Aston Martin DB9
The Aston Martin DB9 is a British grand tourer first shown by Aston Martin at the 2003 Frankfurt Auto Show. Available both in coupé and a convertible bodystyles, the latter being known as the Volante, the DB9 was the successor of the DB7, it was the first model built at Aston Martin's Gaydon facility. The DB9 was designed by Henrik Fisker, has an aluminium construction; the chassis is the Ford developed VH platform whilst the engine is the 5.9-litre V12 from the Vanquish. The 2013 model year facelift saw many improvements to the design, the engine and the overall driving experience; the DB9 is rated well by car critics, who appreciate the car's exterior design. In spite of comments regarding the DB9's poor handling, reviewers liked the car's ride and driving experience; some held issue with the DB9's small rear seats, cargo space and poor satnav. Aston Martin Racing adapted the DB9 for sports car racing, producing the DBR9 for FIA GT1 and the DBRS9 for FIA GT3; these two cars are modified DB9 models adapted for motorsport.
Additionally, the engine has been tweaked in both the cars to produce torque. Production of the DB9 ended after 12 years in 2016, having been replaced by the DB11 which uses an all-new platform and engine; the DB9 was designed by Henrik Fisker, was first introduced at the 2003 Frankfurt Motor Show. The letters "DB" are the initials of David Brown, the owner of Aston Martin for a significant part of its history. Although it succeeded the DB7, Aston Martin did not name the car DB8 due to fears that the name would suggest that the car was equipped with a V8 engine, it was reported that Aston Martin believed that naming the car "DB8" would indicate a gradual evolution and misrepresent the car. The DB9 is the first model to be built at Aston Martin's Gaydon facility in England. In a 2007 interview, the Aston Martin CEO Dr. Ulrich Bez stated that, though Aston Martin was traditionally a maker of more exclusive automobiles, he believed Aston Martin needed to be more visible and build more cars. At launch, Aston Martin planned to build between 1,500 cars per year.
In 2007, the DB9 was revised with upgraded electrical components which helped reliability, new front seat design, LED approach lights on the door handles and lowered suspension. The DB9 Volante no longer had a 266 km/h top-speed limiter, allowing it to attain an unrestricted top speed of 299 km/h should conditions allow; the DB9 received a facelift in July 2008. This facelift was the increase in engine power and torque, to 477 PS and 600 N⋅m, a redesigned centre console. Externally, the DB9 remained unchanged; the 2013 model year's new facelift design that resembled the 2011 Virage, as well as increased engine power of up to 517 PS and 620 N⋅m of torque. The DB9's interior has a walnut wood trim. In newer editions, the leather joins. On the dashboard and Bluetooth are standard in models. Models offered a Dolby Prologic sound system can be connected to satellite radio, a six-CD changer, an iPod connector, a USB connector, or an auxiliary input jack; this sound system can be upgraded to a Olufsen stereo.
The coupé comes standard with rear seats. A seating package, which removes the back seats and replaces the front seats with lighter seats made of Kevlar and carbon fibre; the boot capacity is 187 L in the coupé or 136 L in the Volante. Made to follow the DB7 model, the DB9 is, according to Aston's initial press release, "a contemporary version of classic DB design elements and characteristics", it retains the traditional Aston Martin grille and side strakes, the design attempts to keep the lines simple and refined. The boot of the car is pronounced, like that of the DB4 and DB5. At the front, DB9 is without a separate nose cone, has no visible bumpers; the exterior skin is made of aluminium, though the front bumpers and bonnet are made of composite materials. For the 2013 model year, Aston Martin made minor changes to the bodywork by adapting designs from the 2011 Virage, including enlarging the recessed headlight clusters with bi-xenon lights and LED daytime running strips, widening the front splitter, updating the grille and side heat extractors, updating the LED rear lights with clear lenses and integrating a new rear spoiler with the boot lid.
The Aston Martin DB9 was launched equipped with a 5.9-litre V12 engine being used in the V12 Vanquish. The generates 570 N⋅m of torque at 5,000 rpm and a maximum power of 456 PS at 6,000 rpm; the DB9 has a top speed of 299 km/h. The engine sits behind the front-axle line to improve weight distribution; the 2009 model year DB9 had an increase of engine power and torque, as the V12 now has a power output of 477 PS and 600 N⋅m of torque, resulting in a power to weight ratio of 271 PS per tonne, an increase of 11 PS per tonne over the previous model. The top speed increased to 306 km/h and the 0 to 97 km/h acceleration time improved by 0.1 seconds to 4.6 seconds for the manual version of the car. Changes to the engine for the 2013 model year DB9 increased the power output to 517 PS and torque to 620 N⋅m; the car's 0 to 97 km/h acceleration time decreased to 4.5 seconds and the top speed stood at 295 km/h. The DB9 can be equipped with either a six-speed convention
12 Hours of Sebring
The 12 Hours of Sebring is an annual motorsport endurance race for sports cars held at Sebring International Raceway, on the site of the former Hendricks Army Airfield World War II air base in Sebring, Florida. The event is the second round of the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship and in the past has been a round of the now defunct World Sportscar Championship, IMSA GT Championship and American Le Mans Series. In 2012, the race was the opening event of the FIA World Endurance Championship; the track opened in 1950 on an airfield and is a road racing course styled after those used in European Grand Prix motor racing. The first race was a six-hour race on New Year's Eve 1950, with the next race held 14 months as the first 12 Hours of Sebring; the race is famous for its "once around the clock" action, starting during the day and finishing at night. From 1953 to 1972 the 12 Hour was a round of the FIA’s premier sports car series, contested under various names including the World Sportscar Championship and the International Championship for Makes.
In its early years, the Sebring circuit combined former airport runways with narrow two-lane service roads. The 1966 event was a turning point in Sebring history, as the facilities and the safety of the circuit were criticized. Five people were killed during the race, more people killed than in the race's prior 15-year history combined. Bob McLean crashed. In another incident Mario Andretti in his Ferrari 365 P2 tangled with Don Wester's Porsche 906 on the Warehouse Straight near the Webster Turns, killing four spectators and crashing into a warehouse next to the track. Subsequent to these events, the facilities were upgraded and the circuit layout was changed, including eliminating the Webster Turns and creating the Green Park Chicane further down the track to move the straight further away from the airport warehouses; the circuit was made safer and there were no fatalities until 1980. It is known as preparation for the 24 Hours of Le Mans, as the track's bumpy surface, combined with south-central Florida's perennial hot weather, is a test of a car's reliability.
In recent years, six overall victories have been achieved by the Audi R8, one fewer than the record seven wins of the Porsche 935. Tom Kristensen has won the race more times than anyone else, with six victories—in 1999–2000, 2005–2006, 2009 and in 2012; the 1966 race had Dan Gurney leading at the last lap, when his engine of his Shelby American Ford GT40 Mk II seized near the end. Gurney pushed his car over the finish line, beaten only by Lloyd Ruby. However, his actions were determined to be against the rules and he did not receive credit for his finish. In 2005, the Chevrolet Corvette C6. R and Aston Martin DBR9 made their race debut in the hotly contested GT1 class, with Aston Martin winning its class for the first time in 49 years at Sebring ahead of the two Corvettes. Corvette had dominated the class the past three years with its previous generation C5R; the all-new Audi R10 TDI won the 2006 edition of the race, the car's first run in competition. The much-hyped Porsche RS Spyder campaigned by Penske Racing dropped to take 2nd place in its LMP2 class, behind the Intersport Lola car.
The GT1 Corvette C6R team got their revenge against the Aston Martin, although the second Corvette came within 1/3 of a second of the podium in the closing laps of the race. 2007 saw Audi again winning in the R10 TDI despite requiring more frequent refueling due to changes in American Le Mans series rules intended to the field between gasoline and diesel-powered engines. ^A The car was in fact, a Porsche 935 K3, modified with a single plug cylinder head and a front nose to resemble a Porsche 934 to comply to IMSA GTO specification. ^B These races were stopped for a period of time due to heavy rain and/or accidents. The race clock was not counted towards the 12 Hours. ^C Race record for most distance covered. ^D Technically the race "winner" in 1950 was the Crosley Hot Shot of Fritz Koster / Ralph Deshon, entered by Victor Sharpe Jr. of Tampa. While the Wacker / Burrell Allard did cover more distance, the race was run under the "Index of Performance" handicapping rules and the Crosley, with a much smaller engine than the Cadillac-powered Allard, is listed in the Official Sebring Record Book as the winner.
Official Homepage United SportsCar Championship official site
A replica is an exact reproduction, such as of a painting, as it was executed by the original artist or a copy or reproduction one on a scale smaller than the original. A replica is a copying resembling the original concerning its shape and appearance. An inverted replica complements the original by filling its gaps, it can be a copy used for historical purposes, such as being placed in a museum. Sometimes the original never existed. Replicas and reproductions can be related to any form of licensing an image for others to use, whether it is through photos, prints, miniature or full size copies they represent a resemblance of the original object. "Not all incorrectly attributed. In the same way that a museum shop might sell a print of a painting or a replica of a vase, copies of statues and other precious artifacts have been popular through the ages. However, replicas have been used illegally for forgery and counterfeits of money and coins, but commercial merchandise such as designer label clothing, luxury bags and accessories, luxury watches.
In arts or collectible automobiles, the term "replica" is used for discussing the non-original recreation, sometimes hiding its real identity. In motor racing motorcycling manufacturers will produce a street version product with the colours of the vehicle or clothing of a famous racer; this is not the actual vehicle or clothing worn during the race by the racer, but a officially approved brand-new street-legal product in similar looks. Found in helmets, race suits/clothing, motorcycles, they are coloured in the style of racers, carry the highest performance and safety specifications of any street-legal products; these high-performance race-look products termed "Replica", are priced higher and are more sought-after than plain colours of the same product. Because of gun ownership restrictions in some locales, gun collectors create non-functional legal replicas of illegal firearms; such replicas are preferred to real firearms when used as a prop in a film or stage performance for safety reasons.
A prop replica is an authentic-looking duplicate of a prop from a video game, movie or television show. "Replicas represent a copy or forgery of another object and we think of forgeries we think of paintings but, in fact, anything, collectible and expensive is an attractive item to forge". Replicas have been made by people to preserve a perceived link to the past; this can be linked to a historical past or specific time-period or just to commemorate an experience. Replicas and reproductions of artifacts help provide a material representation of the past for the public. Replicas of artifacts and art have a purpose within museums and research, they are created to help with preserving of original artifacts. In many cases the original artifact may be too frail and be to much at risk of further damage on display posing a risk to the artifact from light damage, environmental agents, other risks greater than in secure storage. Replicas are created for the purpose of experimental archaeology where archaeologists and material analysts try to understand the ways that an artifact was created and what technologies and skills were needed for the people to create the artifact on display.
Another reason for the creation of replica artifacts, is for museums to be able to send originals around the globe or allow other museums or events to educate people on the history of specific artifacts. Replicas are put on display in museums when further research is being conducted on the artifact, but further display of the artifact in real or replica form is important for public access and knowledge. Replicas and their original representation can be seen as real depending on the viewer. Good replicas take much education related to understanding all the processes and history that go behind the culture and the original creation. To create a good and authentic replica of an object, there is to be a skilled artisan or forger to create the same authentic experience that the original object provides; this process takes time and much money to be done for museum standards. Authenticity or real feeling presented by an object can be “described as the experience of an ‘aura’ of an original.” An aura of an object is what an object represents through its previous experience.
Replicas work well in museum settings because they have the ability to look so real and accurate that people can feel the authentic feelings that they are supposed to get from the originals. Through the context and experience that a replica can provide in a museum setting, people can be fooled into seeing it as ‘original’; the authenticity of a replica is important for the impression it gives off to observers. “According to Trilling, the original use of authenticity in tourism was in museums where experts wanted to determine'whether objects of art are what they appear to be or are claimed to be, therefore worth the price, asked for them or…. Worth the admiration they are being given'.”These reproductions and the values of authenticity presented to the public through artifacts in museums provide “truth”. However, authenticity has a way of being represented in what the public expects in a predictable manner or based on stereotypes within museums; this idea of authenticity relates to cultural artifacts like food, cultural activities, festivals and dress that helps to homogenize the cultures that are being represented and make them seem static.
For luxury goods, the same authentic feel has to be present for consumers to want to buy a “fake” designer bag or watch that provides them with the same feelings and desired experiences, but as well achieves the look of higher class. Rep
A sports car, or sportscar, is a small two-seater automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. The term "sports car" was used in The Times, London in 1919. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, USA's first known use of the term was in 1928. Sports cars started to become popular during the 1920s. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious. Sports cars are aerodynamically shaped, have a lower center of gravity than standard models. Steering and suspension are designed for precise control at high speeds. Traditionally sports cars were open roadsters, but closed coupés started to become popular during the 1930s, the distinction between a sports car and a grand tourer is not absolute. Attributing the definition of'sports car' to any particular model can be controversial or the subject of debate among enthusiasts. Authors and experts have contributed their own ideas to capture a definition. A car may be a sporting automobile without being a sports car. Performance modifications of regular, production cars, such as sport compacts, sports sedans, muscle cars, pony cars and hot hatches are not considered sports cars, yet share traits common to sports cars.
Certain models can "appeal to both muscle car and sports car enthusiasts, two camps that acknowledged each other's existences." Some models are called "sports cars" for marketing purposes to take advantage of greater marketplace acceptance and for promotional purposes. High-performance cars of various configurations are grouped as Sports and Grand tourer cars or just as performance cars; the drivetrain and engine layout influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to sports cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, the Chevrolet Corvette. More many such sports cars have a front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used; the rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, powers only the rear wheels.
Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout. Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-wheel-drive layout; the motor's distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, but the significant mass behind the rear wheels makes it more prone to oversteer in some situations. Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic stability control to counteract these inherent design shortcomings; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout, the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, modern production cars in general, is not used for sports cars. This layout is advantageous for small, lower power sports cars, as it avoids the extra weight, increased transmission power loss, packaging problems of a long driveshaft and longitudinal engine of FR vehicles. However, its conservative handling effect understeer, the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it.
The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, Berkeley cars are sports cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had traditionally added a lot of weight. With its improvement in traction in adverse weather conditions, four-wheel drive is no longer uncommon in high-powered sports cars, e.g. Porsche and the Bugatti Veyron. Traditional sports cars were two-seat roadsters. Although the first sports cars were derived from fast tourers, early sporting regulations demanded four seats, two seats became common from about the mid-1920s. Modern sports cars may have small back seats that are really only suitable for luggage or small children. Over the years, some manufacturers of sports cars have sought to increase the practicality of their vehicles by increasing the seating room. One method is to place the driver's seat in the center of the car, which allows two full-sized passenger seats on each side and behind the driver; the arrangement was considered for the Lamborghini Miura, but abandoned as impractical because of the difficulty for the driver to enter/exit the vehicle.
McLaren used the design in their F1. Another British manufacturer, TVR, took a different approach in their Cerbera model; the interior was designed in such a way that the dashboard on the passenger side swept toward the front of the car, which allowed the passenger to sit farther forward than the driver. This gave the rear seat passenger extra room and made the arrangement suitable for three adult passengers and one child seated behind the driver; some Matra sports cars had three seats squeezed next to each other. The definition of a sports car is not precise, but from the earliest first automobiles "people have found ways to make them go faster, round corners better, look more beautiful" than the ordinary models inspiring an "emotional relationship" with a car, fun to drive and use for the sake of driving; the basis for the sports car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars a
A gear train is a mechanical system formed by mounting gears on a frame so the teeth of the gears engage. Gear teeth are designed to ensure the pitch circles of engaging gears roll on each other without slipping, providing a smooth transmission of rotation from one gear to the next; the transmission of rotation between contacting toothed wheels can be traced back to the Antikythera mechanism of Greece and the south-pointing chariot of China. Illustrations by the Renaissance scientist Georgius Agricola show gear trains with cylindrical teeth; the implementation of the involute tooth yielded a standard gear design that provides a constant speed ratio. Features of gears and gear trains include: The ratio of the pitch circles of mating gears defines the speed ratio and the mechanical advantage of the gear set. A planetary gear train provides high gear reduction in a compact package, it is possible to design gear teeth for gears that are non-circular, yet still transmit torque smoothly. The speed ratios of chain and belt drives are computed in the same way as gear ratios.
See bicycle gearing. Gear teeth are designed so the number of teeth on a gear is proportional to the radius of its pitch circle, so the pitch circles of meshing gears roll on each other without slipping; the speed ratio for a pair of meshing gears can be computed from ratio of the radii of the pitch circles and the ratio of the number of teeth on each gear. The velocity v of the point of contact on the pitch circles is the same on both gears, is given by v = r A ω A = r B ω B, where input gear A with radius rA and angular velocity ωA meshes with output gear B with radius rB and angular velocity ωB. Therefore, ω A ω B = r B r A = N B N A. where NA is the number of teeth on the input gear and NB is the number of teeth on the output gear. The mechanical advantage of a pair of meshing gears for which the input gear has NA teeth and the output gear has NB teeth is given by M A = N B N A; this shows that if the output gear GB has more teeth than the input gear GA the gear train amplifies the input torque.
And, if the output gear has fewer teeth than the input gear the gear train reduces the input torque. If the output gear of a gear train rotates more than the input gear the gear train is called a speed reducer. In this case, because the output gear must have more teeth than the input gear, the speed reducer amplifies the input torque. For this analysis, we consider a gear train that has one degree-of-freedom, which means the angular rotation of all the gears in the gear train are defined by the angle of the input gear; the size of the gears and the sequence in which they engage define the ratio of the angular velocity ωA of the input gear to the angular velocity ωB of the output gear, known as the speed ratio, or gear ratio, of the gear train. Let R be the speed ratio ω A ω B = R; the input torque TA acting on the input gear GA is transformed by the gear train into the output torque TB exerted by the output gear GB. If we assume the gears are rigid and there are no losses in the engagement of the gear teeth the principle of virtual work can be used to analyze the static equilibrium of the gear train.
Let the angle θ of the input gear be the generalized coordinate of the gear train the speed ratio R of the gear train defines the angular velocity of the output gear in terms of the input gear: ω A = ω, ω B = ω / R. The formula for the generalized force obtained from the principle of virtual work with applied torques yields: F θ = T A ∂ ω A ∂ ω − T B ∂ ω B ∂ ω = T A − T B / R = 0; the mechanical advantage of the gear train is the ratio of the output torque TB to the input torque TA, the above equation yields: M A = T B T A = R. The speed ratio of a gear train defines its mechanical advantage; this shows that if the input gear rotates faster than the output gear the gear train amplifies the input torque. And if the input gear rotates slower than the output gear, the gear train reduces the input torque; the simplest example of a gear train has two gears. The "input gear" transmits power to the "output gear"; the input gear will be connected to a power source, such as a motor or engine. In such a
A grand tourer is a car, designed for high speed and long-distance driving, due to a combination of performance and luxury attributes. The most common format is a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement; the term derives from the Italian language phrase gran turismo which became popular in the English language from the 1950s, evolving from fast touring cars and streamlined closed sports cars during the 1930s. The grand touring car concept originated in Europe in the early 1950s with the 1951 introduction of the Lancia Aurelia B20 GT, features notable luminaries of Italian automotive history such as Vittorio Jano, Enzo Ferrari and Johnny Lurani. Motorsports became important in the evolution of the grand touring concept, grand touring entries are important in endurance sports-car racing; the grand touring definition implies material differences in performance, speed and amenities between elite automobiles and those of ordinary motorists. In the post-war United States, manufacturers were less inclined to adopt the "ethos of the GT car", preferring to build automobiles "suited to their long, smooth roads and labor-saving lifestyles" with wide availability of powerful straight-six and V8 engines in all price-ranges of automobile.
Despite this, the United States, enjoying early post-war economic expansion, became the largest market for European grand-touring cars, supplying transportation for movie stars and the jet set. Classic grand-touring cars from the post-war era have since become valuable automobiles among wealthy collectors. Within ten years, grand touring cars found success penetrating the new American personal luxury car market; the terms "grand tourer", "grand turismo", "grande routière", "GT" are among the most misused terms in motoring. The grand touring designation "means motoring at speed, in style and comfort." "Purists define "gran turismo" as the enjoyment and comfort of open-road touring."According to one author, "the ideal is of a car with the ability to cross a continent at speed and in comfort yet provide driving thrills when demanded" and it should exhibit the following: The engines "should be able to cope with cruising comfortably at the upper limits on all continental roads without drawbacks or loss of usable power."
"Ideally, the GT car should have been devised by its progenitors as a Grand Tourer, with all associated considerations in mind." "It should be able to transport at least two in comfort with their luggage and have room to spare — in the form of a two plus two seating arrangement." The design, both "inside and out, should be geared toward complete control by the driver." Its "chassis and suspension provide suitable roadholding on all routes" during travels. Grand tourers emphasize comfort and handling over straight-out high performance or ascetic, spartan accommodations. In comparison, sports cars are more "crude" compared to "sophisticated Grand Touring machinery." However, the popularity of using GT for marketing purposes has meant that it has become a "much misused term signifying no more than a tuned version of a family car with trendy wheels and a go-faster stripe on the side."Historically, most GTs have been front-engined with rear-wheel drive, which creates more space for the cabin than mid-mounted engine layouts.
Softer suspensions, greater storage, more luxurious appointments add to their driving appeal. The GT abbreviation— and variations thereof— are used as model names. However, some cars with GT in the model name are not Grand Touring cars. Among the many variations of GT are: GTA: "Gran Turismo Alleggerita"- the Italian word for lightweight. "GTAm" indicates a modified version. GTA is sometimes used for automatic transmission models. GTB: "Gran Turismo Berlinetta" GTC: Various uses including "Gran Turismo Compressore" for supercharged engines, "Gran Turismo Cabriolet, "Gran Turismo Compact", "Gran Turismo Crossover" and "Gran Turismo Corsa"- the Italian word for "racing". GTD: Gran Turismo Diesel GT/E:"Gran Turismo Einspritzung"- the German word for fuel injection GTE: "Grand Touring Estate" GTi or GTI: "Grand Touring Injection used for hot hatches following the introduction of the Volkswagen Golf GTi GTO: "Gran Turismo Omologata"- the Italian word for homologation GTR or GT-R: "Gran Turismo Racing" GTS: sometimes "Gran Turismo Spider" for convertible models.
However, GTS has been used for sedans and other body styles. GT-T: "Gran Turismo Turbo" GTV: Gran Turismo Veloce"- the Italian word for "fast" GTX: "Grand Tourisme Xtreme" HGT: "High Gran Turismo" Several past and present motor racing series have used "GT" in their name; these include: LM GTE 1999-present: A set of regulations for modified road cars, used for the 24 Hours of Le Mans race and several related racing series. LM GTE was called'GT class' and was known as GT2 class from 2005-2010. FIA GT Series 2013-present: A racing series for Group GT3 cars; the FIA GT Series replaced the FIA GT1 World Championship. GT4 European Series 2007-present: A European amateur racing series with the least powerful class of GT cars. IMSA GT3 Cup Challenge 2005-present: A North American racing series for Porsche 911 GT3 Cup cars. FIA GT3 European Championship 2006-2012: A European amateur racing series for Group GT3 cars. There have been several classes of racing cars called GT; the Group GT3 regulations for modified road cars have been used for various racing series worldwide since 2006.
The Porsche 911 is a two-door, 2+2 high performance rear-engined sports car made since 1963 by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany. It has all round independent suspension, it has undergone continuous development. The engines were air-cooled until the introduction of the Type 996 in 1998, with the 993, produced from 1994–1998 model years, being the last of the air-cooled Porsche sports cars; the 911 has been modified by private teams and by the factory itself for racing and other forms of automotive competition. It is among the most successful competition cars. In the mid-1970s aspirated the 911 Carrera RSR won major world championship sports car races, such as Targa Florio and 24 Hours of Daytona against prototypes; the 911-derived 935 turbo won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1979 and Porsche won World Championship for Makes titles in 1976, 1977, 1978 and 1979 with 911-derived models. In the 1999 international poll to determine the Car of the Century, the 911 came fifth, it is one of two in the top five that had remained continuously in production, was until 1998 a successful surviving application of the air- cooled opposed rear-engine layout pioneered by its ancestor, the Porsche 356.
It is one of the oldest sports coupé nameplates still in production with one million manufactured as of May 2017. Although Porsche changes the internal codes for its models, all 911 models were and are sold as a "911"; the headings below use Porsche's internal classifications. Porsche 911 Porsche 930 Turbo a turbocharged version of the original 911 Porsche 964 Porsche 993 the last air-cooled 911 Porsche 996 all-new body and water-cooled engines Porsche 997 Porsche 991 Porsche 992 The series letter is used by Porsche to indicate the revision for production cars, it changes annually to reflect changes for the new model year. Not all of the Porsche 911 models produced are mentioned here; the listed models are notable for their role in the advancements in technology and their influence on other vehicles from Porsche. 911 Carrera line-up. Models offered: Carrera, Carrera S, Carrera 4, Carrera 4S, Carrera GTS, Carrera 4 GTS, Carrera T. All models have cabriolet options except the 911 Carrera T. 911 Targa line-up.
Models offered: Targa 4, Targa 4S, Targa 4 GTS. 911 Turbo line-up. Models offered: Turbo, Turbo S. All models have cabriolet options. GT3/GT3 RS: Track focused version of the 911 Carrera with a aspirated engine and rear wheel drive layout. No cabriolet variant available. A grand touring variant featuring comfort oriented options called the GT3 Touring was available for the 991 generation models only. GT2/GT2 RS: The highest performance derivative, a track focused of the 911 Turbo with rear wheel drive layout. No cabriolet version available. Now available as an RS model only; the 911 traces its roots to sketches drawn by Ferdinand "Butzi" Porsche in 1959. The Porsche 911 was developed as a more powerful, larger and a more comfortable replacement for the 356, the company's first model; the new car made its public debut at the 1963 Frankfurt Motor Show. The car was developed with the proof-of-concept twin-fan Type 745 flat-six engine, but the car presented at the auto show had a non-operational mockup of the single-fan 901 engine, receiving a working unit in February 1964.
It was designated as the "Porsche 901". A total of 82 cars were built as. However, French automobile manufacturer Peugeot protested on the grounds that in France it had exclusive rights to car names formed by three numbers with a zero in the middle. Instead of selling the new model with a different name in France, Porsche changed the name to 911. Internally, the cars' part numbers carried on the prefix 901 for years. Production began in September 1964, with the first 911s exported to the US in February 1965; the first models of the 911 had a rear-mounted 130 PS Type 901/01 flat-6 engine, in the "boxer" configuration like the 356, the engine is air-cooled and displaces 1,991 cc as compared to the 356's four-cylinder, 1,582 cc unit. The car had four seats although the rear seats were small, thus it is called a 2+2 rather than a four-seater. A four or five-speed "Type 901" manual transmission was available; the styling was penned by Ferdinand "Butzi" Porsche, son of Ferdinand "Ferry" Porsche. Erwin Komenda, the leader of the Porsche car body construction department who objected, but was involved in the design.
Production of the 356 ended in 1965, but there was still a market for a 4-cylinder car in the US. The 912, introduced in the same year, served as a direct replacement, offering the de-tuned version of 356 SC's 4-cylinder, 1,582 cc, 90 hp boxer four Type 616/36 engine inside the 911 bodywork with Type 901 four-speed manual transmission. In 1966, Porsche introduced the more powerful 911S with Type 901/02 engine having a power output of 160 PS. Forged aluminum alloy wheels from Fuchs, with a 5-spoke design, were offered for the first time. In motorsport at the same time, the engine was developed into the Type 901/20 and was installed in the mid-engine 904 and 906 with an increased power output of 210 PS, as well as fuel injected Type 901/21 installed in variants of the 906 and 910 with a power output of 220 PS. In August 1967, th