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Broadcasters' Audience Research Board

The Broadcasters' Audience Research Board is the organisation that compiles audience measurement and television ratings in the United Kingdom. It was created in 1981 to replace two previous systems whereby ITV ratings were compiled by JICTAR, whilst the BBC did their own audience research. BARB is jointly owned by the BBC, ITV, Channel 4, Channel 5, Sky and the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising. Participating viewers have a box on top of their TV sets. BARB have 5,100 homes participating in the panel; this means that with a total UK population of 65,648,100, according to the 2016 census, each viewer with a BARB reporting box represents over 5,000 people. The box records what programmes they watch, the panelists indicate, in the room watching by pressing a button on a remote control handset; the data is collected overnight and published as overnight ratings at around 9.30 the following morning for use by TV stations and the advertising industry. The following week, final figures are released which are a combination of the overnight figures with "time-shift" figures.

For programmes from December 15, 2014 onwards, BARB has begun publishing viewing figures for a period of 28 days after the original broadcast. BARB numbers are important to commercial television stations; the trading model, used by television companies and advertising agencies depends on the number of people watching the shows, the commercial attractiveness of those people. The advertising agency will pay the television station a certain amount of money based on the number of people watching a show; the BARB numbers are used to work this out. Higher BARB numbers mean more advertising revenue for the television station; this leads to some interesting situations on the smaller channels. Since there are many television stations, many hours in the day, there can be situations where BARB will record zero viewers for certain programmes; as the TV advertising system is geared round BARB ratings all but the smallest channels subscribe to BARB. The BARB publishes inter alia Weekly Top 10 Charts, a Weekly Viewing Summary for programmes or the use of programme genres.

BARB's 2010 research contracts were awarded to three different market research companies: RSMB, Ipsos MORI, Kantar Media. The contracts ran from January 2010 with an option to extend further. RSMB are responsible for quality control and calculation methodology. Ipsos MORI's role is to survey the characteristics of the television owning population, including an element of direct recruitment to the viewing panel. Kantar Media is responsible for maintaining the new BARB viewing panel, it has a separate contract covering meter panel installation, data retrieval and audience reporting functions. Audience measurement Nielsen ratings RAJAR Official website

Anna Henriette Gossler

Anna Henriette Gossler was a Hamburg banker and socialite. Anna Henriette Gossler, who went by the name of Henriette, was a member of the Hanseatic Berenberg/Gossler banking family, arguably the most prominent family of the independent city-state of Hamburg alongside the related Amsinck family, she was the oldest daughter of the bankers Johann Hinrich Gossler and Elisabeth Berenberg, owners of Berenberg Bank, founded by her family in 1590. On 20 May 1788, she married her father's employee Ludwig Erdwin Seyler, made a partner in the bank and remained so until his death nearly half a century later. After the death of her father in 1790 her husband became head of the company. In the years around the Napoleonic Wars she and her husband played prominent roles in Hamburg high society and politics, Berenberg Bank was headquartered in their private home, she was the older sister of Hamburg senator Johann Heinrich Gossler and the aunt of Hamburg First Mayor Hermann Gossler. Her father-in-law was the theatre principal Abel Seyler, the leading patron of German theatre in the late 18th century.

Her youngest daughter Henriette Seyler was married to the Norwegian industrialist Benjamin Wegner

A.C. ChievoVerona

Associazione Calcio Chievo Verona referred to as Chievo Verona or Chievo, is an Italian football club named after and based in Chievo, a suburb of 4,500 inhabitants in Verona and owned by Paluani, a bakery product company and the inspiration for their original name, Paluani Chievo. The club shares the 38,402 seater Marc'Antonio Bentegodi stadium with its cross-town rivals Hellas Verona; the team was founded in 1929 by a small number of football fans from the small borough of Chievo, a Verona neighbourhood. The club was not affiliated to the Italian Football Federation, but nonetheless played several amateur tournament and friendly matches under the denomination "O. N. D. Chievo", a title imposed by the fascist regime; the club's formal debut in an official league was on 8 November 1931. The team colours at the time were white. Chievo disbanded in 1936, due to economic woes but returned to play in 1948 after World War II, being registered in the regional league of "Seconda Divisione". In 1957, the team moved to the "Carlantonio Bottagisio" parish field, where they played until 1986.

In 1959, after the restructuring of the football leagues, Chievo was admitted to play the "Seconda Categoria", a regional league placed next-to-last in the Italian football pyramid. That year, Chievo changed its name to "Cardi Chievo", after a new sponsor, was promoted to the "Prima Categoria", from which it experienced its first-ever relegation in 1962. In 1964, Luigi Campedelli, a businessman and owner of the Paluani company, was named new Chievo chairman. Under Campedelli's presidency, Chievo climbed through the entire Italian football pyramid, reaching the Serie D after the 1974–75 season. Under the name "Paluani Chievo", the team was promoted to Serie C2 in 1986; as a consequence of promotion, Chievo was forced to move to the Stadio Marcantonio Bentegodi, the main venue in Verona. In 1990, the team changed its name to its current one, "A. C. ChievoVerona." In 1992, President Luigi Campedelli, who had returned at the helm of the club two years before, died of a heart attack, his son Luca Campedelli, aged just 23, became the new and youngest chairman of an Italian professional football club.

Campedelli promoted Giovanni Sartori to director of football and named Alberto Malesani as the new head coach. Under Malesani, the team astonishingly won the Serie C1 and was promoted to Serie B, where city rival Hellas Verona was playing at the time. In 1997, after Malesani signed for Fiorentina, Silvio Baldini was appointed the new head coach; the following season, with Domenico Caso as the coach, saw the first dismissal of a coach during the presidency of Luca Campedelli, with Caso being fired and replaced with Lorenzo Balestro. It was during these years, it originated from supporters of their crosstown rivals Hellas, who would mock long-suffering Chievo supporters that Chievo will only be promoted if "donkeys could fly". In 2000–01, Luigi Delneri was signed as coach and led Chievo, by virtue of its third-place finish in Serie B, to promotion to Serie A, the first time in team history that it had reached the top tier of Italian football. In its 2001–02, Chievo's Serie A debut season, the team was most critics' choice for an instant return to Serie B.

However, they became the surprise team in the league, playing spectacular and entertaining football and leading the league for six consecutive weeks. The club ended the season with a respectable fifth-place finish, qualifying the team to play in the UEFA Cup. Chievo's impressive performance inspired a 2002 book about soccer economics titled "Fenomeno Chievo. Economia, società" by Marco Vitale. In 2002–03, Chievo debuted at the European level but were eliminated in the first round by Red Star Belgrade; the team finished the Serie A season in seventh place, again proving itself one of the better Serie A teams. The 2003–04 season, the last with Delneri at the helm, saw Chievo finish ninth; the 2004–05 season is remembered as one of the toughest in Chievo's history. Mario Beretta, a Serie A novice from Ternana, was named the coach but, after a strong start that brought Chievo to third behind Juventus and Milan, the team lost position in the league table. With three matches remaining in the season, Chievo was third-from-last, a position which would see it relegated to Serie B.

As a last resort, Beretta was fired and Maurizio D'Angelo, a former Chievo player, was appointed temporarily to replace him as coach. Morale improved, two wins and a draw from the final three matches proved just enough to keep Chievo in Serie A. In 2005–06, Giuseppe Pillon of Treviso FBC was appointed as new coach; the team experienced a return to the successful Delneri era, both in style of play and results, which resulted in Chievo ending the season in seventh and gaining a berth in the UEFA Cup. However, because of the football scandal involving several top-class teams, all of which finished higher than Chievo in the 2005–06 season, the Flying Donkeys were awarded a place in the next Champions League preliminary phase. On 14 July 2006, the verdict in the scandal was made public. Juventus and Fiorentina, who had all qualified for the 2006–07 Champions League, Lazio, who had qualified for the 2006–07 UEFA Cup, were all banned from UEFA competition for the 2006–07 season, although Milan were allowed to enter the Champions League after their appeal to the FIGC.

Chievo took up a place in the third qualifying stage of the competition along with Milan and faced Bulgarian side Levski Sofia. Chiev


P. Padmarajan was an Indian film maker and author, known for his landmark work in Malayalam literature and Malayalam cinema. Padmarajan was the founder of a new school of film making in Malayalam cinema, along with Bharathan and K. G. George, in the 1980s, which created groundbreaking films that were received while being critically acclaimed. Known for his classic works, he is regarded as one of the greatest film makers of Malayalam Cinema of all time. Padmarajan was noted for his fine and detailed expressive direction style. Padmarajan made some of the landmark motion pictures in Malayalam cinema, including masterpieces like Oridathoru Phayalvaan, Thinkalaazhcha Nalla Divasam, Arappatta Kettiya Gramathil, Namukku Parkkan Munthiri Thoppukal, Thoovanathumbikal, Moonnam Pakkam, Innale and Njan Gandharvan, he wrote several short stories which were unique in presentation. His novels considered as Classics. Most plots were nascent for that age literature. All works were so cinematic and Can be visualized to celluloid version.

Padmarajan was born on 23 May 1945 in Muthukulam near Haripad in Alappuzha. Which was under the princely state of Travancore, he was the sixth son of Njavarakkal Devaki Amma. After early schooling at Muthukulam, he studied at M. G. College and University College Trivandrum, graduating with a B. Sc. in chemistry. Subsequently, he learned Sanskrit from the scholar Cheppad Achyutha Warrier at Muthukulam, he joined All India Radio, starting as a programme announcer, settled at Poojappura, Trivandrum. Padmarajan's stories deal with deceit, romance, passion, libertinism, individualism and life of peripheral elements of society; some of them are considered as among the best in Malayalam literature, his first novel Nakshathrangale Kaaval won the Kerala Sahithya Academy award. He entered the world of Malayalam films by writing the screenplay for Bharathan's directorial debut Prayaanam to take first steps to be one of the most talented scriptwriters to have graced Malayalam cinema, he began to direct films based on his screenplays, beginning with Peruvazhiyambalam, which are popular among the common people as well as intellectuals and film critics, while maintaining richness in artistic and thematic originality and excellence.

Padmarajan was a great experimenter. His screenplays had such hitherto-unheard of features and subjects – such as casting rain as a character in Thoovanthumbikal, gay love in Desatanakkili Karayarilla, unusual climax in Namukku Parkkan Munthiri Thoppukal and Oridaththoru Phayalvaan. Forbidden love and characters that strive to rise above the limitations of middle-class Malayali society of the seventies and eighties is a recurring theme in many of his greatest works. Many of his films bear the mark of his romanticism, he is celebrated for his unparalleled attention to detail in his screenplays. Some of his scripts are arguably the smoothest narratives penned in the Malayalam language, they are ample proof for his keen observation, acute perception, astute portrayal of human relationships and emotions. Many of his films have stunning and haunting climaxes, most of them not portrayed in Malayalam movies, his characters were portrayed with great sensitivity and intensity on the screen and many of the scenes are generously sprinkled with humour.

The dialogues of characters are quite natural, in the language of the common man, yet have a subtle lyrical quality. Indeed, a just cause may be made that his directorial merit flowed from his exquisitely crafted screenplays: he never directed a film based on a script written by someone else, adapted his script from a story not his own, he had an unusually intimate knowledge of the characters in his films in combination with his mastery of the script. Together with Bharathan and K. G. George, he laid the foundation for a school of Malayalam cinema that strove to tread a middle ground by striking a fine balance between intellectual and commercial appeal, without sacrificing the strong points of either approach; the term "Parallel film" is used to describe his style of film making. Along with Bharathan, he displayed mastery in handling sexuality on the screen, hitherto less known in Malayalam cinema, he was quite adept in spotting talent, introduced many fresh faces who would make their mark in Indian cinema, including Ashokan, Rahman, Ramachandran, Ajayan.

Artists like Nitish Bharadwaj, Suhasini. He coaxed sparkling and inspired performances from many actors, such as Bharath Gopi, Mohanlal, Sumalatha, Karamana Jana

Patricia Turner

Patricia A. Turner, Ph. D, a folklorist and academic, is the executive director of The Reinvention Center and the Vice Provost, Undergraduate Education for UCLA, she lives in California. Turner has a Bachelor of Science from the State University of Oneonta, she began her academic career as an assistant professor at the University of Massachusetts, Boston Black Studies Department, transferred to the University of California, where she moved from assistant professor to professor of the African-American and African studies program, became Interim Dean of the Division of Humanities, Arts & Cultural Studies. From 2006 to 2013 she was Undergraduate Education for that university. Turner has served as a consulting scholar for several documentaries, she conducted research for and appeared on camera in Marlon Riggs' Ethnic Notions, which won an Emmy Award in 1989 for best research in a documentary. She conducted research for and appeared on camera in the 1992 Peabody Award-winning film Color Adjustment.

Most she was interviewed for a film on quilt artist Riché Richardson entitled Portrait of the Artist: Riché Richardson. Turner has been interviewed for stories in the New York Times, Boston Globe, Chicago Tribune, Los Angeles Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal and many other prominent publications, she has been interviewed on the radio for features on such programs as Fresh Air, Talk of the Nation, All Things Considered. She has appeared on the NBC Nightly News, the CBS Evening News, The O'Reilly Factor. In addition, her book I Heard It Through the Grapevine inspired a story on ABC's 20/20. Turner was influenced in 1986 when she saw photographs of Alabama Black Belt quilters taken by Roland L. Freeman, shown in that year's catalog for the Festival of American Folklife in Washington, D. C. There, as a young folklorist, Turner spent two weeks with Alabama quilters who participated in the festival and with Gladys-Marie Fry, who facilitated public workshops with the quilters. Turner uses quilts to examine African American culture.

Turner wrote Crafted Lives, an in-depth in depth profile of nine African American quilters from Alaska to the Southern states. In the book she deconstructed issues surrounding Underground Railroad quilts using folklorist tools as well as exploring who determines the economic and artistic value of quilts, such as the quilts of Gee's Bend, she curated "From Functional to Fancy: An Eastville Quilt Sampler" at the Eastville Community Historical Society in Sag Harbor, New York. On display were quilts by Riche Richarson, Ph. D, Marion Coleman, Dolores Vitero Presley and the Alabama Freedom Quilting Bee. Turner is a quilter herself and lectures on quilt culture. Crafted Lives: Stories and Studies of African American Quilters by Patricia A. Turner Whispers on the Color Line: Rumor and Race in America by Gary Alan Fine and Patricia A. Turner Ceramic Uncles and Celluloid Mammies: Black Images and Their Influence on Culture by Patricia A. Turner I Heard It Through the Grapevine: Rumor in African-American Culture by Patricia A. Turner "From Layfayette to Barack Obama: Past and Future In a Quilt Exhibit."

Transatlantica: Revue D'Etude Americains 2009/1 "The Rise and Fall of Eliza Harris: From Novel to Tom Shows to Quilts." Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture 2007, Works by Patricia A. Turner on WorldCat - Patricia Turner: What Matters to Me UC Davis College of Letters and Science


Hrastovlje is a village in the City Municipality of Koper in the Littoral region of Slovenia. Hrastovlje is the location of the only major spring in Slovenian Istria, the karst spring of the Rižana River, itself the most important source of water supply for the Slovenian coastal area and part of the habitat range of the marbled trout listed on the IUCN Red List. Hrastovlje was attested in written sources in the 14th century as Cristoglan; the name is derived from the plural demonym *Xrastovľane, referring to residents of a village named after oak trees. Hrastovlje is best known for Holy Trinity Church, which contains a late-medieval Danse Macabre fresco; the church itself belongs to the Parish of Predloka. It is a stone-built church, typical of the area, stands on a small hill above the village inside a walled enclosure 8 m high; the church was built in the late Romanesque tradition before 1480. The encampment wall, built in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, is an irregular rectangle with cylindrical towers in exposed corners.

The frescos inside the church are some of the best preserved in Slovenia. They were plastered over and whitewashed, were only rediscovered in 1949 and were restored; the most famous is the 7 m sequence known as the Dance of Death on the south wall of the nave, representing people of all walks of life from kings and popes to beggars and babies being led by skeletons towards Death itself. Scenes from the Book of Genesis decorate the nave, images of the Apostles are painted in niches in the apse, with other saints and prophets as well as a Passion series and the journey and adoration of the Magi. Media related to Hrastovlje at Wikimedia Commons Hrastovlje on Geopedia The Danse Macabre of Hrastovlje: a rare medieval fresco hidden until 1949