the director and Rajesh Khanna were staunchly in favour of keeping that song. And the audience cried with the song and Anand Bakshisaab's lyrics." Haathi Mere Saathi on IMDb
Mionica is a town and municipality located in the Kolubara District of western Serbia. As of 2011, the population of the town is 1,571, while population of the municipality is 14,263 inhabitants; the township of Mionica is located 92 km from the capital of Serbia. With an area of 329 km2, it is bordering the Maljen and Suvobor mountains to the South and has access to the Kolubara river, Sava region and the Panonian plain to the North. While the Serbs make up for a large majority of the population, the Roma make up a significant minority, while there are smaller populations of ethnic Montenegrins, Hungarians, Slovenians and Albanians. According to the 2011 census results, the municipality of Mionica has 14,335 inhabitants; the ethnic composition of the municipality: Mionica's economy is predominantly agricultural. Its primary activities are the fruit orchards and raising cattle; the municipality is a tourist destination the Ribnica river, well known for sight-seeing and outdoor sports, such as fishing and hunting.
The Vrujci spa attracts tourists and is known for its bottled water. The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity: In Mionica there is one primary school, Economy high school, a community health clinic and a culture center with a movie theater attached to it. Nikola Grbović Boban Janković Miodrag Ješić Živojin Mišić Subdivisions of Serbia Official website
Robert Gwaze is a Zimbabwean chess player born in Harare, Zimbabwe. He is a former student at Prince Edward School, in Harare. At age 15 he was a Zimbabwe National Chess Champion at both senior levels. Gwaze won the African Junior Championships in Kenya in 1998, got the International Master norm, his greatest success was at the 2002 Chess Olympiad tournament in Bled, Slovenia when he achieved a rare perfect score, winning all nine of his games on first board for Zimbabwe, an achievement that only he and Alexander Alekhine did. In 2007, he won the African Individual Chess Championship in Windhoek, earning a spot in the 2007 Chess World Cup. In this qualification tournament for the 2010 Chess World Championship Gwaze was eliminated in the first round by fifth-seed Alexei Shirov. In 2010 he came first in the Cuca Trophy international tournament in Angola, he took part in the Chess World Cup 2011, but was eliminated in the first round by former FIDE World Champion Ruslan Ponomariov.. When asked about his favourite chess book he mentioned Bobby Fischer's My 60 Memorable Games Robert Gwaze rating card at FIDE Robert Gwaze player profile and games at Chessgames.com Johnson, Scott, "Dreaming Of Checkmate", Newsweek