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Broadcast flag

A broadcast flag is a set of status bits sent in the data stream of a digital television program that indicates whether or not the data stream can be recorded, or if there are any restrictions on recorded content. Possible restrictions include the inability to save an unencrypted digital program to a hard disk or other non-volatile storage, inability to make secondary copies of recorded content, forceful reduction of quality when recording, inability to skip over commercials. In the United States, new television receivers using the ATSC standard were supposed to incorporate this functionality by July 1, 2005. Called "Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control," the FCC's rule is in 47 CFR 73.9002 and the following sections, stating in part: "No party shall sell or distribute in interstate commerce a Covered Demodulator Product that does not comply with the Demodulator Compliance Requirements and Demodulator Robustness Requirements." According to the rule, hardware must "actively thwart" piracy.

The rule's Demodulator Compliance Requirements insists that all HDTV demodulators must "listen" for the flag. Flagged content must be output only to "protected outputs", or in degraded form through analog outputs or digital outputs with visual resolution of 720x480 pixels or less. Flagged content may be recorded only by "authorized" methods, which may include tethering of recordings to a single device. Since broadcast flags could be activated at any time, a viewer who records a program might find that it is no longer possible to save their favorite show; this and other reasons lead many to see the flags as a direct affront to consumer rights. Troubling to open source developers are the Demodulator Robustness Requirements. Devices must be "robust" against user access or modifications so that someone could not alter it to ignore the broadcast flags that permit access to the full digital stream. Since open-source device drivers are by design user-modifiable, a PC TV tuner card with open-source drivers would not be "robust".

It is unclear. In theory it would be illegal for open-source projects such as the MythTV project, which creates personal video recorder software, to interface with digital television demodulators; some companies manufacturing devices, such as the pcHDTV devices intended for the Linux market, would be forced to halt production. This portion of the rule effectively prevents individuals from building their own high-definition television sets and receiving devices; the GNU Radio project successfully demonstrated that purely software-based demodulators can exist and the hardware rule is not enforceable. In American Library Association v. FCC, 406 F.3d 689, the United States Court of Appeals for the D. C. Circuit ruled; the court stated that the Commission could not prohibit the manufacture of computer or video hardware without copy protection technology because the FCC only has authority to regulate transmissions, not devices that receive communications. While it is always possible that the Supreme Court could overturn this ruling, the more reemergence of the broadcast flag is in legislation of the United States Congress granting such authority to the FCC.

On May 1, 2006, Sen. Ted Stevens inserted a version of the Broadcast Flag into the Communications, Consumer's Choice, Broadband Deployment Act of 2006. On June 22, 2006 Sen. John E. Sununu offered an amendment to strike the broadcast and radio flag, but this failed and the broadcast-flag amendment was approved by the Commerce committee. Nonetheless, the overall bill was never passed, thus died upon adjournment of the 109th Congress in December 2006. On May 18, 2008, reported that Microsoft had confirmed that current versions of Windows Media Center shipping with the Windows family of operating systems adhered to the use of the broadcast flag, following reports of users being blocked from taping specific airings of NBC programs American Gladiators and Medium. A Microsoft spokesperson said that Windows Media Center adheres to the "rules set forth by the FCC" though no legislation requires following such rules. On August 22, 2011, the FCC eliminated the broadcast flag regulations. With the coming of digital radio, the recording industry is attempting to change the ground rules for copyright of songs played on radio.

Over the air radio stations may play songs but RIAA wants Congress to insert a radio broadcast flag. On April 26, 2006, Congress held a hearing over the radio broadcast flag. Among the witnesses were musicians Anita Baker and Todd Rundgren. At present no equivalent signal is used in European DVB transmissions, although DVB-CPCM would provide such a set of signal as defined by DVB-SI, usable on clear-to-air television broadcasts. How adherence to such a system would be enforced in a receiver is not yet clear. In the UK, the BBC introduced content protection restrictions in 2010 on Free to Air content by licensing data necessary to receive th

Liquid Silver

Liquid Silver is an album by pianist Andy LaVerne recorded in 1984 and released on the DMP label. All compositions by Andy LaVerne except. "IRS" – 7:15 "Liquid Silver" – 5:58 "One Page Waltz" – 5:16 "Laurie" – 8:59 "Letter to Evan" – 7:05 "How My Heart Sings" – 5:32 "Turn Out the Stars" – 6:30 "Alpha Blue" – 6:20 "King's House One" – 17:20 Andy LaVerne – piano, arranger Eddie Gómezbass Peter Erskinedrums John Abercrombieguitar Essex String Quartet Sebu Sirinian, Jennifer Cowles – violin Amy Dulsky – viola Patricia Smithcello

Opel RAK.1

The Opel RAK.1 was the world's first purpose-built rocket-powered aircraft. It was designed and built by Julius Hatry under commission from Fritz von Opel who flew it on September 30, 1929 in front of a large crowd at Rebstock airport near Frankfurt-am-Main. During the late 1920s, von Opel had undertaken a variety of publicity stunts involving rocket-powered vehicles, Opel-RAKs, for the Opel company, he was assisted in these endeavours by pyrotechnics manufacturer Friedrich Sander and rocketry advocate Max Valier. In June 1928, he had purchased an Alexander Lippisch-designed sailplane, the Ente, fitted it with rockets. Opel did not get the chance to fly it, however, as the aircraft was destroyed by an engine explosion on its second test flight; the RAK.1 had a typical sailplane wing, under which a pod was suspended to accommodate the pilot and sixteen solid rocket engines. The tailplane was mounted on booms behind the wing and high out of the way of the rocket exhaust. Opel piloted it over 1.5 km in 75 seconds of flight, but landed hard, damaging the aircraft beyond repair.

Opel planned to build a second rocket plane, but lost interest before the project was completed. The aircraft is sometimes referred to as the Opel-Hatry RAK.1 or Opel-Sander RAK.1 in acknowledgment of its builder or the supplier of its engines respectively. In still other references it is called the RAK.3 to distinguish it from Opel's previous RAK.1 and RAK.2 rocket cars. As it happened, all three names, Opel and Hatry were painted on the aircraft, as was the RAK.1 designation. Data from J2mcL Planeurs - Hatry-Opel Rak 1, Les Ailes 10 October 1929General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 5.41 m Wingspan: 11 m Height: 2 m Gross weight: 350 kg Powerplant: 16 × Sander black powder rockets, 0.4875 kN thrust each Performance Maximum speed: 150 km/h Range: 1.5 km video clip: Fritz Von Opel with his Opel RAK 1 rocket air plane. HD Stock Footage

Institute of Solid State Physics (Bulgaria)

Institute of Solid State Physics is one of the physical institutes at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences known as the Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics. It provides scientific background of solid state optics in Bulgaria; some reports and discussions are referred to below. Decree No 362 of 16 October 1972 by the Ministry Council of Bulgaria established the Institute of Solid State Physics as a successor of the Institute of Physics with Atomic Scientific Experimental Base at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, founded by Georgi Nadjakov in 1946. Since 16 February 1982 the Institute of Solid State Physics accepted the name "Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics". Milko Borissov professor, member of BAS is the first Director and creator of the Institute of Solid State Physics. Nikolay Kirov, professor, D. Sc. is the second Institute Director. Alexander G. Petrov, Professor, D. Sc. member of BAS is the present Director. The Museum on the History of Physics in Bulgaria emerged in the early 1980s, when in the Institute of Solid State Physics under the guidance of Milko Borissov began documentary research on the history of physics in Bulgaria.

He works with Christina Stoycheva, Penka Lazarova, Marko Gerdjikov. Together with Vladimir Kusev and Alexander Vavrek he created Georgi Nadjakov's room museum, started by a decision of the Board of Directors of the Institute of Solid State Physics – BAS. Museum curators are Dr. Alexander Vavrek. Part of the collected sources are exhibited in the National Polytechnic Museum in Sofia from 12 to 30 November 1987. Since 2000 the Georgi Nadjakov's Museum become "Museum on History of Physics in Bulgaria" with a decision of the Scientific Council of ISSP - BAS, it is adopted Rules of Procedure of the Museum. The Museum organizers are the Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria, the Sofia branch of the Union of Physicians, Physical Section of the Union of Scientists in Bulgaria. Permanent exhibition dedicated to Georgi Nadjakov was open to visitors. Georgi Nadjakov's Documentary Fund has created as a result of donation his daughter Dr. Elka Nadjakov family and his son Emil Nadjakov; the museum store documents and books, belonged to the Bulgarian physicists, Quantum Electronics laboratory, as far as copies and originals from books published in 19th and 20th centuries.

Theory, Material Sciences, Micro- and Acousto-electronics, Low Temperature Physics, Soft Matter Physics, Atomic and Plasma Physics are the divisions of the Institute of Solid State Physics. The Institute of Solid State Physics has sixteen laboratories in the end of 2011. Assene Datzev is a creator of the Theoretical Department in the Institute of Physics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Laboratory of Collective phenomena exist since 1994 and headed by Professor D. Sc. Dimo Usunov; the Laboratory of Electron-Phonon interactions is the oldest laboratory on physics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. It is a successor of Georgi Nadjakov Personal Laboratory Milko Borissov initiated creation of the Laboratory of Crystal Growth and Structural Methods for the acoustoelectronic and acousto-optics investigations. Professor D. Sc. Headed it since 1982 Laboratory of Biocompatible Materials is a new and perspective subject. Laboratory of Photoelectrical and optical phenomena in wide band gap semiconductors occurs in the Institute of Physics under the guidance of Milko Borissov in the middle of the 20th century.

Laboratory managers been a correspondent member Stefan Kanev, Professor Dr. Elena Vatev Professor D. Sc. Diana Nesheva. Laboratory of Semiconductor heterostructures was established under the leadership of Petko Kamadzhiev, Kiro Kirov and Simeon Simeonov Laboratory of Physical Problems of Microelectronics has based on the old Department "Silicon". Under the leadership of Professor Jordan Kasabov, corresponding member of BAS, the Laboratory reaches 40 people in 1967 created outside the Academy Central Institute for elements, renamed the Institute of Microelectronics and closed after 1989. Laboratory of Acoustoelectronics was established at the Institute for Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 1977. Scientific research Acousto-electronics began under the leadership of Milko Borissov. Laboratory of Low-temperature physics is established at the Institute for Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences by Eugene Leyarovski on July 5, 1963. Under the leadership of Professor Sazdo Ivanov an agreement has signed for establishment of the International Laboratory of Strong magnetic fields and low temperatures in Wroclaw, Poland since 1968.

Laboratory of Environmental Physics has actual new subject of research. Laboratory of liquid crystals is created by Professor D. Sc. Alexander Derzhanski, member of BAS since 1968. Laboratory of Biomolecular Layers exists under the guidance of Alexander G. Petrov since 1991; the beginning of the Laboratory of optics and spectroscopy is placed by Professor Paraskeva Simova in the Physics Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences since 1951. Laboratory of Atomic Spectroscopy was established under the leadership of Professor Yordanka Pacheva in the early 1960s. Laboratory of metal vapor lasers was established at the Institute for Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 1987. Studies of metal vapor lasers began in 1970 with the creation of the first helium-cadmium laser. Next stage in the laboratory was placed on the cre

Avraham Duber Kahana Shapiro

Rabbi Avraham Dov-Ber Kahana Shapiro was the last Chief Rabbi of Lithuania and the author of the three-volume work entitled Devar Avraham. He was born in 1870 to Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Sender, a Kohen and author of Sefer Chidushei HaGarzas on Kodshim, on Motzaei Yom Kippur, in the city of Kobryn. R' Avraham was a descendant of R' Chaim Volozhin, he studied in the famed Volozhin Yeshiva, was known as the illui m'kobrin, "the genius from Kobryn." The first volume of his magnum opus, the Devar Avraham, was published in 1906 when he was thirty-five years old. When 18 year old Avraham was drafted into the Russian army and sent to Minsk, he used his limited spare time to "clandestinely enter the local Beis Midrash... The Rav of Minsk, R' Yerucham Yitzchak Perlman..." worked to obtain his release, subsequently "took him as a son-in-law." R' Avraham had many students, including author of Sheilos U'Teshuvos M'Mamakim. He received his first rabbinical position at the age of 25, upon the passing of his father-in-law, was named Chief Rabbi of the city of Kovno in 1923.

He was the last Chief Rabbi of Lithuania. R' Avraham was in Switzerland for health reasons, his son, living in the United States, sent him a telegram to join him in the U. S. until the war's completion. His father, upon receiving the telegram, showed it to one of his close friends, stating emphatically, "The captain is the last to abandon his sinking ship, not the first. At this time of danger, my place is with the people of my city. I am going to Kovno." He died of an illness in the Kovno Ghetto on February 27, 1943. He is buried in the same cemetery as Reb Yitchok Elchonon Spector Z'l, he is buried at the end of a row, one row before the Ohel of the Slabodka Rosh Yeshiva

SM U-19 (Germany)

SM U-19 was a German Type U 19 U-boat built for the Imperial German Navy. Her construction was ordered on 25 November 1910, her keel was laid down on 20 October 1911, at the Kaiserliche Werft Danzig, she was launched on 10 October 1912, commissioned into the Imperial German Navy on 6 July 1913. From 1 August 1914, to 15 March 1916, U-19 was commanded by Constantin Kolbe. During this period she had the unfortunate distinction of becoming the first U-boat casualty of World War I when she was rammed by HMS Badger on 24 October 1914, her hull was badly damaged. On 22 January 1915 the Durward was near the Maas lightship, they tried to escape. The mate of Durward, interviewed by the Daily Mail special correspondent in Rotterdam related how the second officer, who spoke excellent English, had ordered them to lower a boat and come to talk to them; the captain and crew were given ten minutes to leave the ship. The mate asked the second officer, he replied "Sorry, old man, it can't be done. I am in the mercantile marine myself, having been in the North German Lloyd service but now I am doing a bit for my country."

The commander of the U-boat towed the lifeboat to within 100 yards of the Maas lightship stopping at one stage to repair the tow when it parted, after which the crew of Durward said goodbye to the submarine and rowed to the lightship. Kolbe was relieved by Raimund Weisbach, who had served as torpedo officer on U-20 and had launched the torpedo that sank RMS Lusitania. During his brief command, Weisbach carried out an unusual mission: he delivered the revolutionary Roger Casement and two other agents to Banna Strand in Ireland in hopes that they would foment an uprising that would distract the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from World War I. Weisbach was relieved on 11 August 1916, by Johannes Spiess, relieved in turn on 1 June 1917, by Heinrich Koch. Koch turned the boat over on 25 October 1917, to Hans Albrecht Liebeskind, who commanded for less than a month before being relieved on 17 November 1917, by Spiess again. On 1 June 1918, Liebeskind commanded U-19 until the end of the war.

U-19 conducted 12 patrols, sinking 46 ships totalling 64,816 tons, including Santa Maria off Lough Swilly on 25 February 1918, Tiberia off Black Head near Larne on 26 February 1918, HMS Calgarian off Rathlin Island on 1 March 1918. On 11 November 1918, U-19 was surrendered to the British, was broken up at Blyth sometime in 1919 or 1920; the main gun of U19 was donated to the people of Co.. Down and today sits near the War Memorial in the town's Ward Park, it was donated by the Admiralty in recognition of the valorious conduct of Commander The Hon. Edward Bingham whilst on board HMS Nestor while fighting in the Battle of Jutland in July 1916, for which he received the Victoria Cross. To commemorate the centenary of the arrest of Roger Casement, an Irish Republican floral tribute, known as an Easter Lily, was left at the base of the gun on Good Friday morning 2016; the following is a verbatim transcription of the recorded activities of SM U-19 known to British Naval Intelligence during 1914-1918: Preston, Antony.

Destroyers. Hamlyn. ISBN 9780600329558. - Total pages: 224 Gröner, Erich. U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4. Spindler, Arno. Der Handelskrieg mit U-Booten. 5 Vols. Berlin: Mittler & Sohn. Vols. 4+5, dealing with 1917+18, are hard to find: Guildhall Library, has them all Vol. 1-3 in an English translation: The submarine war against commerce. Beesly, Patrick. Room 40: British Naval Intelligence 1914-1918. London: H Hamilton. ISBN 978-0-241-10864-2. Halpern, Paul G.. A Naval History of World War I. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85728-498-0. Roessler, Eberhard. Die Unterseeboote der Kaiserlichen Marine. Bonn: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN 978-3-7637-5963-7. Schroeder, Joachim. Die U-Boote des Kaisers. Bonn: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN 978-3-7637-6235-4. Koerver, Hans Joachim. Room 40: German Naval Warfare 1914-1918. Vol I; the Fleet in Action. Steinbach: LIS Reinisch. ISBN 978-3-902433-76-3. Koerver, Hans Joachim. Room 40: German Naval Warfare 1914-1918.

Vol II. The Fleet in Being. Steinbach: LIS Reinisch. ISBN 978-3-902433-77-0. Photos of cruises of German submarine U-54 in 1916-1918. Great photo quality, comments in German. A 44 min. film from 1917 about a cruise of the German submarine U-35. A German propaganda film without dead or wounded. Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boats: U 19". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Room 40: original documents and maps about World War I German submarine warfare and British Room 40 Intelligence from The National Archives, Richmond, UK