Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar. Rows of bricks—called courses— are laid on top of one another to build up a structure such as a brick wall. Bricks may be differentiated from blocks by size. For example, in the UK a brick is defined as a unit having dimensions less than 337.5x225x112.5mm and a block is defined as a unit having one or more dimensions greater than the largest possible brick. Brick is a popular medium for constructing buildings, examples of brickwork are found through history as far back as the Bronze Age; the fired-brick faces of the ziggurat of ancient Dur-Kurigalzu in Iraq date from around 1400 BC, the brick buildings of ancient Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan were built around 2600 BC. Much older examples of brickwork made with dried bricks may be found in such ancient locations as Jericho in Judea, Çatal Hüyük in Anatolia, Mehrgarh in Pakistan; these structures have survived from the Stone Age to the present day. Brick dimensions are expressed in construction or technical documents in two ways as co-ordinating dimensions and working dimensions.
Coordination dimensions are the actual physical dimensions of the brick with the mortar required on one header face, one stretcher face and one bed. Working dimensions is the size of a manufactured brick, it is called the nominal size of a brick. Brick size may be different due to shrinkage or distortion due to firing etc. An example of a co-ordinating metric used for bricks in the UK is as follows: Bricks of dimensions 215 mm × 102.5 mm × 65 mm. In this case the co-ordinating metric works because the length of a single brick is equal to the total of the width of a brick plus a perpend plus the width of a second brick. There are many other brick sizes worldwide, many of them use this same co-ordinating principle; as the most common bricks are cuboids, six surfaces are named as followed: Top and bottom surfaces are called Beds Ends or narrow surfaces are called Headers or header faces Sides or wider surfaces are called Stretchers or stretcher faces Mortar placed between bricks is given separate names with respect to their position.
Mortar placed horizontally below or top of a brick is called a bed, mortar Placed vertically between bricks is called a perpend. A brick made with just rectilinear dimensions is called a solid brick. Bricks might have a depression on a single bed; the depression is called a frog, the bricks are known as frogged bricks. Frogs should never exceed 20 % of the total volume of the brick. Cellular bricks have depressions exceeding 20% of the volume of the brick. Perforated bricks have holes through the brick from bed to bed. Most of the building standards and good construction practices recommend the volume of holes should not exceeding 20% of the total volume of the brick. Parts of brickwork include bricks and perpends; the bed is the mortar upon. A perpend is a vertical joint between any two bricks and is usually—but not always—filled with mortar. A brick is given a classification based on how it is laid, how the exposed face is oriented relative to the face of the finished wall. Stretcher or stretching brick A brick laid flat with its long narrow side exposed.
Header or heading brick A brick laid flat with its width exposed. Soldier A brick laid vertically with its long narrow side exposed. Sailor A brick laid vertically with the broad face of the brick exposed. Rowlock A brick laid on the long narrow side with the short end of the brick exposed. Shiner or rowlock stretcher A brick laid on the long narrow side with the broad face of the brick exposed; the practice of laying uncut full-sized bricks wherever possible gives brickwork its maximum possible strength. In the diagrams below, such uncut full-sized bricks are coloured as follows: Stretcher HeaderOccasionally though a brick must be cut to fit a given space, or to be the right shape for fulfilling some particular purpose such as generating an offset—called a lap—at the beginning of a course. In some cases these special shapes or sizes are manufactured. In the diagrams below, some of the cuts most used for generating a lap are coloured as follows: Three-quarter bat, stretching A brick cut to three-quarters of its length, laid flat with its long, narrow side exposed.
Three-quarter bat, heading A brick cut to three-quarters of its length, laid flat with its short side exposed. Half bat A brick cut in half across its length, laid flat. Queen closer A brick cut in half down its width, laid with its smallest face exposed and standing vertically. A queen closer is used for the purpose of creating a lap. Less used cuts are all coloured as follows: Quarter bat A brick cut to a quarter of its length. Three-quarter queen closer A queen closer cut to three-quarters of its length. King closer A brick with one corner cut away. A nearly universal rule in brickwork is. Walls, extending upwards, can be of varying depth or thickness; the bricks are laid running linearly and extending upwards, forming wythes or leafs. It is as important; the dominant method for consolidating the leaves together was to lay bricks across them, rather than running linearly. Brickwork observing either or both of these two conventions is described as being laid in one or another bond. A leaf is as thick as the width of one brick, but a wall is said to be one brick thick if it as wide as the length of a brick.
Accordingly, a single-leaf wall
An overpass is a bridge, railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway. An overpass and underpass together form a grade separation. Stack interchanges are made up of many overpasses; the world's first railroad flyover was constructed in 1843 by the London and Croydon Railway at Norwood Junction railway station to carry its atmospheric railway vehicles over the Brighton Main Line. The first flyover in India was opened on 14 April 1965 at Kemps Corner in Mumbai; the 48-foot-long bridge was constructed in about seven months by Shirish Patel at a cost of ₹17.5 lakh. In North American usage, a flyover is a high-level overpass, built above main overpass lanes, or a bridge built over what had been an at-grade intersection. Traffic engineers refer to the latter as a grade separation. A flyover may be an extra ramp added to an existing interchange, either replacing an existing cloverleaf loop with a higher, faster ramp that bears left, but may be built as a right or left exit. A cloverleaf or partial cloverleaf contains some 270 degree loops, which can slow traffic and can be difficult to construct with multiple lanes.
Where all such turns are replaced with flyovers only 90 degree turns are needed, there may be four or more distinct levels of traffic. Depending upon design, traffic may flow in all directions near open road speeds. For more examples see Freeway interchange. A pedestrian overpass allows pedestrians safe crossing over busy roads without impacting traffic. Railway overpasses are used to replace level crossings as a safer alternative. Using overpasses allows for unobstructed rail traffic to flow without conflicting with vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Rapid transit systems use complete grade separation of their rights of way to avoid traffic interference with frequent and reliable service. Railroads use balloon loops and flying junctions instead of flat junctions, as a way to reverse direction and to avoid trains conflicting with those on other tracks. Footbridge Skyway Stack interchange Viaduct Wildlife crossing Overpass at Encyclopædia Britannica
U.S. Route 101 in California
U. S. Route 101 in the state of California is one of the last remaining and longest U. S. Routes still active in the state, the longest highway of any kind in California. US 101 was one of the original national routes established in 1926. Significant portions of US 101 between the Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area follow El Camino Real, the historic road connecting the former Alta California's 21 missions. Although the highway has been superseded in overall importance for transportation through the state by Interstate 5, US 101 continues to be the major coastal north–south route that links the Greater Los Angeles Area, the Central Coast, the San Francisco Bay Area, the North Coast. Referred to as "101" by residents of Northern California, in Southern California it is called "The 101"; the highway has portions designated as the Santa Ana Freeway, the Hollywood Freeway, the Ventura Freeway, South Valley Freeway, Bayshore Freeway. The Redwood Highway, the 350-mile-long northernmost segment of the highway, begins at the Golden Gate and passes through the world's tallest and only extensive preserves of virgin, old-growth coast redwood trees.
US 101 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. The south terminus of US 101 is in Los Angeles, about one mile east of downtown Los Angeles at the East Los Angeles Interchange known as the "Commuters' Complex"; this southernmost portion is named the Santa Ana Freeway, inheriting that title as the northerly extension of the roadway now known as I-5. After merging with westbound traffic from the San Bernardino Freeway, US 101 proceeds northwest via the Downtown Slot under the northern edge of Los Angeles' Civic Center to State Route 110 at the Four Level Interchange. From here, US 101 becomes the Hollywood Freeway, it heads to Hollywood and up through the Cahuenga Pass before reaching the San Fernando Valley. US 101 intersects with SR 134 and SR 170 at the interchange known as the Hollywood Split. Here, the alignment of US 101 shifts to the alignment of SR 134 and thereafter is referred to as the Ventura Freeway until it reaches Ventura.
Though confusing, the "Hollywood Freeway" name continues northward from this interchange on SR 170, the "Ventura Freeway" name continues eastward to SR 134. From the Hollywood Split, US 101 is an east–west highway, it meets with I-405 in Sherman Oaks, an interchange which holds claim to the most traveled intersection in the nation. The east–west geographical alignment of the Ventura Freeway and the north–south designation which appears on the freeway signs can be confusing to visitors. After the Conejo Grade, a 7% grade incline, the freeway enters the Oxnard Plain and runs concurrent with SR 1 for the first time. Upon reaching Ventura, there is an interchange with SR 126. North of Santa Barbara, US 101 switches intermittently between freeway and expressway status, but there are no traffic signals until San Francisco; the last traffic signals along this stretch of the route were removed in 1991 when the section through downtown Santa Barbara was constructed to freeway standards after years of disagreement over the impact that the original elevated design would have on the community.
From Ventura and through Santa Barbara, US 101 follows the Pacific coastline until Gaviota State Park, about 23 miles west of Goleta. At Gaviota State Park, the highway shifts back from an east–west highway to a north–south alignment. About one mile north of this point, US 101 passes through the Gaviota Tunnel. A few miles north of the Gaviota Tunnel, SR 1 splits from US 101 and heads northwest, running along the Pacific coastline parallel and to the west of US 101. US 101 passes through Buellton, Los Alamos, Santa Maria, Nipomo. South of Santa Maria, US 101 widens from a four-lane highway to a six-lane freeway. SR 166 joins US 101 for about 3 miles before splitting just north of the city limits, while US 101 continues as a four-lane freeway before reverting to expressway status north of Nipomo. Farther north, SR 1 rejoins US 101 between San Luis Obispo. US 101 takes an inland route through the Salinas Valley, while Highway 1 heads northwest, running along the Pacific coastline in California, parallel and to the west of US 101.
A steep segment between San Luis Obispo and Atascadero is known as the Cuesta Grade. North of Atascadero, the highway joins SR 46 for about three miles through Paso Robles. From Paso Robles to Salinas, US 101 is an expressway known as the Salinas River Valley Highway, since the Salinas River Valley extends from Santa Margarita to the SR 156 junction in Prunedale. US 101 resumes freeway status between San Miguel and King City, passing through the smaller towns of Camp Roberts and San Ardo, as well as the San Ardo Oil Field about five miles south of San Ardo. Near this point, the wide agricultural bottomlands of the Salinas Valley begins. North of King City, US 101 once again switches intermittently between freeway and
Historic Core, Los Angeles
The Historic Core is a neighborhood in Downtown Los Angeles between Hill Street on the West, Los Angeles Street on the East, Third Street on the North, Olympic Boulevard on the South. It overlaps with Skid Row on its eastern end; the Historic Core was the center of the city before World War II. With the general decline of downtown after World War II, the movement of all financial institutions several blocks to the west, ending up on Figueroa Street, Flower Street, Grand Avenue, the area suffered. In the 1950s it became the center of Latino entertainment in the city, e.g.: the Million Dollar Theatre featured the biggest names in the Spanish language entertainment world. This paralleled the general white flight occurring in Downtown Los Angeles at the time, which saw Broadway become a major center for Latino life in the city. Although prostitution and drug dealing had occurred in the area as far back as the early 1920s, they became epidemic in the 1960s; the area's movie palaces, built between 1911 and 1931, became grindhouses.
The last of them closed in the 1990s. Most of the older buildings have stores; the developing street gang problem in Los Angeles which began to worsen at the end of the 1960s and got worse in the late 1970s hurt traditional commercial activity in the area, as it did much of downtown. While the LAPD indicates that the area is a sort of neutral zone, which has not been claimed by any single gang and random gang violence is rare, the area remains one of the major areas for street drug sales in Los Angeles. In 1999, the Los Angeles City Council passed an Adaptive Re-Use Ordinance, allowing for the conversion of old, unused office buildings to apartments or "lofts." Developer Tom Gilmore purchased a series of century-old buildings and converted them into lofts near Main and Spring streets, a development now known as the "Old Bank District." Other notable redevelopment projects in the Historic Core have included the Eastern Columbia Building, Broadway Trade Center, Higgins Building, The Security Building, the Pacific Electric Building, The Judson, the Subway Terminal Building.
As of 2005, redevelopment projects in downtown Los Angeles have been divided about evenly between rentals and condominiums. The Eastern Columbia Building is considered the greatest surviving example of Art Deco architecture in the city. Gentrification Urban renewal Historic Core Business Improvement District
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were