Joseph Roberts "Joey" Smallwood, was a Newfoundlander and Canadian politician. He was the main force who brought the dominion of Newfoundland into the Canadian Confederation in 1949, becoming the first premier of Newfoundland, serving until 1972; as premier, he vigorously promoted economic development, championed the welfare state, emphasized modernization of education and transportation. Smallwood was a socialist in philosophy, noting in a 1974 documentary that he considered the People's Republic of China to be the ideal social state; the results of his efforts to promote industrialization were mixed, with the most favourable results in hydroelectricity, iron mining and paper mills. Smallwood was controversial. Never shy, he dubbed himself "the last Father of Confederation". While many Canadians today remember Smallwood as the man who brought Newfoundland into the Canadian Confederation, the opinions held by Newfoundlanders and their diaspora remain divided as to his legacy. Smallwood was born at Mint Brook, near Gambo, Newfoundland, to Minnie May Smallwood.
His grandfather, David Smallwood, was a well-known maker of boots in St. John's. Growing up in St. John's, as a teenager he worked as an apprentice at a newspaper and moved to New York City in 1920. In New York, he worked for the socialist newspaper The Call. Smallwood returned to Newfoundland in 1925, where he soon married Clara Oates. In 1925, he founded a newspaper in Corner Brook. In 1928, he acted as campaign manager for the prime minister of the Newfoundland, Sir Richard Squires, he ran unsuccessfully as a Liberal candidate in Bonavista in 1932. During the Great Depression, Smallwood worked for various newspapers and edited a two-volume collection titled The Book of Newfoundland, he hosted a radio program, The Barrelman, beginning in 1937, that promoted pride in Newfoundland's history and culture. He was successful in this job with a voice for radio, recognizable throughout all of Newfoundland, he left the Broadcasting Corporation of Newfoundland in 1943 to operate a pig farm at the Newfoundland Airport at Gander.
As soon as prosperity returned in 1942, action began to end the Commission of Government. Newfoundland, with a population of 313,000, seemed too small to be independent. At this point, Smallwood was a well-known radio personality and organizer. In 1945, London announced that a National Convention would be elected in Newfoundland to advise on what constitutional choices should to be voted on by referendum. Union with the United States was a possibility, but London rejected that option and instead offered two options: a return to dominion status or continuation of the unpopular Commission. Canada issued an invitation to join on generous financial terms. In 1946, Smallwood was elected as a delegate to the Newfoundland National Convention, organized to make recommendations to London about the future of Newfoundland that would be placed before the people of the country in a constitutional referendum. Smallwood supported arguing that union with Canada would bring prosperity, his skills as a radio broadcaster served him well.
He was able to use the proceedings of the Convention, which were broadcast over the radio, to publicise the benefits of union with Canada. He founded and led the Confederate Association that supported the Confederation option in the Convention during the 1948 Newfoundland referendums. At the convention Smallwood emerged as the leading proponent of confederation with Canada, insisting, "Today we are more disposed to feel that our manhood, our creation by God, entitles us to standards of life no lower than our brothers on the mainland." He succeeded in putting the Canada option on the ballot. His main opponents were Chesley Crosbie. Cashin, a former finance minister, led the Responsible Government League, warning against cheap Canadian imports and the high Canadian income tax. Crosbie, a leader of the fishing industry, led the Economic Union Party, seeking responsible government first, to be followed by closer ties with the United States, which could be a major source of capital. Smallwood carried his cause in a hard-fought referendum and a runoff in June and July 1948 as the decision to join Canada carried 77,869, against 71,464, or 52.3%.
A strong rural vote in favour of Canada overwhelmed the pro-independence vote in the capital of St. John's. Catholics in the city desired independence to protect their parochial schools, leading to a Protestant backlash in rural areas; the promise of cash family allowances from Canada proved decisive. Smallwood was a member of the 1947 Ottawa Delegation, he created The Confederate, to promote Confederation. The 1948 referendums resulted in Confederation being approved, in 1949, as leader of the Liberal Party, Smallwood was elected premier of the new province. Smallwood ran Newfoundland unchallenged for 23 years, he governed with large majorities for his entire tenure. During his first six terms he never faced more than eight opposition MHAs, he vigorously promoted economic development through the Economic Development Plan of 1951, championed the welfare state, attracted favourable attention across Canada. He emphasised modernisation of education and transportation to attract outsiders, such as German industrialists, because the local economic elite would not invest in in
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, is still used worldwide for medium wave transmissions, but on the longwave and shortwave radio bands; the earliest experimental AM transmissions began in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming carried by radio. Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have greatly shrunk due to competition from FM radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting, satellite radio, HD radio and Internet streaming. AM transmissions are much more susceptible than FM or digital signals are to interference, have lower audio fidelity.
Thus, AM broadcasters tend to specialise in spoken-word formats, such as talk radio, all news and sports, leaving the broadcasting of music to FM and digital stations. The idea of broadcasting — the unrestricted transmission of signals to a widespread audience — dates back to the founding period of radio development though the earliest radio transmissions known as "Hertzian radiation" and "wireless telegraphy", used spark-gap transmitters that could only transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. In October 1898 a London publication, The Electrician, noted that "there are rare cases where, as Dr. Lodge once expressed it, it might be advantageous to'shout' the message, spreading it broadcast to receivers in all directions". However, it was recognized that this would involve significant financial issues, as that same year The Electrician commented "did not Prof. Lodge forget that no one wants to pay for shouting to the world on a system by which it would be impossible to prevent non-subscribers from benefiting gratuitously?"On January 1, 1902, Nathan Stubblefield gave a short-range "wireless telephone" demonstration, that included broadcasting speech and music to seven locations throughout Murray, Kentucky.
However, this was transmitted using induction rather than radio signals, although Stubblefield predicted that his system would be perfected so that "it will be possible to communicate with hundreds of homes at the same time", "a single message can be sent from a central station to all parts of the United States", he was unable to overcome the inherent distance limitations of this technology. The earliest public radiotelegraph broadcasts were provided as government services, beginning with daily time signals inaugurated on January 1, 1905, by a number of U. S. Navy stations. In Europe, signals transmitted from a station located on the Eiffel tower were received throughout much of Europe. In both the United States and France this led to a small market of receiver lines designed geared for jewelers who needed accurate time to set their clocks, including the Ondophone in France, the De Forest RS-100 Jewelers Time Receiver in the United States The ability to pick up time signal broadcasts, in addition to Morse code weather reports and news summaries attracted the interest of amateur radio enthusiasts.
It was recognized that, much like the telegraph had preceded the invention of the telephone, the ability to make audio radio transmissions would be a significant technical advance. Despite this knowledge, it still took two decades to perfect the technology needed to make quality audio transmissions. In addition, the telephone had been used for distributing entertainment, outside of a few "telephone newspaper" systems, most of which were established in Europe. With this in mind, most early radiotelephone development envisioned that the device would be more profitably developed as a "wireless telephone" for personal communication, or for providing links where regular telephone lines could not be run, rather than for the uncertain finances of broadcasting; the person credited as the primary early developer of AM technology is Canadian-born inventor Reginald Fessenden. The original spark-gap radio transmitters were impractical for transmitting audio, since they produced discontinuous pulses known as "damped waves".
Fessenden realized that what was needed was a new type of radio transmitter that produced steady "undamped" signals, which could be "modulated" to reflect the sounds being transmitted. Fessenden's basic approach was disclosed in U. S. Patent 706,737, which he applied for on May 29, 1901, was issued the next year, it called for the use of a high-speed alternator that generated "pure sine waves" and produced "a continuous train of radiant waves of uniform strength", or, in modern terminology, a continuous-wave transmitter. Fessenden began his research on audio transmissions while doing developmental work for the United States Weather Service on Cobb Island, Maryland; because he did not yet have a continuous-wave transmitter he worked with an experimental "high-frequency spark" transmitter, taking advantage of the fact that the higher the spark rate, the closer a spark-gap transmission comes to producing continuous waves. He reported that, in the fall of 1900, he transmitted speech over a distance of about 1.6 kilometers, which appears to have been the first successful audio transmission using radio signals.
However, at this time the sound was far too distorted to be commercially practical. For a time he continued working with more sophist
CHOZ-FM is a Canadian radio station based in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, its main St. John's transmitter broadcasts at 94.7 MHz, with additional transmitters located throughout the island. The station, known as OZFM, is one of the various media properties of the Stirling family. CHOZ-FM launched on June 15, 1977 at 93.9 FM, soon after Geoff Stirling sold his interest in what is now CJYQ. It was a full-time rock station known as Radio OZ, The Rock Of The Rock, it transitioned to a combination CHR/Classic rock format under the OZFM brand. On August 1, 1984, CHOZ was approved to move to 94.7 FM. During most of the 1990s it was the most popular FM radio station, both in the province and in the core St. John's market; the station's success was driven by the strength of its eclectic morning show, The Dawn Patrol, with Randy Snow, Deborah Birmingham and Larry Jay. Yet by the early 2000s its newly strengthened competitor Stingray Radio had begun to cause a significant effect in St. John's; the owner of the city's dominant radio station, AM station VOCM, Newcap split CHOZ's market by converting VOCM-FM to classic rock, soon after CKIX-FM to contemporary hits.
Another strong contender, Coast Broadcasting's adult contemporary station CKSJ-FM, launched in 2004. But since CKSJ and CKIX only operated in the St. John's area, CHOZ-FM was now in the problematic situation of competing with female-skewing FM stations in its largest market, with a single male-skewing FM competitor in the rest of the province. CHOZ-FM can still boast having the largest audience of any FM radio station in the province because it is the only station with a province-wide network of transmitters, all carrying identical programming, which can therefore be accumulated for ratings purposes as a single station. In contrast, other provincial radio services such as CBC Radio One, VOCM and K-Rock are made up of separate local stations with some unique programming, while several stations operate only in the immediate St. John's area. In the summer of 2003, Snow left the Dawn Patrol to join CKIX-FM to host his own morning show, his replacement was Brian O'Connell, who left the VOCM to join CHOZ-FM.
In April 2007, O'Connell took over as station manager for the OZFM Network and host of the daily Electric Lunch program. O'Connell left CHOZ-FM and now works with Stingray Radio hosting afternoons. OZFM staff announcer Paul Kinsman was O'Connell's on air replacement, joining long time Dawn Patrol veterans Birmingham and Jay. On August 14, 2009, CHOZ-FM changed its format to mainstream rock/Classic rock from hot adult contemporary, forcing rival CKIX-FM taking the hot adult contemporary format, but continue to report on the Mediabase/Nielsen BDS Canadian top 40 panel. On January 2, 2012, CHOZ-FM flipped back to hot adult contemporary, with a new slogan Today's Best Music; this ended the use of their longtime slogan The Rock of the Rock. The station resurrected their longtime heart-rainbow logo, that the station used from the late 1980s to 2007; the following month, the station surfaced on the Mediabase Canadian hot AC panel. In August 2012, Kinsman and Jay left the Dawn Patrol, renamed The Morning Rush and featured a new host, Robert Shawn, alongside the only remaining original host Birmingham.
In January 2013, the pair were joined by their former behind Laura Woodworth. Birmingham left the station in January 2014 and her place on the Morning Rush was Stephanie O'Brien with VOCM-FM. In November 2014, Woodworth now lives in Prince Edward Island. Shawn and O'Brien continued to host the Morning Rush until Shawn switched places with Stephen Lethbridge in July 2015; the Morning Rush was renamed The OZFM Rush. Lethbridge and O'Brien hosted without a third host until Hugh Campbell joined the OZFM Rush in December 2015. On July 31, 2016, O'Brien uploaded a video to Facebook of her telling her parents that she is pregnant. O'Brien gave birth to her daughter, Charlie, on December 30, 2016. Shannell Lewis co-hosted the OZFM Rush with Lethbridge and Campbell throughout 2017 and early 2018; as of February 2018, O'Brien is back on CHOZ-FM. In January 2011, the Canadian Broadcast Standards Council admonished CHOZ-FM for playing the unedited version of Dire Straits' Money for Nothing, following a complaint from a listener that stated that the song contained the word "faggot", a slur for a homosexual person.
Though the song has won numerous awards and has been played countless times on Canadian radio, the CBSC felt that the unedited version has become unacceptable for airplay, as the term "faggot", once an acceptable term, has since become an unacceptable slur. In response to the ruling, at least two stations, CIRK-FM in Edmonton and CFRQ-FM in Halifax, played the unedited version of Money for Nothing for one hour out of protest. On January 21, 2011, the CRTC asked the CBSC for a review on the ban, in response to the public outcry against the CBSC's actions. On August 31, the CBSC found the slur to be inappropriate. Most of the CBSC panelists thought the slur was inappropriate, but it was used only in a satirical, non-hateful manner. CJMY and CKMY were known as CKCV-FM and CHOS-FM up to at least 2002; the changes were made to reserve appropriate call signs for
CBC Radio is the English-language radio operations of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. The CBC operates a number of radio networks serving different audiences and programming niches, all of which are outlined below. CBC Radio operates three English language networks. CBC Radio One - Primarily news and information, Radio One broadcasts to most communities across Canada; until 1997, it was known as "CBC Radio". CBC Music - Broadcasts an adult music format with a variety of genres, with the classical genre restricted to midday hours. From 2007 to 2018, it was known as "CBC Radio 2". CBC Radio 3 - Broadcasts a youth-oriented indie rock format on Internet radio and Sirius XM Radio; some content from Radio 3 was broadcast as weekend programming on Radio Two until March 2007. The inconsistency of branding between the word "One" and the numerals "2" and "3" was a deliberate design choice on CBC's part and is not an error, though from 1997 to 2007, CBC Music was known as "CBC Radio Two". From 1944 to 1962 CBC's English service operated two radio networks, the main Trans-Canada Network and the Dominion Network.
In 1962 the Dominion Network was disbanded and the Trans-Canada Network became known as CBC Radio and in 1997, CBC Radio One. In some cases CBC announcers will still say "CBC Radio" in reference to programs that air only on Radio One; the CBC English service launched the CBC Radio app for iPhone on August 13, 2009. The free app provides 19 live streams for Radio One, 2 and 3, 60 on-demand services, including TV Audio and streams from CBC Music; the app runs on iPhone and iPod Touch devices 2.2.1 and higher, includes additional features such as a schedule, sleep timer, a favourites list. The app includes additional functionality; the CBC operates two French language radio networks, each of which has a similar programming focus to one of the corporation's English-language radio networks. A third service was discontinued in 2013. Structurally, the French-language radio operations are managed as part of the CBC's overall French-language services division, therefore have limited ties to the English-language radio networks, which are structured similarly.
Ici Radio-Canada Première - News and information. Ici Musique - Music and culture. Bande à part - Youth-oriented programming on Internet and Sirius, although some content continues to air as weekend programming on Espace musique, the predecessor of Ici Musique. Discontinued in 2013. In the Northwest Territories, Yukon and northern Quebec, CBC North airs a modified Radio One schedule to accommodate programming in Native languages and Radio Nord Quebec, which airs a combined Radio One / Première schedule via shortwave mixed in with programming in native languages. CBC Radio has 14 original podcasts. Two of the podcasts, Someone Knows Something and Missing & Murdered, are ranked among the top shows on the iTunes and Stitcher charts. "Someone Knows Something," hosted by filmmaker David Ridgen, first aired in 2016. The show, which investigates cold cases in Canada and the United States, finished its fourth season in March 2018. In season three, Ridgen worked with a Mississippi man, Thomas Moore, to solve the 1964 kidnapping and murder of Moore's brother and his friend, Henry Dee.
As a result of information uncovered by the podcast, James Ford Seale, a former member of the KKK, was convicted of the killings in 2007 and received three life sentences for his crimes against Moore and Dee. Season four returned to Canada as Ridgen sought answers in the 1996 unsolved murder case of Wayne Greavette, an Ontario man killed by a bomb, disguised as a Christmas gift and sent to his home. Season four had the fewest episodes of the series. Investigative journalist Connie Walker hosts "Missing & Murdered," a podcast which looks into deaths and disappearances of indigenous women in Canada; the show's first season, "Missing & Murdered: Who Killed Alberta Williams," covered the unsolved homicide of Alberta Williams who went missing from Prince Rupert, British Columbia, after a night out with friends. Her body was discovered days along Highway 16, which has since become known as "the Highway of Tears." Following the show, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police announced. The second season, released in March 2018, helped a family find out what happened to their teenage sister, Cleo Semaganis Nicotine, after she was sent to the United States from Saskatchewan during the "Sixties Scoop."
The stories featured on this podcast are part of a broader effort by Walker, Cree, CBC News to raise awareness about the more than 250 unsolved disappearances and homicides of indigenous women and girls across Canada. In 2017, the RCMP announced an initiative to stop violence against indigenous women and girls, citing studies done in 2014 that found they are among the most populations to be victims of violent crime; the CBC operates an online service. RCI ended its shortwave radio broadcast in June 2012. In some remote Canadian tourist areas, such as national or provincial parks, the CBC operates a series of transmitters which broadcast weather alerts from Environment Canada's Weatheradio Canada service; the CBC operated Galaxie, a digital television radio service which provides 45 channels of music programming to digital cable subscribers in both English and French. This service is now operated by Stingray Digital, who since relaunched the service as Stingray Music. CBC celebrates the generation of leaders and change-m
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television. The English- and French-language service units of the corporation are known as CBC and Radio-Canada and both short-form names are commonly used in the applicable language to refer to the corporation as a whole. Although some local stations in Canada predate CBC's founding, CBC is the oldest existing broadcasting network in Canada, first established in its present form on November 2, 1936. Radio services include CBC Radio One, CBC Music, Ici Radio-Canada Première, Ici Musique. Television operations include CBC Television, Ici Radio-Canada Télé, CBC News Network, Ici RDI, Ici Explora, Documentary Channel, Ici ARTV; the CBC operates services for the Canadian Arctic under the names CBC Radio-Canada Nord. The CBC operates digital services including CBC.ca/Ici. Radio-Canada.ca, CBC Radio 3, CBC Music/ICI.mu and Ici.
TOU. TV, owns 20.2% of satellite radio broadcaster Sirius XM Canada, which carries several CBC-produced audio channels. CBC/Radio-Canada offers programming in English and eight aboriginal languages on its domestic radio service, in five languages on its web-based international radio service, Radio Canada International. However, budget cuts in the early 2010s have contributed to the corporation reducing its service via the airwaves, discontinuing RCI's shortwave broadcasts as well as terrestrial television broadcasts in all communities served by network-owned rebroadcast transmitters, including communities not subject to Canada's over-the-air digital television transition. CBC's federal funding is supplemented by revenue from commercial advertising on its television broadcasts; the radio service employed commercials from its inception to 1974, but since its primary radio networks have been commercial-free. In 2013, CBC's secondary radio networks, CBC Music and Ici Musique, introduced limited advertising of up to four minutes an hour, but this was discontinued in 2016.
In 1929, the Aird Commission on public broadcasting recommended the creation of a national radio broadcast network. A major concern was the growing influence of American radio broadcasting as U. S.-based networks began to expand into Canada. Meanwhile, Canadian National Railways was making a radio network to keep its passengers entertained and give it an advantage over its rival, CP. This, the CNR Radio, is the forerunner of the CBC. Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt lobbied intensely for the project on behalf of the Canadian Radio League. In 1932 the government of R. B. Bennett established the CBC's predecessor, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission; the CRBC took over a network of radio stations set up by a federal Crown corporation, the Canadian National Railway. The network was used to broadcast programming to riders aboard its passenger trains, with coverage in central and eastern Canada. On November 2, 1936, the CRBC was reorganized under its present name. While the CRBC was a state-owned company, the CBC was a Crown corporation on the model of the British Broadcasting Corporation, reformed from a private company into a statutory corporation in 1927.
Leonard Brockington was the CBC's first chairman. For the next few decades, the CBC was responsible for all broadcasting innovation in Canada; this was in part because, until 1958, it was not only a broadcaster, but the chief regulator of Canadian broadcasting. It used this dual role to snap up most of the clear-channel licences in Canada, it began a separate French-language radio network in 1937. It introduced FM radio to Canada in 1946, though a distinct FM service wasn't launched until 1960. Television broadcasts from the CBC began on September 6, 1952, with the opening of a station in Montreal, a station in Toronto, Ontario opening two days later; the CBC's first owned affiliate television station, CKSO in Sudbury, launched in October 1953. From 1944 to 1962, the CBC split its English-language radio network into two services known as the Trans-Canada Network and the Dominion Network; the latter, carrying lighter programs including American radio shows, was dissolved in 1962, while the former became known as CBC Radio.
On July 1, 1958, CBC's television signal was extended from coast to coast. The first Canadian television show shot in colour was the CBC's own The Forest Rangers in 1963. Colour television broadcasts began on July 1, 1966, full-colour service began in 1974. In 1978, CBC became the first broadcaster in the world to use an orbiting satellite for television service, linking Canada "from east to west to north". Starting in 1967 and continuing until the mid-1970s, the CBC provided limited television service to remote and northern communities. Transmitters were built in a few locations and carried a four-hour selection of black-and-white videotaped programs each day; the tapes were flown into communities to be shown transported to other communities by the "bicycle" method used in television syndication. Transportation delays ranged from one week for larger centres to a month for small communities; the first FCP station was started in Yellowknife in May 1967, the second in Whitehorse in No
Sheraton Hotel Newfoundland is a luxury hotel in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada; the original Newfoundland Hotel, an 8-storey brick structure, was opened in 1926 in St. John's; the hotel was operated by the Newfoundland Hotel Facilities, Ltd.. Ownership of the hotel was transferred to the Canadian National Railway hotel division in 1949 following Confederation. From 1939 to 1949, the 6th floor served as home and studios for Broadcasting Corporation of Newfoundland; the current site was Fort William, a British Army base in the 17th Century. In the early 1960s the hotel was renamed Hotel Newfoundland due to CN's new policy of making names more bilingual. Canadian National Hotels built the current hotel in 1982 on an adjacent site as a replacement for the original Newfoundland Hotel; the building was named Hotel Newfoundland and is an 8-storey glass and concrete building designed by architect George S. Burman; the hotel's ownership was transferred to Canadian Pacific Hotels in 1988 after that company acquired the Canadian National Hotels chain.
With the breakup of Canadian Pacific Limited in 2001, CP Hotels bought Fairmont Hotels and Resorts and took on that smaller company's name. The hotel was renamed The Fairmont Newfoundland. In 2008, St. John's based Fortis Inc. properties bought the Newfoundland Hotel and converted it to the Sheraton Hotel Newfoundland in 2009. Official Site Sheraton Hotels Corporate Site