Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Allentown, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state.
Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware.
Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in America
Edinburgh Crystal was a cut glass crystal manufactured in Scotland between 1867 and 2006, and was the name of the manufacturing company. In addition to drinking glasses, Edinburgh Crystal made decanters, baskets, the company produced the glass panels for the lamps on the royal carriages. The Edinburgh Crystal company went into administration in 2006 and following its subsequent acquisition by Waterford Wedgwood, there were many ranges of glassware but at the collectable end there were just four in the former Connoisseur Collection. Star of Edinburgh – decorated with a star-burst pattern, thistle – the tops of these pieces are shaped in accordance with the thistle theme while the body is stippled. King James – glassware in this range is notable for the stems and neck. Lochnagar – Lochnagar was introduced during the reign of Queen Victoria, for several years students from Wolverhampton University and the Edinburgh College of Art were employed, for periods of 12–15 months, to work in the design department.
This provided the students work experience while inputting new design ideas. The Edge range came out of this collaboration and this visitor centre, now closed, hosted around 100,000 people, each year, who came to Penicuik to see how the glass was made. It was situated off the A701 in Penicuik, OS ref, Glass container manufacturing can be traced back for at least 400 years. However, it was only in the 19th century that commercial companies appeared on the scene, amongst them, in 1867, the Edinburgh and Leith Flint Glass Company was established. Alexander Dixson Jenkinson took over the business upon the death of his father in 1880, alexander Jenkinson died in 1909 and the business was inherited by Stanley Noel Jenkinson. 1921 saw Thomas Webb and Sons Limited of Stourbridge, West Midlands,1955 brought a name change from the Edinburgh and Leith Flint Glass Company to The Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company. Further corporate activity took place in 1964 when Crown House Limited acquired The Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company and Thomas Webb, during 1969, there was a move to a site of over 7 acres in Penicuik, some 10 miles from Edinburgh.
Then in 1971 Edinburgh Crystal and Thomas Webb merged with Dema Glass, Thomas Webb and Sons and The Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company traded well resulting in 1987 in being incorporated into the Coloroll Group. After Coloroll went bankrupt, Caledonia Investments, with the support of senior managers, led a buy-out of the Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company, the new company moved all manufacturing and distribution to its site in Penicuik. In April 2004, Edinburgh Crystal bought Caithness Glass from the receivers Deloitte, Caithness are notable for paperweights and the trophy presented to the winner of the BBCs Mastermind programme. On 21 May 2006 the offices of the headquarters were burnt out, on 26 July 2006 the Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company Ltd went into administration. Its two subsidiaries, the Caithness Glass Company Ltd and Selkirk Glass Ltd, continued to trade, on 31 July 2006,300 of Edinburgh Crystals 450 workforce were made redundant
Johns Manville is an American corporation based in Denver, Colorado that manufactures insulation, roofing materials, and engineered products. Johns Manville stock was included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average from January 29,1930 to August 27,1982 when it was replaced by American Express, in 1981, Johns-Manville Corporation was renamed simply Manville. In 1982, facing unprecedented liability for injury claims, Johns Manville voluntarily filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11 of the U. S. Bankruptcy Code. Berkshire Hathaway bought the company in 2001, Chairman & CEO Jerry Henry retired in 2004, Steve Hochhauser became Chairman, President & CEO. Todd Raba succeeded him in the summer of 2007, Raba came from MidAmerican Energy Holdings, in November 2012, Mary Rhinehart was named President & CEO. Founded in 1858, the modern Johns-Manville entity was the result of the merger of two early construction products manufacturers, at the age of 21, Henry Ward Johns had already patented roofing and insulation products.
He founded the H. W. Johns Manufacturing Company in New York City, likewise, in 1885, the Manville Covering Company was founded in Wisconsin by C. B. Manvilles grandson was the much-married socialite Tommy Manville, in 1901, H. W. Johns Manufacturing and Manville Covering Co. merged to form H. W. Johns-Manville Company. In 1926, the company was renamed Johns-Manville Corporation, in the 1930s, the industrialist Lewis H. Brown was president of the Johns-Manville Corporation. In 1949, the Canadian branch of the corporation was involved in the Asbestos Strike at its mines in Asbestos, in 1958, Johns Manville bought Glass Fibers, Inc. based in Toledo, OH from Randolph Barnard. This purchase propelled Manvilles insulation division, at the time Dominick Labino was working for Glass Fibers and Labino both joined Johns Manville. Starting as early as 1929, Johns Manville employees began claiming disability from lung diseases, from approximately 1930-1950, attorney Vandiver Brown handled involvement in such lawsuits.
During the 1960s, 70s and 80s, J-M faced thousands of individual and class action lawsuits based on asbestos-related injuries such as asbestosis, lung cancer, many new settlements include offering $600 for asbestosis while the Fait Act calls for $12,000 for this condition level. As a result, Manville voluntarily filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 1982, at that time, it was the largest company in United States history to have done so. The filing shocked financial analysts, but a few, such as Gary J. Aguirre, had predicted the filing and had forced Manville to post a bond to guarantee payment to their clients. The bankruptcy was resolved by the formation of the Manville Trust to pay asbestos tort claimants in a fashion by giving the trust the lions share of the equity in the company. The bankruptcy took over 5 years to process and resulted in protracted litigation, the Manville Trust is still in operation today. The company emerged from Chapter 11 in 1988 as Manville Corporation, in 1997, the company changed its name back to Johns Manville without the hyphen, and this is the name under which it does business today
Heaton, Butler and Bayne
Heaton and Bayne were an English firm who produced stained glass windows from 1862 to 1953. Clement Heaton founded his own stained glass firm in 1852, joined by James Butler in 1855, between 1859 and 1861 they worked alongside Clayton and Bell and were joined by Robert Turnill Bayne, who became their sole designer and a full partner in the firm in 1862. The firm was known as Heaton and Bayne from 1862 and his windows show strong design and colour, and are often recognisable by the inclusion of at least one figure with Baynes features and long beard. A change in direction came with their production of windows to the designs of Henry Holiday in 1868, during a long career, the firm produced stained glass for numerous churches throughout the Britain and the Empire, as well as the United States. Westminster Abbey includes a Heaton and Bayne window, installed in 1868, other windows by this firm are in Wimborne Minster 1857, Peterborough Cathedral 1864 and St Marys Parish Church, Hampton c1888. A documentary film, Stained Glass Masters, Butler, the documentary was narrated by Edgar Award winning author Burl Barer.
Adoration of the Magi in Tewkesbury Abbey, faith and Charity in the church of St Mary the Virgin Staverton, Northamptonshire. “Memorial Window to C. H. Crompton-Roberts of Drybridge House, several windows in St. Saviours Episcopal Church in Bar Harbor, Maine. Several windows in St. Matthews Cathedral in Laramie, Stained glass - British glass, 1811-1918 Victorian Era Work of Heaton and Bayne on Flickr Stained glass masters Buckinghamshire Stained Glass
Arc International is a French manufacturer and distributor of household goods. The company was established in Arques, Pas-de-Calais, where it is still headquartered, in 1892 the name was changed to Verrerie Cristallerie dArques, and after a series of acquisitions in the 1990s the group was renamed in 2000 to the current name. It is the manufacturer of crystal and glassware in the world. It is privately held and has been owned by members of the Durand family since 1916, Arc International currently licenses the Pyrex brand of cookware for sale in the European Union. Competitors include Lenox Group, World Kitchen and Waterford Wedgwood, the company reported 16,500 employees and gross sales of €1.4 billion in 2006, reinvesting 3% of its turnover into research and development. In subsequent years, the company diversified into consumer cooking and dining glassware, by the 1960s, the company had mastered the process of manufacturing stemware and other finer glassware products. One of Arcs signature products is the thick-walled ten-sided working glasses that were a workhorse in French kitchens after their introduction in 1978, from 1897 onwards, the company was dominated by the Durand family, who eventually purchased the firm entirely in 1926.
To this day, the continues to be the sole proprietors. The firm adopted a number of practices that positioned it to one of Europes leading mass production glassmakers. Brands under the Arc International group are to date Luminarc, Cristal dArques, Chef&Sommelier, in addition to these commercial brands, it owns glass material brands, Kwarx, Diamax. Arc International has created or acquired and sold brands such as Arcuisine, Salviati, Mikasa was sold by the firm to Lifetime Brands in 2008 for an undisclosed amount. The Arcopal brand was introduced in 1958 and this fully tempered glassware is high-strength and durable and chip resistant. Although very thin, Arcopal glass is five times stronger than china, Arcopal tableware was famous for its translucent opal borosilicate glass. In 1986 the Arcopal ranges of products were included in Luminarc and Arcoroc offers, the Arcopal France tableware is microwave and dishwasher safe. Arcopal bakeware is oven and dishwasher safe, the Luminarc brand was introduced in 1958, first as a brand for glasses made of annealed glass, expanding to a generalist tableware items brand with multiple glass materials.
All Luminarc products are safe, all dinnerware lines, tempered storage lines, salad bowls and hot drinks lines are shock-resistant. All major lines are made in the Arc International headquarters factory based in Arques, Luminarc features specific lines under license. The Cristal dArques brand, created in 1968, was born from the industrialization of stemmed glasses crystal-making developed by Arc International and this innovation leads to mass-market commercialization and affordability of a material previously deemed luxury
Guardian Industries is a privately held industrial manufacturer of glass and building products based in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The company manufactures float glass, fabricated glass products, fiberglass insulation and building materials for commercial, the company employs more than 18,000 people and has present activities in North and South America, Asia and the Middle East. Guardian Industries was founded in 1932 as Guardian Glass Company, the company was originally established as a small windshield fabricator. In 1957, the same year Guardian filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, after three years in 1960, Guardian came out of bankruptcy. In 1968, the officially changed its name to Guardian Industries Corp. and under William Davidsons leadership. The following year Guardian began trading on the American Stock Exchange, in 1970, Guardian started producing flat glass with the newly invented float glass process. They opened their first production line in Carleton and today the company counts 28 float glass lines and 13 glass fabrication plants around the world, in 1973 it began trading on the New York Stock Exchange.
From on 1980, Guardian started to diversify its activities and they started the production of fiberglass insulation, the European market entry took place in 1981 when the company opened their production line in Bascharage, Luxembourg. Further plants came up in Germany, England, the company went back to a privately held company in 1985 after 17 years as a public company. Radio from Valencia, Builder Marts of America and Cameron Ashley Building Products in 2000, in 1995, corporate headquarters moved from Novi to their present location in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The takeover of Siegel-Robert Automotive in 2008 led to the formation of SRG Global, on February 1,2017, Koch Industries completed its acquisition of Guardian Industries
Kosta Glasbruk Swedish pronunciation, is a Swedish glassworks founded by two foreign officers in Charles XIIs army, Anders Koskull and Georg Bogislaus Stael von Holstein, in 1742. The name is a portmanteau of the surnames, Ko + Sta. It is located in Kosta, which was named for the company, the surrounding region has become known as the Kingdom of Crystal and is now a tourist site which attracts a million visitors annually. Early production consisted of glass and drinking glasses. From the 1840s, the factory was at the forefront of new trends and technical developments, producing pressed glass, having merged with Boda Glasbruk in Emmaboda Municipality, Kosta Glasbruk is still active today under the name of Kosta Boda
Hazel-Atlas Glass Company
The Hazel-Atlas Glass Company was a large producer of machine-molded glass containers headquartered in Wheeling, West Virginia. Hazel-Atlas manufactured tremendous quantities of depression pressed glassware in a variety of patterns throughout the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s. They produced many of the white milkglass inserts used inside zinc fruit jar lids, as well as types of milkglass cold cream jars. Also an important maker of a large variety of bottles. Atlas was the brand of their most popular line of fruit jars for home canning. Hazel-Atlas, at time the third largest producer of glass containers in the U. S. became a subsidiary of the Continental Can Company in 1957. The acquisition was challenged under the Clayton Antitrust Act in a case that was decided by the U. S. Supreme Court in United States v. Continental Can Co. It continued to make containers and tableware into the 1960s, in 1964,10 of the 12 H-A plants in operation were sold to Brockway Glass Company, and it is unclear if the remaining two plants used the H-A trademark after that year.
Hazel-Atlas produced dozens of different patterns, with unique names, the Hazel-Atlas mark, usually placed on the back of the product, is an A nestled underneath an H. The mark was reportedly first used in 1923, according to trademark office records quoted by Peterson
Bormioli Rocco is a formerly all-Italian manufacturer of household goods now operating under international holding company Vision Capital. The company has been Italys largest glass manufacturer and one of the leading suppliers of tableware/glassware. Founded in 1825 in Fidenza, Bormioli Rocco produces glassware and plastic containers as well as focused on pharmaceutical use. Bormioli Rocco operates 9 plants,2 decorative ateliers and 9 stores and one store with a presence in over 100 countries. The Bormioli family was originally from Altare, in the hinterland of Savona, the family name Bormioli di Altare can be tracked back to AD1300, in the archives of Savona, for the purchase of soda. In 1825, Luigi Bormioli left Altare and moved to Borgo San Donnino in the province of Parma, with the money inherited from his father, Luigi started a glassware company. In 1832, after his death, the business was continued by his wife Petronilla, a mother of six children, together with her sons Dominic and Charles, she led the company for 22 years.
In 1854 they purchase the Royal Factory of Ceramics and Glasses Strada Farnese in Parma immediately changing its name to Brothers Bormioli Glassware, soon the brothers split, Dominic remained in Fidenza and Rocco in the capital. In the following years the company from Parma began to mechanize the production, in 1880 the company name changed to Bormioli Rocco Glass and Son. At the death Rocco, in 1893, succeeded his son Louis, joined in the period of the First World War by two sons and Rocco. At the time the company was one of the industrial company of the region. A position confirmed in the two decades. In the first post-war period and with more than 1,600 employees, Bormioli Rocco worked with his son Pier Luigi, destined to lead the company after having become general manager in 1966. During the 80s, with the acquisition of companies in Italy. In the 90s, after the death of Pier Luigi Bormioli Roccos son was forced by a financial crisis to cede a majority stake to Banca Popolare di Lodi. In the following years the company part of Gruppo Banca Popolare that in 2011 was sold to the private equity firm Vision Capital.
A factory located in Rive-de-Gier, was closed in 20041825,1880, After the acquisition of the “Royal factory of majolica and glassware” in Parma, The Bormioli family changes the business name into “Vetreria Fratelli Bormioli Rocco e Figlio spa”. 1938, The first automatic machine is assembled,1946, After the war bombings and the total destruction of the factory, the production is relaunched using the most advanced automation technologies