click links in text for more info

Charlotte Clark

Carolyn Clark was an American seamstress who created the first line of Mickey Mouse dolls and other Disney characters. She is related to Looney Tunes director Bob Clampett. Clark was born Carolyn Geis in Indiana to German immigrants, she moved to Los Angeles around the turn of the century. She died in 1960. Shortly following the release of Walt Disney's Steamboat Willie, Clark designed the first Mickey Mouse doll in early 1930, she obtained permission from the Disney Studio, the dolls began to appear in the Los Angeles area stores. Demand soon exceeded her ability to produce the dolls, so Clark designed sewing patterns so that customers could make their own dolls at home. Walt and Roy Disney were so pleased with Charlotte's Mickey Mouse doll that they rented a building on Hyperion Avenue near the studio, titled the Doll House. Here Charlotte and six other seamstresses produced 300 to 400 dolls per week; these first production dolls were rubber stamp on the underside of the doll's foot: "Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse Design Patent Applied For".

Clark's character creations set the design standard for all Disney merchandising for dolls thereafter. As the collection of Disney characters grew, Clark created patterns for Donald Duck, Minnie Mouse and other popular characters which were licensed and produced by manufactures worldwide

Plane (Unicode)

In the Unicode standard, a plane is a continuous group of 65,536 code points. There are 17 planes, identified by the numbers 0 to 16, which corresponds with the possible values 00–1016 of the first two positions in six position hexadecimal format. Plane 0 is the Basic Multilingual Plane, which contains most used characters; the higher planes 1 through 16 are called "supplementary planes". The last code point in Unicode is the last code point in plane 16, U+10FFFF; as of Unicode version 12.1, six of the planes have assigned code points, four are named. The limit of 17 planes is due to UTF-16, which can encode 220 code points as pairs of words, plus the BMP as a single word. UTF-8 was designed with a much larger limit of 231 code points, can encode 221 code points under the current limit of 4 bytes; the 17 planes can accommodate 1,114,112 code points. Of these, 2,048 are surrogates, 66 are non-characters, 137,468 are reserved for private use, leaving 974,530 for public assignment. Planes are further subdivided into Unicode blocks, unlike planes, do not have a fixed size.

The 300 blocks defined in Unicode 12.1 cover 25% of the possible code point space, range in size from a minimum of 16 code points to a maximum of 65,536 code points. For future usage, ranges of characters have been tentatively mapped out for most known current and ancient writing systems; the first plane, plane 0, the Basic Multilingual Plane contains characters for all modern languages, a large number of symbols. A primary objective for the BMP is to support the unification of prior character sets as well as characters for writing. Most of the assigned code points in the BMP are used to encode Chinese and Korean characters; the High Surrogate and Low Surrogate codes are reserved for encoding non-BMP characters in UTF-16 by using a pair of 16-bit codes: one High Surrogate and one Low Surrogate. A single surrogate code point will never be assigned a character. 65,472 of the 65,536 code points in this plane have been allocated to a Unicode block, leaving just 64 code points in unallocated ranges.

As of Unicode 12.1, the BMP comprises the following 163 blocks: Plane 1, the Supplementary Multilingual Plane, contains historic scripts, symbols and notation used within certain fields. Scripts include Linear B, Egyptian hieroglyphs, cuneiform scripts, it includes English reform orthographies like Shavian and Deseret, some modern scripts like Osage, Warang Citi, Adlam. Symbols and notations include modern musical notation; as of Unicode 12.1, the SMP comprises the following 127 blocks: Plane 2, the Supplementary Ideographic Plane, is used for CJK Ideographs CJK Unified Ideographs, that were not included in earlier character encoding standards. As of Unicode 12.1, the SIP comprises the following six blocks: CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B CJK Unified Ideographs Extension C CJK Unified Ideographs Extension D CJK Unified Ideographs Extension E CJK Unified Ideographs Extension F CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement Planes 3 to 13: No characters have yet been assigned to Planes 3 through 13.

Plane 3 is tentatively named the Tertiary Ideographic Plane. The next version of Unicode is scheduled to use it for additional CJK ideographs, but as of the latest finalized version there are no characters assigned to it, it is tenatively allocated for Oracle Bone script, Bronze Script, Small Seal Script, supplement characters for existing scripts, other historic ideographic scripts. It is not anticipated that all these planes will be used in the foreseeable future, given the total sizes of the known writing systems left to be encoded; the number of possible symbol characters that could arise outside of the context of writing systems is huge. At the moment, these 11 planes out of 17 are unused. Plane 14, the Supplementary Special-purpose Plane contains non-graphical characters; the first block is for special use tag characters. The other block contains glyph variation selectors to indicate an alternate glyph for a character that cannot be determined by context; as of Unicode 12.1, the SSP comprises the following two blocks: Tags Variation Selectors Supplement The two planes 15 and 16, are designated as "private use planes".

They contain blocks called Supplementary Private Use Area-A and -B, Private Use Areas, which are available for character assignment by parties outside the ISO and the Unicode Consortium. They are used by fonts internally to refer to auxiliary glyphs, for example and building blocks for other glyphs; such characters will have limited interoperability. Software and fonts that support Unicode will not support character assignments by other parties

Doris Reynolds

Doris Livesey Reynolds FRSE FGS was a British geologist, best known for her work on metasomatism in rocks and her role in the "Granite Controversy". She was the first woman to be elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Doris Livesey Reynolds was born on 1 July 1899 in Manchester, to parents Alfred Reynolds and Louisa Livesey, her parents moved to Manchester from Belfast just before her birth. Reynolds first attended school in Essex going on to Bedford College, graduating with a degree in geology in 1920. Whilst at Bedford, she studied under two of the most famous female geologists of the time, Catherine Raisin and Gertrude Ellis, who encouraged her interest in petrology. Reynolds taught at University College London after graduating, at Queen's University Belfast between 1921 and 1926 as assistant to Arthur Dwerryhouse and John Kaye Charlesworth, her early work focused on the geology of Northern Ireland, in particular the Triassic sandstones of the north-east, where she discovered authigenic potash feldspar.

She worked with albite-schists, discovering the metasomatic origin of albite, which has a correlation with increases of soda. Reynolds work focused on geochemical and structural conditions that contribute to the formation of rocks through metasomatism. Whilst conducting field work on the island of Colonsay, she discovered that the local xenoliths of quartzite in hornblendite were transformed metasomatically into micropegmatite. Reynolds remained fond of Ireland, travelled there with her husband during her lifetime. In 1926 she returned as a lecturer to Bedford College, in 1927 received a D. Sc. During a field trip with some students to the Ardnamurchan Peninsula in 1931, Reynolds met Arthur Holmes, the Professor of Geology at the University of Durham, she accepted his offer of a teaching post at Durham, following the death of Holmes' first wife, they married in 1939. When Holmes became Regius Professor of Geology at the University of Edinburgh in 1942, Reynolds became an honorary research fellow.

This was an informal and unremunerated research position within the geology department. Reynolds developed the theory of "granitisation" during the 1940s, in an effort to explain the formation of granite in the Earth's crust; the theory postulated that granite in the Earth's crust formed fluids moving upwards through the crust, changing them into granite chemically. It was a controversial theory which proved divisive until the 1960s in the field of petrology and became known as a "Granite Controversy"; the theory was proven incorrect but inspired research in a neglected area of geology. Holmes died in 1965 and Reynolds went on to publish a revised edition of his classic textbook Principles of Physical Geology in 1978, she died in Hove, on 10 October 1985. Reynolds was the first woman to be elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1949, received the Lyell Medal from the Geological Society of London in 1960. Dr Doris Reynolds' personal papers are held at Royal Holloway, University of London Archives

Yves Ulysse Jr.

Yves Ulysse Jr. is a Canadian professional boxer. As a teenager, Yves practiced various sports such as basketball and taekwondo. Around the age of 17 he heard about a boxer named Floyd Mayweather Jr; when he first heard this he said to himself, "I am fighting in the street for any dollar and he makes 35 million for a fight. I want to make money too." So Yves began to train in Club De Boxe Champions of Montreal. Yves spent three years on Canadian national boxing team, he won two Canadian Amateur Championships in the Light welterweight category. He participated in two world amateur championship tournaments in 2011 and 2013, he lost in the round of 32 in the round of 16 at the 2013 tournament. He reached the quarterfinals at the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi. In December 2013, the 25-year-old boxer signed his first professional contract when he teamed up with InterBox, his first fight took place on 18 January 2014, when he knows beaten on the undercard of the Pascal-Bute fight

Dispatches (book)

Dispatches is a New Journalism book by Michael Herr that describes the author's experiences in Vietnam as a war correspondent for Esquire magazine. First published in 1977, Dispatches was one of the first pieces of American literature that portrayed the experiences of soldiers in the Vietnam War for American readers. Featured in the book are fellow war correspondents Sean Flynn, Dana Stone, Dale Dye, photojournalist Tim Page. Dispatches was reprinted in 2009 by Everyman's Library as a contemporary classic. John le Carré described Dispatches as "the best book I have read on men and war in our time" and it featured in the journalism section of The Guardian's 100 greatest non-fiction book list in 2011. However, after publishing Dispatches, Herr disclosed that parts of the book were invented, that it would be better for it not to be regarded as journalism. In a 1990 interview with Los Angeles Times, he admitted that the characters Day Tripper and Mayhew in the book are "totally fictional characters", went on to say: "A lot of Dispatches is fictional.

I've said this a lot of times. I have told people over the years that there are fictional aspects to Dispatches, they look betrayed, they look heartbroken. I never thought of Dispatches as journalism. In France they published it as a novel.... I always carried a notebook. I had this idea—I remember endlessly writing down dialogues, it was all I was there to do. Few lines were invented. A lot of lines are put into mouths of composite characters. Sometimes I tell a story as if I was present when I wasn't, —I was so immersed in that talk, so full of it and so steeped in it. A lot of the journalistic stuff I got wrong."Similarly, in a separate interview with Eric James Schroeder, he said: "I don’t think it's any secret that there is talk in the book that's invented. But it's invented out of that voice that I heard so and that made such penetration into my head.... I don’t want to go into that no-man’s-land about what happened and what didn’t happen and where you draw the line. Everything in Dispatches happened for me if it didn’t happen to me."

Herr worked on the narration for the movie Apocalypse Now and co-wrote the screenplay for the movie Full Metal Jacket and several scenes and pieces of dialogue used in the book were also used in those movies