Cinerama is a widescreen process that projected images from three synchronized 35 mm projectors onto a huge curved screen, subtending 146° of arc. The trademarked process was marketed by the Cinerama corporation, it was the first of a number of novel processes introduced during the 1950s, when the movie industry was reacting to competition from television. Cinerama was presented to the public as a theatrical event, with reserved seating and printed programs, audience members dressed in their best attire for the evening; the Cinerama projection screen, rather than being a continuous surface like most screens, is made of hundreds of individual vertical strips of standard perforated screen material, each about 7⁄8 inch wide, with each strip angled to face the audience, so as to prevent light scattered from one end of the curved screen from reflecting across the screen and washing out the image on the opposite end. The display is accompanied by a high-quality, seven-track discrete, surround-sound system.
The original system involved shooting with three synchronized cameras sharing a single shutter. This process was abandoned in favor of a system using a single camera and 70mm prints; the latter system lost the 146° field of view of the original three-strip system, its resolution was markedly lower. Three-strip Cinerama did not use anamorphic lenses, although two of the systems used to produce the 70mm prints did employ anamorphics. 35mm anamorphic reduction prints were produced for exhibition in theatres with anamorphic CinemaScope-compatible projection lenses. Cinerama was invented by Fred Waller and languished in the laboratory for several years before Waller, joined by Hazard "Buzz " Reeves, brought it to the attention of Lowell Thomas who, first with Mike Todd and Merian C. Cooper, produced a commercially viable demonstration of Cinerama which opened on Broadway on September 30, 1952; the film, titled This is Cinerama, was received with enthusiasm. It was the outgrowth of many years of development.
A forerunner was the triple-screen final sequence in the silent Napoléon directed by Abel Gance. Waller had earlier developed an 11-projector system called "Vitarama" at the Petroleum Industry exhibit in the 1939 New York World's Fair. A five-camera version, the Waller Gunnery Trainer, was used during the Second World War; the word "Cinerama" combines cinema with panorama, the origin of all the "-orama" neologisms. It has been suggested; the photographic system used three interlocked 35 mm cameras equipped with 27 mm lenses the focal length of the human eye. Each camera photographed one third of the picture shooting in a crisscross pattern, the right camera shooting the left part of the image, the left camera shooting the right part of the image and the center camera shooting straight ahead; the three cameras were mounted as one unit, set at 48 degrees to each other. A single rotating shutter in front of the three lenses assured simultaneous exposure on each of the films; the three angled cameras photographed an image, not only three times as wide as a standard film but covered 146 degrees of arc, close to the human field of vision, including peripheral vision.
The image was photographed six sprocket holes high, rather than the usual four used in conventional 35 mm processes. The picture was photographed and projected at 26 frames per second rather than the usual 24. According to film historian Martin Hart, in the original Cinerama system "the camera aspect ratio 2.59:1" with an "optimum screen image, with no architectural constraints, about 2.65:1, with the extreme top and bottom cropped to hide anomalies". He further comments on the unreliability of "numerous websites and other resources that will tell you that Cinerama had an aspect ratio of up to 3:1."In theaters, Cinerama film was projected from three projection booths arranged in the same crisscross pattern as the cameras. They projected onto a curved screen, the outer thirds of which were made of over 1100 strips of material mounted on "louvers" like a vertical venetian blind, to prevent light projected to each end of the screen from reflecting to the opposite end and washing out the image.
This was a big-ticket, reserved-seats spectacle, the Cinerama projectors were adjusted and operated skillfully. To prevent adjacent images from creating an overilluminated vertical band where they overlapped on the screen, vibrating combs in the projectors, called "jiggolos," alternately blocked the image from one projector and the other. Great care was taken to match color and brightness; the seams between panels were noticeable. Optical limitations with the design of the camera itself meant that if distant scenes joined closer objects did not. A nearby object might split into two. To avoid calling attention to the seams, scenes were composed with unimportant objects such as trees or posts at the seams, action was bloc
A theater, theatre or playhouse, is a structure where theatrical works or plays are performed, or other performances such as musical concerts may be produced. While a theater is not required for performance, a theater serves to define the performance and audience spaces; the facility is traditionally organized to provide support areas for performers, the technical crew and the audience members. There are as many types of theaters. Theaters may be built for a certain types of productions, they may serve for more general performance needs or they may be adapted or converted for use as a theater, they may range from open-air amphitheaters to ornate, cathedral-like structures to simple, undecorated rooms or black box theaters. Some theaters may have a fixed acting area, while some theaters, such as black box theaters, may not, allowing the director and designers to construct an acting area suitable for the production; the most important of these areas is the acting space known as the stage. In some theaters proscenium theaters, arena theaters and amphitheaters, this area is permanent part of the structure.
In a blackbox theater the acting area is undefined so that each theater may adapt to a production. In addition to these acting spaces, there may be offstage spaces as well; these include wings on either side of a proscenium stage where props and scenery may be stored as well as a place for actors awaiting an entrance. A Prompter's box may be found backstage. In an amphitheater, an area behind the stage may be designated for such uses while a blackbox theater may have spaces outside of the actual theater designated for such uses. A theater will incorporate other spaces intended for the performers and other personnel. A booth facing the stage may be incorporated into the house where lighting and sound personnel may view the show and run their respective instruments. Other rooms in the building may be used for dressing rooms, rehearsal rooms, spaces for constructing sets and costumes, as well as storage. There are two main entrances: one at the front, used by the audience, that leads into the back of the audience, sometimes first going through a ticket booth.
The second is called the stage door, it is accessible from backstage. This is the means by which the cast and crew enter and exit the theater, fans wait outside it after the show in order to get autographs, called "stage dooring"; this term can be used to refer to going to a lot of shows or living in a big theater city, such as New York or Chicago. All theaters provide a space for an audience; the audience is separated from the performers by the proscenium arch. In proscenium theaters and amphitheaters, the proscenium arch, like the stage, is a permanent feature of the structure; this area is known as the house. Like the stage in a blackbox theater, this area is defined by the production The seating areas can include some or all of the following: Stalls or arena: the lower flat area below or at the same level as the stage; the word parterre is sometimes used to refer to a particular subset of this area. In North American usage this is the rear seating block beneath the gallery whereas in Britain it can mean either the area in front near the orchestra pit, or the whole of the stalls.
The term can refer to the side stalls in some usages. Derived from the gardening term parterre, the usage refers to the sectioned pattern of both the seats of an auditorium and of the planted beds seen in garden construction. Throughout the 18th century the term was used to refer to the theater audience who occupied the parterre. Balconies or galleries: one or more raised seating platforms towards the rear of the auditorium. In larger theaters, multiple levels are stacked vertically behind the stalls; the first level is called the dress circle or grand circle. The next level may be the loge, from the French version of loggia. A second tier inserted beneath the main balcony may be the mezzanine; the highest platform, or upper circle, is sometimes known as the gods in large opera houses, where the seats can be high and a long distance from the stage. Boxes: placed to the front and above the level of the stage, they are separate rooms with an open viewing area which seat up to five people. These seats are considered the most prestigious of the house.
A "state box" or "royal box" is sometimes provided for dignitaries. House seats: these are "the best seats in the house", giving the best view of the stage. Though each theater's layout is different, these are in the center of the stalls; these seats are traditionally reserved for the cast and crew to invite family members and others. If they are not used, they go on sale on the day of the performance. Greek theater buildings were called a theatron; the theaters were open-air structures constructed on the slopes of hills. They consisted of three principal elements: the orchestra, the skene, the audience; the centerpiece of the theater was the orchestra, or "dancing place", a large circular or rectangular area. The orchestra was the site of the choral performances, the religious rites, the acting. An altar was located in the middle of the orchestra. Behind the orchestra was a large rectangular building called the skene, it was used as a "backstage" area where actors could change their costumes and masks, but also
Mickey Mouse is a funny animal cartoon character and the mascot of The Walt Disney Company. He was created by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks at the Walt Disney Studios in 1928. An anthropomorphic mouse who wears red shorts, large yellow shoes, white gloves, Mickey is one of the world's most recognizable characters. Created as a replacement for a prior Disney character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Mickey first appeared in the short Plane Crazy, debuting publicly in the short film Steamboat Willie, one of the first sound cartoons, he went on to appear in over 130 films, including The Band Concert, Brave Little Tailor, Fantasia. Mickey appeared in short films, but occasionally in feature-length films. Ten of Mickey's cartoons were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film, one of which, Lend a Paw, won the award in 1942. In 1978, Mickey became the first cartoon character to have a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Beginning in 1930, Mickey has been featured extensively as a comic strip character.
His self-titled newspaper strip, drawn by Floyd Gottfredson, ran for 45 years. Mickey has appeared in comic books such as Disney Italy's Topolino, MM - Mickey Mouse Mystery Magazine, Wizards of Mickey, in television series such as The Mickey Mouse Club and others, he appears in other media such as video games as well as merchandising and is a meetable character at the Disney parks. Mickey appears alongside his girlfriend Minnie Mouse, his pet dog Pluto, his friends Donald Duck and Goofy, his nemesis Pete, among others. Though characterized as a cheeky lovable rogue, Mickey was rebranded over time as a nice guy seen as an honest and bodacious hero. In 2009, Disney began to rebrand the character again by putting less emphasis on his friendly, well-meaning persona and reintroducing the more menacing and stubborn sides of his personality, beginning with the video game Epic Mickey. "I only hope that we never lose sight of one thing – that it was all started by a mouse." Mickey Mouse was created as a replacement for Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, an earlier cartoon character created by the Disney studio for Charles Mintz, a film producer who distributed product through Universal Studios.
In the spring of 1928, with the series going strong, Disney asked Mintz for an increase in the budget. But Mintz instead demanded that Walt take a 20 percent budget cut, as leverage, he reminded Disney that Universal owned the character, revealed that he had signed most of Disney's current employees to his new contract. Angrily, Disney refused the deal and returned to produce the final Oswald cartoons he contractually owed Mintz. Disney was determined to restart from scratch; the new Disney Studio consisted of animator Ub Iwerks and a loyal apprentice artist, Les Clark, who together with Wilfred Jackson were among the few who remained loyal to Walt. One lesson Disney learned from the experience was to thereafter always make sure that he owned all rights to the characters produced by his company. In the spring of 1928, Disney asked Ub Iwerks to start drawing up new character ideas. Iwerks tried sketches of various animals, such as dogs and cats, but none of these appealed to Disney. A female cow and male horse were rejected.
They would turn up as Clarabelle Cow and Horace Horsecollar. A male frog was rejected, it would show up in Iwerks' own Flip the Frog series. Walt Disney got the inspiration for Mickey Mouse from a tame mouse at his desk at Laugh-O-Gram Studio in Kansas City, Missouri. In 1925, Hugh Harman drew some sketches of mice around a photograph of Walt Disney; these inspired Ub Iwerks to create a new mouse character for Disney. "Mortimer Mouse" had been Disney's original name for the character before his wife, convinced him to change it, Mickey Mouse came to be. The actor Mickey Rooney claimed that, during his Mickey McGuire days, he met cartoonist Walt Disney at the Warner Brothers studio, that Disney was inspired to name Mickey Mouse after him; this claim, has been debunked by Disney historian Jim Korkis, since at the time of Mickey Mouse's development, Disney Studios had been located on Hyperion Avenue for several years, Walt Disney never kept an office or other working space at Warner Brothers, having no professional relationship with Warner Brothers, as the Alice Comedies and Oswald cartoons were distributed by Universal.
Disney had Ub Iwerks secretly begin animating a new cartoon while still under contract with Universal. The cartoon was co-directed by Ub Iwerks. Iwerks was the main animator for the short and spent six weeks working on it. In fact, Iwerks was the main animator for every Disney short released in 1928 and 1929. Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising assisted Disney during those years, they had signed their contracts with Charles Mintz, but he was still in the process of forming his new studio and so for the time being they were still employed by Disney. This short would be the last. Mickey was first seen in a test screening of the cartoon short Plane Crazy, on May 15, 1928, but it failed to impress the audience and, to add insult to injury, Walt could not find a distributor. Though understandably disappointed, Walt went on to produce a second Mickey short, The Gallopin' Gaucho, not released for lack of a distributor. Steamboat Willie was first released on November 1928, in New York, it was co-directed by Ub Iwerks.
Iwerks again served as the head animator, assisted by Johnny Cannon, Les Clark, Wilfred Jackson and Dick Lundy. This short was intended as a parody of Buster Keaton'
Mary Jane "Mae" West was an American actress, playwright, screenwriter and sex symbol whose entertainment career spanned seven decades, known for her lighthearted bawdy double entendres and breezy sexual independence. West was active in vaudeville and on the stage in New York City before moving to Hollywood to become a comedian and writer in the motion picture industry, as well as appearing on radio and television; the American Film Institute named her 15th among the greatest female stars of classic American cinema. Using a husky contralto voice, West was one of the more controversial movie stars of her day and encountered many problems censorship, she bucked the system, making comedy out of conventional mores, the Depression-era audience admired her for it. When her cinematic career ended, she wrote books and plays and continued to perform in Las Vegas, in the United Kingdom, on radio and television and to record rock and roll albums, she was once asked about the various efforts to impede her career, to which she replied: "I believe in censorship.
I made a fortune out of it." Mary Jane West was born on August 1893, in Kings County, New York. She was delivered at home by an aunt, a midwife, she was the eldest surviving child of Mathilde "Tillie" Delker. Tillie and her five siblings emigrated with their parents and Christiana Doelger from Bavaria in 1886. West's parents married on January 18, 1889, in Brooklyn, to the pleasure of the groom's parents and the displeasure of the bride's parents and raised their children as Protestants, although John West was of mixed Catholic–Protestant descent and Tillie was of at least partial Jewish descent. West's father was a prizefighter known as "Battlin' Jack West" who worked as a "special policeman" and had his own private investigations agency, her mother was a former fashion model. Her paternal grandmother, Mary Jane, for whom she was named, was of Irish Catholic descent and West's paternal grandfather, John Edwin West, was of English–Scots descent and a ship's rigger, her eldest sibling, died in infancy.
Her other siblings were Mildred Katherine West known as Beverly, John Edwin West II. During her childhood, West's family moved to various parts of Woodhaven, as well as the Williamsburg and Greenpoint neighborhoods of Brooklyn. In Woodhaven, at Neir's Social Hall, West first performed professionally. West was five when she first entertained a crowd at a church social, she started appearing in amateur shows at the age of seven, she won prizes at local talent contests. She began performing professionally in vaudeville in the Hal Clarendon Stock Company in 1907 at the age of 14. West first performed under the stage name "Baby Mae", tried various personas, including a male impersonator, she used the alias "Jane Mast" early in her career. Her trademark walk was said to have been inspired or influenced by female impersonators Bert Savoy and Julian Eltinge, who were famous during the Pansy Craze, her first appearance in a Broadway show was in a 1911 revue A La Broadway put on by her former dancing teacher, Ned Wayburn.
The show folded after eight performances, but at age 18, West was singled out and discovered by The New York Times. The Times reviewer wrote that a "girl named Mae West, hitherto unknown, pleased by her grotesquerie and snappy way of singing and dancing". West next appeared in a show called Vera Violetta. In 1912, she appeared in the opening performance of A Winsome Widow as a "baby vamp" named La Petite Daffy, she was encouraged as a performer by her mother, according to West, always thought that anything Mae did was fantastic. Other family members were less encouraging, including her paternal grandmother, they are all reported as having disapproved of her choices. In 1918, after exiting several high-profile revues, West got her break in the Shubert Brothers revue Sometime, opposite Ed Wynn, her character Mayme danced the shimmy and her photograph appeared on an edition of the sheet music for the popular number "Ev'rybody Shimmies Now". She began writing her own risqué plays using the pen name Jane Mast.
Her first starring role on Broadway was in a 1926 play she entitled Sex, which she wrote and directed. Although conservative critics panned the show, ticket sales were strong; the production did not go over well with city officials, who had received complaints from some religious groups, the theater was raided, with West arrested along with the cast. She was taken to the Jefferson Market Court House, where she was prosecuted on morals charges, on April 19, 1927, was sentenced to 10 days for "corrupting the morals of youth". Though West could have paid a fine and been let off, she chose the jail sentence for the publicity it would garner. While incarcerated on Welfare Island, she dined with his wife. West got great mileage from this jail stint, she served eight days with two days off for "good behavior". Media attention surrounding the incident enhanced her career, by crowning her the darling "bad girl" who "had climbed the ladder of success wrong by wrong", her next play, Th
Steamboat Willie is a 1928 American animated short film directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks. It was released by Celebrity Productions; the cartoon is considered the debut of Mickey Mouse and his girlfriend Minnie, although both the characters appeared several months earlier in a test screening of Plane Crazy. Steamboat Willie was the third of Mickey's films to be produced, but was the first to be distributed because Walt Disney, having seen The Jazz Singer, had committed himself to producing one of the first synchronized sound cartoons; the real first cartoon with synchronized sound was My Old Kentucky Home. Steamboat Willie is notable for being the first Disney cartoon with synchronized sound, including character sounds and a musical score. Disney understood from early on that synchronized sound was the future of film, it was the first cartoon to feature a post-produced soundtrack which distinguished it from earlier sound cartoons such as Inkwell Studios' Song Car-Tunes and Van Beuren Studios' Dinner Time.
Steamboat Willie became the most popular cartoon of its day. Music for Steamboat Willie was arranged by Wilfred Jackson and Bert Lewis, included the songs "Steamboat Bill", a composition popularized by baritone Arthur Collins during the 1910s, "Turkey in the Straw," a composition popularized within minstrelsy during the 19th century; the title of the film is a parody of the Buster Keaton film Steamboat Bill, Jr. itself a reference to the song by Collins. Walt Disney performed all of the voices in the film. While the film has received some criticism, it has received wide critical acclaim, not only for introducing one of the world's most popular cartoon characters, but for its technical innovation. In 1994 members of the animation field voted Steamboat Willie 13th in the book The 50 Greatest Cartoons, which listed the greatest cartoons of all time. In 1998 the film was selected for preservation in the United States' National Film Registry for being deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant."
Mickey Mouse pilots a river sidewheeler, suggesting that he himself is the captain. He cheerfully sounds the boat's three whistles. Soon the real captain, Pete and orders Mickey off the bridge. Mickey blows a raspberry at Pete, Pete attempts to kick him but Mickey rushes away in time and Pete kicks himself in the rear accidentally. Mickey rushes down the stairs, slips on a bar of soap on the boat's deck and lands in a bucket of water. A parrot laughs at him, Mickey throws the bucket at it. Pete, watching the whole thing, pilots the steamboat himself, he spits into the wind. The spit rings the boat's bell. Amused by this Pete spits again; the steamboat makes a stop at "Podunk Landing" to pick up a cargo of various livestock. Just as they set off again, Minnie appears. Mickey does not see her in time, but she runs after the boat along the shore and Mickey takes her on board by hooking the cargo crane to her underwear. Landing on deck, Minnie accidentally drops a ukulele and some sheet music for the song "Turkey in the Straw" which are eaten by a goat.
The two mice use the goat's body as a phonograph. Mickey uses various objects on the boat as percussion accompaniment and "plays" the animals like musical instruments; this ends with them using a cow's teeth to play the song as a xylophone. Captain Pete is unamused and puts Mickey to work peeling potatoes. In the potato bin, the same parrot that laughed at him earlier appears in the port hole and laughs at him again; the mouse throws a peeled potato at him, knocking him into the river below. The film ends with Mickey laughing. According to Roy O. Disney, Walt Disney was inspired to create a sound cartoon after watching The Jazz Singer. Disney had intended for Mickey Mouse to be the new star character to replace Oswald the Lucky Rabbit after he lost the rights to the character to Charles Mintz. However, the first two Mickey Mouse films produced, silent versions of Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho, had failed to impress audiences and gain a distributor. Disney believed that adding sound to a cartoon would increase its appeal.
One theatre owner said to Walt, "Your stupid brain and your stupid mouse character can get out of my theatre."Steamboat Willie was not the first cartoon with synchronized sound. Starting in May 1924 and continuing through September 1926, Dave and Max Fleischer's Inkwell Studios produced 19 sound cartoons, part of the Song Car-Tunes series, using the Phonofilm sound-on-film process. However, the Song Car-Tunes failed to keep the sound synchronized, while Steamboat Willie was produced using a click track to keep his musicians on the beat; as little as one month before Steamboat Willie was released, Paul Terry released Dinner Time which used a soundtrack, but Dinner Time was not a financial success. In June 1927, producer Pat Powers made an unsuccessful takeover bid for Lee DeForest's Phonofilm Corporation. In the aftermath, Powers hired a former DeForest technician, William Garrity, to produce a cloned version of the Phonofilm system, which Powers dubbed "Powers Cinephone". By DeForest was in too weak a financial position to mount a legal challenge against Powers for patent infringement.
Powers convinced Disney to use Cinephone for Steamboat Willie. The production of Steamboat Willie took place bet
The Color Purple (musical)
The Color Purple is a musical with a book by Marsha Norman and music and lyrics by Brenda Russell, Allee Willis, Stephen Bray. Based on the 1982 novel of the same name by Alice Walker and its 1985 film adaptation, the show follows the journey of Celie, an African-American woman in the American South from the early to mid-20th century; the original Broadway production ran from 2005 to 2008, earning eleven Tony Award nominations in 2006. An enthusiastically acclaimed Broadway revival opened in late 2015 and ran through early 2017, winning two 2016 Tony Awards—including Best Revival of a Musical; the Color Purple was workshopped by the Alliance Theatre in Atlanta, Georgia, in the summer of 2004 following Scott Sanders' optioning the work from Alice Walker in 1999 and auditioning various creative team members. The September 9, 2004, world premiere of the musical was produced by the Alliance Theatre in Atlanta by special arrangement with Creative Battery and Scott Sanders Productions. For the Atlanta run, LaChanze starred as Celie, Felicia P.
Fields as Sofia, Saycon Sengbloh as Nettie, Adriane Lenox as Shug and Kingsley Leggs as Mister. Gary Griffin staged the work, with scenic design by John Lee Beatty, lighting by Brian MacDevitt, costumes by Paul Tazewell and sound by Jon Weston; the musical opened on Broadway at The Broadway Theatre on December 1, 2005. It was directed by Gary Griffin, produced by Scott Sanders, Quincy Jones and Oprah Winfrey, with choreography by Donald Byrd and musical direction by Linda Twine; the musical closed on February 2008, after 30 previews and 910 regular performances. The Broadway production recouped its $11 million investment within its first year on Broadway, had grossed over $103 million by the time it closed; the original Broadway production starred LaChanze as Celie, Brandon Victor Dixon as Harpo, Felicia P. Fields as Sofia, Renée Elise Goldsberry as Nettie, Kingsley Leggs as Mister, Krisha Marcano as Squeak, Elisabeth Withers-Mendes as Shug Avery; the First National tour began on April 17, 2007, starting with an extended run at the Cadillac Palace Theatre in Chicago, Illinois.
The company includes LaToya London as Nettie, Michelle Williams as Shug Avery, Felicia P. Fields as Sofia, Jeannette Bayardelle as Celie, Stephanie St. James as Squeak. Bayardelle and Fields both are reprising their roles from Broadway; the show exceeded expectations, which necessitated a four-week extension of its Chicago engagement until September 30, 2007. The original expectation was. In all, the show produced respectable business results bringing in about $1 million per week for the first half of the engagement, but less during the summer months when the ticket prices were reduced to $39.50 to keep the theater full. Chicago was notable as a starting point of the national tour because Oprah Winfrey, a 1986 Academy Awards nominee in the film adaptation is a Chicago resident. In addition, Felicia Fields is resident, it was a homecoming for Gary Griffin. Both Fields and Griffin made their broadway theatre debuts with this musical; as a result of the Chicago connections the Chicago premiere had a star-studded red carpet with Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley, Jesse Jackson, R. Kelly, Roger Ebert.
Others in attendance included Christie Hefner. Coverage of the Chicago premiere was prominent in international media. A second national tour with a new non-Equity cast opened on March 12, 2010 at the Lyric Opera House and visited numerous US cities, making several return engagements; the role of Celie was played by Detroit native Dayna Jarae Dantzler. The role of Shug Avery was played by New Orleans native Taprena Augustine. Tour stops include Omaha, Fort Lauderdale, Mobile and more. Due to an overwhelming demand, the tour returned to New Orleans where it played a 5-show limited-engagement at the Mahalia Jackson Theater for the Performing Arts from February 11–13, 2011. In August 2010, Oprah Winfrey announced the traveling company of The Color Purple would be raising funds for the relief organization SBP along with the novel's author, Alice Walker. A third national tour with a non-Equity cast opened January 17, 2012 at the Francis Marion University PAC, in Florence, South Carolina, with previews in New Haven, CT at the Schubert Theater.
The role of Celie is played by Washington, D. C. native Ashley L. Ware, Taprena Augustine has reprised her role as Shug Avery alongside Dayna Quincy taking the role of Nettie. Tour stops include Nevada, Alabama and more. A first international production, directed by John Doyle, opened in London at The Menier Chocolate Factory on July 17, 2013; the limited run ended on September 14, 2013. The cast included Nicola Hughes and Christopher Colquhoun. On January 9, 2015, producers Scott Sanders, Roy Furman, Oprah Winfrey announced that the Menier Chocolate Factory production would be mounted on Broadway. Jennifer Hudson would make her Broadway debut in the role of Shug, Danielle Brooks would play the role of Sofia, Cynthia Erivo would reprise her role as Celie. Kyle Jean-Baptiste was slated to be in it as well, but he died in August 2015. Previews began November 10, 2015, with the official opening December 10 at the Bernard B. Jacobs Theatre. Erivo won the 2016 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical, with the production taking home the 2016 Tony Award for Best Revival of a Musical.
The production closed on January 8, 2017. The first major international staging of the musical since the Broadway revival, opened in Johannesburg, South Africa on 28 January 2018; the first tr
Broadway is a road in the U. S. state of New York. Broadway runs from State Street at Bowling Green for 13 mi through the borough of Manhattan and 2 mi through the Bronx, exiting north from the city to run an additional 18 mi through the municipalities of Yonkers, Hastings-On-Hudson, Dobbs Ferry and Tarrytown, terminating north of Sleepy Hollow in Westchester County, it is the oldest north–south main thoroughfare in New York City, dating to the first New Amsterdam settlement, although most of it did not bear its current name until the late 19th century. The name Broadway is the English-language literal translation of Brede weg. Broadway in Manhattan is known as the heart of the American theatre industry, is used as a metonym for it. Broadway was the Wickquasgeck Trail, carved into the brush of Manhattan by its Native American inhabitants. Wickquasgeck means "birch-bark country" in the Algonquian language; this trail snaked through swamps and rocks along the length of Manhattan Island. Upon the arrival of the Dutch, the trail soon became the main road through the island from Nieuw Amsterdam at the southern tip.
The Dutch explorer and entrepreneur David Pietersz. de Vries gives the first mention of it in his journal for the year 1642. The Dutch named the road "Breede Weg". Although current street signs are labeled as "Broadway", in a 1776 map of New York City, Broadway is explicitly labeled "Broadway Street". In the mid-eighteenth century, part of Broadway in what is now lower Manhattan was known as Great George Street. An 1897 City Map shows a segment of Broadway as Kingsbridge Road in the vicinity of what is now the George Washington Bridge. In the 18th century, Broadway ended at the town commons north of Wall Street, where traffic continued up the East Side of the island via Eastern Post Road and the West Side via Bloomingdale Road; the western Bloomingdale Road would be widened and paved during the 19th century, called "Western Boulevard" or "The Boulevard" north of the Grand Circle, now called Columbus Circle. On February 14, 1899, the name "Broadway" was extended to the entire Broadway/Bloomingdale/Boulevard road.
Broadway once was a two-way street for its entire length. The present status, in which it runs one-way southbound south of Columbus Circle, came about in several stages. On June 6, 1954, Seventh Avenue became southbound and Eighth Avenue became northbound south of Broadway. None of Broadway became one-way, but the increased southbound traffic between Columbus Circle and Times Square caused the city to re-stripe that section of Broadway for four southbound and two northbound lanes. Broadway became one-way from Columbus Circle south to Herald Square on March 10, 1957, in conjunction with Sixth Avenue becoming one-way from Herald Square north to 59th Street and Seventh Avenue becoming one-way from 59th Street south to Times Square. On June 3, 1962, Broadway became one-way south of Canal Street, with Trinity Place and Church Street carrying northbound traffic. Another change was made on November 10, 1963, when Broadway became one-way southbound from Herald Square to Madison Square and Union Square to Canal Street, two routes – Sixth Avenue south of Herald Square and Centre Street, Lafayette Street, Fourth Avenue south of Union Square – became one-way northbound.
At the same time as Madison Avenue became one-way northbound and Fifth Avenue became one-way southbound, Broadway was made one-way southbound between Madison Square and Union Square on January 14, 1966, completing its conversion south of Columbus Circle. In 2001, a one-block section of Broadway between 72nd Street and 73rd Street at Verdi Square was reconfigured, its easternmost lanes, which hosted northbound traffic, were turned into a public park when a new subway entrance for the 72nd Street station was built in the exact location of these lanes. Northbound traffic on Broadway is now channeled onto Amsterdam Avenue to 73rd Street, makes a left turn on the three-lane 73rd Street, a right turn on Broadway shortly afterward. In August 2008, two traffic lanes from 42nd to 35th Streets were taken out of service and converted to public plazas. Additionally, bike lanes were added on Broadway from 42nd Street down to Union Square. Since May 2009, the portions of Broadway through Duffy Square, Times Square, Herald Square have been closed to automobile traffic, except for cross traffic on the Streets and Avenues, as part of a traffic and pedestrianization experiment, with the pavement reserved for walkers and those lounging in temporary seating placed by the city.
The city decided that the experiment was successful and decided to make the change permanent in February 2010. Though the anticipated benefits to traffic flow were not as large as hoped, pedestrian injuries dropped and foot traffic increased in the designated areas; the current portions converted into pedestrian plazas are between West 47th Street and West 42nd Street within Times and Duffy Squares, between West 35th Street and West 33rd Street in the Herald Square area. Additionally, portions of Broadway in the Madison Square and Union Square have been narrowed, allowing ample pedestrian plazas to exist along the side of the road. In May 2013, the NYCDOT decided to redesign Broadway between 35th and 42nd Streets for the second time in five years, owing to poor connections between pedestrian plazas and decreased vehicular traffic. With the new redesign, the bike lane is now on the right side of the street.